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Full text of "Immigrants as charity seekers (in two volumes)"

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://archive.org/details/cu31924098819653 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 



924 098 819 653 



In compliance with current 

copyright law, Cornell University 

Library produced this 

replacement volume on paper 

that meets the ANSI Standard 

Z39.48-1992 to replace the 

irreparably deteriorated original. 

2004 




QfcrneU Htmoersity Eihrarg 

3iliara, SJem farfe 



FROM THE 



BENNO LOEWY LIBRARY 

COLLECTED BY 

BENNO LOEWY 

1854-1919 
BEQUEATHED TO CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



61st Congress "I „-,-,■„• . „,, I Document 

3d Session ) bJiNAIL j No. 665 



REPORTS OF THE IMMIGRATION COMMISSION 



IMMIGRANTS AS CHARITY 
SEEKERS 

(IN TWO VOLUMES: VOL. I) 




Presented by MR. DILLINGHAM 

December 5, 1910. — Referred to the Committee on Immigration 
and ordered to be printed, with illustrations 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFKCB 

1911 



THE IMMIGRATION COMMISSION. 



Senator William P. Dillingham, Representative Benjamin F. Howell. 

Chairman. Representative William S. Bennet. 

Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Representative John L. Burnett. 

Senator Asbury C. Latimer. Mr. Charles P. Neill. 

Senator Anselm J. McLaurin.* Mr. Jeremiah W. Jenks. 

Senator Le Roy Percy, c Mr. William R. Wheeler. 

Secretaries: 

Morton E. Crane. W. W. Husband. 

C. S. Atkinson. 

Chief Statistician: 
Fred C. Croxton. 



Extract from act of Congress of February SO, 1907, creating and defining the duties of (he 

Immigration Commission. 

That a commission is hereby created, consisting of three Senators, to be appointed 
by the President of the Senate, and three Members of the House of Representatives, 
to be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and three persona 
to be appointed by the President of the United States. Said commission shall make 
full inquiry, examination, and investigation, by subcommittee or otherwise, into the 
subject of immigration. For the purpose of said inquiry, examination, and investiga- 
tion said commission is authorized to send for persons and papers, make all necessary 
travel, either in the United States or any foreign country, and, through the chair- 
man of the commission, or any member thereof, to administer oaths and to examine 
witnesses and papers respecting all matters pertaining to the subject, and to employ 
necessary clerical and other assistance. Said commission shall report to Congress the 
conclusions reached by it, and make such recommendations as in its judgment may 
seem proper. Such sums of money as may be necessary for the said inquiry, examina- 
tion, and investigation are hereby appropriated and authorized to be paid out of the 
"immigrant fund" on the certificate of the chairman of said commission, including 
all expenses of the commissioners, and a reasonable compensation, to be fixed by the 
President of the United States, for those members of the commission who are not 
Members of Congress; * * * . 

a Died February 20, 1908. 

& Appointed to succeed Mr. Latimer, February 25, 1908. Died December 22, 1909. 

c Appointed to succeed Mr. McLaurin, March 16, 1910. 



•sdlp> 



LIST OF REPORTS OF THE IMMIGRATION COMMISSION. 



Volumes 1 and 2. Abstracts of Reports of the Immigration Commission, with Conclusions and Recom- 
mendations and Views of the Minority. (These volumes include the Commission's complete reports 
on the following subjects: Immigration Conditions in Hawaii; Immigration and Insanity; Immi- 
grants in Charity Hospitals; Alien Seamen and Stowaways; Contract Labor and Induced and Assisted 
Immigration; The Greek Padrone System in the United States; Peonage.) (S. Doc. No. 747, 61st 
Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volume 3. Statistical Review of Immigration, 1819-1910— Distribution of Immigrants, 1850-1900. (S. Doc. 
No. 756. 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volume 4. Emigration Conditions in Europe. (S. Doc. No. 748, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volume 5. Dictionary of Races or Peoples. (S. Doc. No. 662, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volumes 6 and 7. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 1, Bituminous Coal Mining. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 
2d sess.) 

Volumes 8 and 9. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 2, Iron and Steel Manufacturing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st 
Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volume 10. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 3, Cotton Goods Manufacturing in the North Atlantic States — 
Pt. 4, Woolen and Worsted Goods Manufacturing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volume 11. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 5, Silk Goods Manufacturing and Dyeing— Pt. 6, Clothing 
Manufacturing — Pt. 7, Collar, Curl, and Shirt Manufacturing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volume 12. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 8, Leather Manufacturing — Pt. 9, Boot and Shoe Manufac- 
turing— Pt. 10, Glove Manufacturing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volume 13. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 11, Slaughtering and Meat Packing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st 
Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volume 14. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 12, Glass Manufacturing— Pt. 13, Agricultural Implement 
and Vehicle Manufacturing. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volume 15. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 14, Cigar and Tobacco Manufacturing — Pt. 15, Furniture Man- 
ufacturing— Pt. 16, Sugar Refining. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volume 16. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 17, Copper Mining and Smelting — Pt. 18, Iron Ore Mining — 
Pt. 19, Anthracite Coal Mining— Pt. 20, Oil Refining. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess. ) 

Volume 17. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 21, Diversified Industries, Vol. I. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 
2d sess.) 

Volume 18. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 21, Diversified Industries, Vol. II — Pt. 22, The Floating Immi- 
grant Labor Supply. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volumes 19 and 20. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 23, Summary Report on Immigrants in Manufacturing 
and Mining. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volumes 21 and 22. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 24, Recent Immigrants in Agriculture. (S. Doc. No. 
633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volumes 23-25. Immigrants in Industries: Pt. 25, Japanese and Other Immigrant Races in the Pacific 
Coast and Rocky Mountain States. (S. Doc. No. 633, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volumes 26 and 27. Immigrants in Cities. (S. Doc. No. 338, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volume 28. Occupations of the First and Second Generations of Immigrants in the United States — Fe- 
cundity of Immigrant Women. (S. Doc. No. 282, 61st Cong., "2d sess.) 

Volumes 29-33. The Children of Imm igrants in Schools. (S. Doc. No. 749, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volumes 34 and 35. Immigrants as Charity Seekers. (S. Doc. No. 665, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volume 36. Immigration and Crime. (S. Doc. No. 750, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volume 37. Steerage Conditions — Importation and Harboring of Women for Immoral Purposes — Immi- 
grant Homes and Aid Societies— Immigrant Banks. (S. Doc. No. 753, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volume 38. Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants. (S. Doc. No. 208, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) 

Volume 39. Federal Immi gration Legislation — Digest of Immigration Decisions — Steerage Legislation, 
1819-1908 — State Immi gration and Alien Laws. (S. Doc. No. 758, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volume 40. The Immigration Situation in Other Countries: Canada — Australia — New Zealand — Argen- 
tina—Brazil. (S. Doc. No. 761, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volume 41. Statements and Recommendations Submitted by Societies and Organizations Interested in 
the Subject of Immigration. (S. Doc. No. 7C4, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

Volume 42. Index of Reports of the Immigration Commission. (S. Doc. No. 785, 61st Cong., 3d sess.) 

'ill 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



The Immigration Commission, 
Washington, D. C. , December 5, 1910. 
To the Sixty -first Congress: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith, on behalf of the Immigra- 
tion Commission, a report in two volumes, entitled "Immigrants as 
Charity Seekers." This inquiry was conducted with the assistance of 
Mr. Francis H. McLean, Field Secretary of the Field Department for 
the Extension of Organized Charity in the United States, and the field 
work was superintended and the report prepared by Jessie C. Lloyd, 
special agent of the Immigration Commission. 
Respectfully, 

William P. Dillingham, 

Chairman. 



CONTENTS. 



General summary : Page. 

Method and scope of the investigation 3 

General nativity and race 5 

Apparent cause of need . 28 

Aid given 47 

Persons per case 51 

"Type " of case 52 

Age of persons involved in cases assisted 59 

Conjugal condition of persons involved in cases assisted 60 

General occupation of persons under 16 years of age __ 65 

Years in the United States 70 

Ability to speak English 75 

Citizenship 76 

Digest of the report on Honolulu, Hawaii 78 

Dilcussion of data for nine cities 78 

Baltimore: 

General nativity and race 81 

Apparent cause of need 82 

Aid given 84 

Persons per case 86 

"Type" of case 87 

Age of persons involved in cases assisted ' 89 

Conjugal condition of persons involved in cases assisted 90 

General occupation of children 92 

Years in the United States 93 

Ability to speak English 94 

Citizenship 95 

Boston: - 

General nativity and race 99 

Apparent cause of need 100 

Aid. given 102 

Persons per case 104 

"Type" of case 105 

Age of persons involved in cases assisted 107 

Conjugal condition of persons involved in cases assisted 108 

General occupation of children 110 

Years in the United States 112 

Ability to speak English 113 

Citizenship 114 

Brooklyn: 

General nativity and race 117 

Apparent cause of need .' 118 

Aid given 120 

Persons per case 122 

"Type" of case 122 

Age of persons involved in cases assisted 125 

Conjugal condition of persons involved in cases assisted 125 

General occupation of children 128 

Years in the United States 129 

Ability to speak English 131 

Citizenship 132 



VI The Immigration Commission. 

Buffalo: Page. 

General nativity and race 135 

Apparent cause of need 136 

Aid given 140 

Persona per case . 142 

" Type " of case .* 143 

Age of persons involved in cases assisted 146 

Conjugal condition of persons involved in cases assisted 147 

General occupation of children 150 

Years in the United States 152 

Ability to speak English *. J 53 

Citizenship 154 

Chicago: 

General nativity and race _ 157 

Apparent cause of need 159 

Aid given 162 

Persons per case 164 

" Type " of case 165 

Age of persons involved in cases assisted 167 

Conjugal condition of persons involved in cases assisted 168 

General occupation of children 172 

Years in the United States 174 

Ability to speak English 176 

Citizenship 178 

Cincinnati : 

General nativity and race 181 

Apparent cause of need 182 

Aid given , 184 

Persons per case 1 185 

' ' Type ' ' of case ._ 186 

Age of persons involved in cases assisted 189 

Conjugal condition of persons involved in cases assisted 190 

General occupation of children 192 

Years in the United States 1 93 

Ability to speak English 194 

Minneapolis: 

General nativity and race 199 

Apparent cause of need 200 

Aid given 203 

Persons per case 204 

"Type" of case 205 

Age of persons involved in cases assisted 207 

Conjugal condition of persons involved in cases assisted 208 

General occupation of children 211 

Years in the United States 213 

Ability to speak English 214 

Citizenship 215 

St. Louis: 

General nativity and race 219 

Apparent cause of need 220 

Aid given 222 

Persons per case 223 

" Type " of case 224 

Age of persons involved in cases assisted 228 

Conjugal condition of persons involved in cases assisted 230 

General occupation of children 232 

Years in the United States 233 

Ability to speak English 234 

Citizenship 234 

Washington: 

General nativity and race 237 

Apparent cause of need 238 

Aid given 240 

Persons per case 241 

"Type "of case 1 _.." 242 

Age of persons involved in cases assisted 244 

Conjugal condition of persons involved in cases assisted 244 

General occupation of children 247 



Contents. VII 

Honolulu: Pa S e - 

General nativity and race 251 

Apparent cause of need 252 

Aid given 253 

Years in Hawaii 253 

Statistics of pauperism in the United States: 

Pauperism in the United States, 1850 to 1908 257 

General review of census statistics 257 

Benevolent institutions 262 

United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization 264 

Debarred and deported immigrants 265 

List of text tables 321 

List of general tables 323 

Grand summary — General tables 327-390 

Appendix — Schedule form used __. 393-396 

List of text tables 397 

List of general tables — Grand summary 405 

List of charts 406 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 



IMMIGRANTS AS CHARITY SEEKERS. 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 

METHOD AND SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION. 

In order to determine to what extent immigrants are the recipients 
of charity, the Immigration Commission planned an extensive investi- 
gation covering this phase of the immigration question. In addition 
to the original investigation the Commission has compiled existing 
federal statistics relative to immigrants and pauperism. This com- 
pilation consists of statistics from the United States Bureau of the 
Census and the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturali- 
zation, covering the period from 1850 to 1908.° 

In outlining this investigation it would have been highly desirable 
to secure information not only from organized city charity societies, 
but also from societies which confine their efforts to relieving the pov- 
erty of specific races, and from societies which are organized within 
the churches for the purpose of looking after the poor. To conduct 
such an investigation even in a few cities would be almost impossible, 
and the Commission therefore decided that, in addition to securing 
general information relative to charitable assistance received by immi- 
grants in the industrial communities selected for study, it would 
undertake to secure data relative to aid furnished immigrants during 
a certain period by the charity organizations of a considerable num- 
ber of cities. 

The matter was thoroughly discussed with Mr. Francis H. McLean, 
Field Secretary of the Field Department for the Extension of Organ- 
ized Charity in the United States, and a plan was devised to secure 
this information by preparing a suitable blank form which should be 
furnished the charity societies of the various cities selected for study. 

A schedule or form was drafted, on which information was to be 
entered for each member of the family at home for each case, native 
or foreign born, receiving assistance during aperiod of six months, 
from December 1, 1908, to May 31, 1909. The report for Boston, 
Massachusetts, however, includes only the new cases assisted during 
this period. The information required for each case was apparent 
cause of need and aid given, and for each individual was race, sex, 
age, conjugal condition, occupation, and country of birth, and for the 
foreign-born individuals the additional information of years in the 
United States, ability to speak English, and political condition. No 
account was made of a case unless some assistance was given. The 
information required was entered on this schedule by an employee 
of the society, usually the registrar, and for this service a small 

<* See pages 255-324. 



The Immigration Commission. 



eayment was made by the Commission. A representative of the 
ommission visited these societies, with the exception of those in the 
far West, giving instructions as to the use of the schedule. Mr. 
McLean was of the greatest assistance to the Commission both in 
arranging for securing the desired information from the various 
societies and in assisting in preparing the blank form. 

The schedule or form used in collecting the information and the 
instructions which were printed on the back of each schedule are 
shown on pages 393 to 395. 

In addition to the instructions printed on the back of each schedule 
personal instructions relative to rilling the forms were given by an 
agent of the Commission, as has been already stated. After the filled 
schedules were returned to the Commission they were closely exam- 
ined, and when necessary the slips were returned to the societies for 
further information or for corrections. 

The study of immigrants as charity seekers made by the Immi- 
gration Commission includes the work done by the charity organiza- 
tion societies during the six months from December 1, 1908, to May 
31, 1909, in 43 cities. The cities are — 

Atlanta, Ga. Lynn, Mass. 

Baltimore, Md. Maiden, Mass. 

Bloomington, 111. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Boston, Mass. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Brojklyn, N. Y. Newark, N. J. 

Biffalo, N. Y. Newport, R. I. 

Cricago, 111. Oakland, Cal. 

Jincinnati, Ohio. Orange, N. J. 

Cleveland, Ohio. Pawtucket, R. I. 

Columbus, Ohio. Peoria, 111. 

Dayton, Ohio. Pittsburg, Pa. 

Denver, Colo. Rochester, N. Y. 

Des Moines, Iowa. St. Louis, Mo. 

Elmira, N. Y. St. Paul, Minn. 

Evansville, Ind. San Francisco, Cal. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. Seattle, Wash. 

Hartford, Conn. Springfield, Mass. 

IndianapoliB, Ind. Washington, D. C. 

Kalamazoo, Mich. Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

Lancaster, Pa. Worcester, Mass. 

Lincoln, Nebr. • Youngstown, Ohio. 

Louisville, Ky. 

These cities are distributed geographically as follows : 

North Atlantic States 17 

North Central States 18 

Southern States, including District of Columbia 4 

Western States 4 

A report was also furnished by the charity organization society of 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

No figures are available showing, by race or people, the population 
of the cities included in this investigation. The census of 1910, 
however, will compile data by race or people (mother tongue), and 
a comparison of this report with the census will clearly establish 
the proportion of persons of each race who receive assistance from 
charity organization societies. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 5 

The report on immigrants as charity seekers : is presented in two 
volumes. The first volume contains a general summary of the data 
secured, the statistical compilation from the United States Census 
bulletin previously referred to, a discussion of the data for the cities 
of Baltimore, Boston, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Cincinnati, Minneapolis, 
St. Louis, Washington, and Honolulu, and a grand summary of all 
data in the form of general tables. The second volume consists 
entirely of general tables based on the data collected in each city. 

GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE. 

The summary table which follows shows for each of the 43 cities 
from which information was secured the number of cases reported. 
Each individual or family asking assistance the charity society calls a 
"case," and the term is used throughout this report to mean an 
individual or family assisted by some one of the societies furnishing 
reports. As before stated, no report was made of a case unless 
some assistance was given. The data are presented by general 
nativity and race, or people, of head of case. In a case consisting 
of a family the "head of case" is the husband, if living at home, or 
the wife, if a widow or deserted. In a case where there is no family, 
such for instance as brothers and sisters, the "head of case" is'the 
person upon whom falls the responsibility of providing; or if such 
responsibility is apparently fairly divided the "head of case" is the 
person who makes application for assistance. 



The Immigration Commission. 



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10 



The Immigration Commission. 



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Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



11 



I> ■ -1-t.H 



MS lOWi-H NCO 



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B 
o 

o y 



12 



The Immigration Commission. 



The total number of cases for which information was secured is 
31,685. The head of case was foreign-born in 12,140 cases, or 38.3 
per cent of the total; native-born of foreign father (immigrants of the 
second generation) in 3,388 cases, or 10.7 per eent of the total; white 
native-born of native father in 12,597 cases, or 39.8 per cent of the 
total, and negro native-born of native father in 3,489 cases, or 11 per 
cent of the total. 

The table which follows shows for each city the number and per 
cent of cases assisted, by general nativity of head of case. 

Table 2. — Cases assisted in each city, by general nativity of head of case. 





Number. 


Per cent. 


City. 


Native- 
born. 


Foreign- 
born. 


Total. 


Native- 
born. 


Foreign- 
born. 




539 

2,094 

369 

390 

688 

711 

1,147 

1,718 

672 

575 

339 

470 

190 

215 

163 

380 

138 

283 

310 

219 

88 

641 

182 

36 

210 

522 

154 

155 

213 

116 

142 

281 

459 

483 

1,474 

383 

384 

79 

163 

1,474 

127 

99 

50 


31 

381 

114 

620 

977 

1,413 

1,978 

124 

1,328 

61 

22 

166 

22 

38 

4 

167 

174 

16 

55 

27 

19 

38 

212 

47 

426 

575 

103 

97 

202 

104 

146 

76 

440 

421 

210 

483 

292 

120 

34 

83 

123 

121 

50 


570 

2,475 

483 

1,010 

& 1, 673 

2,124 

3,125 

1,842 

62,008 

636 

361 

636 

212 

253 

167 

547 

312 

299 

365 

246 

107 

679 

394 

83 

636 

1,097 

257 

252 

415 

220 

288 

357 

£902 

904 

1,684 

866 

676 

199 

197 

d 1, 558 

250 

220 

100 


94.6 
84.6 
76.4 
38.6 
41.3 
33.5 
36.7 
93.3 
33.6 
90.4 
93.9 
73.9 
89.6 
85.0 
97.6 
69.5 
44.2 
94.6 
84.9 
89.0 
82.2 
94.4 
46.2 
43.4 
33.0 
47.6 
59.9 
61.5 
51.3 
52.7 
49.3 
78.7 
51.1 
53.4 
87.5 
44.2 
56.8 
39.7 
82.7 
94.7 
50.8 
45.0 
50.0 


5.4 




15.4 




23.6 




61.4 




58.7 




66.5 




63.3 




6.7 




66.4 




9.6 




6.1 




26.1 




10.4 




15.0 




2.4 




30.5 




55.8 




5.4 




15 1 




11.0 




17.8 




5.6 




53.8 




56.6 




67 




52.4 




40.1 




38.5 












50.7 




21 3 


Pittsburg 


48.9 










St. Paul 




































Total 


19, 525 


12,140 


« 31, 685 


61.7 









a In tids city new cases only are included, 
b Including 8 cases not reporting general nativity of head, 
c Including 3 cases not reporting general nativity of head, 
d Including 1 case not reporting general nativity of head, 
e Including 20 cases not reporting general nativity of head. 

Of the total number of cases reporting general nativity of head of 
case 61.7 per cent were native-born and 38.3 per cent were foreign- 
born. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



13 



In 15 of the 43 cities one-half or more of the cases were foreign- 
born, Milwaukee showing the highest proportion. The cities are — 



Milwaukee v 67 

Buffalo 66 

Cleveland 66 

Chicago 63 

Boston 61. 

San Francisco 60 

Brooklyn 58. 7 

Maiden 56. 6 



Per cent. 


5 
4 
3 
4 
3 



Per cent. 

Hartford 55.8 

St. Paul 55.8 

Worcester 55. 

Lynn 53.8 

Minneapolis 52. 4 

Pawtucket 50. 7 

Youngstown 50. 



In eight of the cities less than one-tenth of the cases were foreign- 
born, the lowest proportion being reported by Evansville. The cities 



are — 

Per cent. 

Evansville 2. 4 

Washington 5. 3 

Atlanta 5. 4 

Indianapolis 5. 4 



Per cent. 

Louisville 5. 6 

Dayton 6. 1 

Cincinnati 6. 7 

Columbus 9.6 



Of the total number of cases shown for the 43 cities, the head in 
10.7 per cent of the cases was native-born of foreign father (immi- 
grants of the second generation). In 12 of the 43 cities more than 
15 per cent of the cases were immigrants of the second generation. 
The cities are — 



Per cent. 

Milwaukee 25. 5 

St . Paul 24. 2 

Lancaster 20. 7 

Kalamazoo 20. 3 

Newark 19. 8 

Denver 19. 2 



Per cent. 

Minneapolis 19. 2 

Worcester 18. 2 

Buffalo 17.9 

Cincinnati 17. 7 

Grand Rapids 17. 6 

San Francisco 15. 1 



In eight of the cities the proportion of second generation immi- 
grant cases was less than 2 per cent. The cities are — 



Per cent. 

Newport 0. 

Wilkesbarre 4 

Atlanta 7 

Washington 8 



Per cent. 

Indianapolis 1.0 

Dayton '. 1.1 

Des Moines 1. 4 

Columbus 1. 7 



14 



The Immigration Commission. 



The table and chart which follow show for the 43 cities the total 
number of cases assisted and the number of persons involved, by 
general nativity and race of head of case : 

Table 3. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head of case. 
[Not including 123 cases, involving 407 persons, race not reported.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Indian 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Danish 

Dutch 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Norwegian : 

Polish. 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Scotch-Irish 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

Foreign-bom: 

Arabian 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Bulgarian 

Canadian, French 1 

Canadian, Other 

Croatian 

Cuban 

Danish 

Dutch 

Egyptian 

English 

Filipino 

Finnish 

Flemish 

French 

German 

G reek" 

Hebrew 

Herzegovinian 

Hindu 

Icelander 

Irish 

It alian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Japanese 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Persian 

Polish 

« Less than 0.05 



12,597 
3,489 



47 

24 

43 

9 

17 

254 

2 

102 

1,373 

45 

1,082 

1 

10 

4 

3 

3 

47 

94 

3 

2 

92 

19 

4 

9 

67 

1 

1 

28 

1 

22 

314 

7 

113 

4X2 

47 

5 

105 

106 

2 

805 

1 

50 

6 

94 

2,156 

22 

659 

1 

5 

1 

1,959 

78 

760 

148 

1 

136 

200 

23 

41 

24S 

1 

2,048 



39.9 
11.1 



00 
00 

00 



00 

«0 

(a) 

(») 
(a) 



00 

00 



00 
00 

00 

00 



4.4 
.1 

3.4 



00 

00 ' 
1 
00 

00 
00 
00 



(<0 

00 
00 



.1 

1.0 

.4 
1.5 

.1 

.3 
.3 

2.6 

.2 

.3 

6.8 

.1 

2.1 



00 



00 



6.2 
.2 

2.4 
.5 

.4 
.7 
.1 
.1 
.8 



44,600 

11,113 

18 

240 

137 

170 

26 

56 

776 

6 

410 

5,721 

152 

3,934 

8 

34 

15 

4 

9 

139 

363 

10 

3 

321 

3S 

16 

36 

250 

4 

2 

105 

1 

76 

1,537 

17 

486 

1,641 

234 

22 

362 

436 

4 

2,641 

1 

186 

21 

317 

8,475 

. 94 

3,108 

1 

5 

3 

7,509 

352 

3,613 

708 

1 

620 

SI 5 

66 

IIS 

911 

1 

10,245 



00 



00 
00 

00 



37.5 
9.3 



.2 
.1 
.1 



00 

00 
00 
00 



00 

(») 

00 



.3 

4.8 

.1 

3.3 



.1 

.3 



.1 
1.3 

.4 
1.4 
.2 

.3 

.4 

2.2 
.2 

.3 

7.1 

.1 

2.6 



6.3 

.3 

3.0 



(<0 



00 



.5 
.7 
.1 
.1 
.8 

8.6 



per cent. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 15 

Table 3. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head of 

case — Continued . 



General nativity and race of bead of case. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



Foreign-born— Continued. 

Portuguese , 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian 

Scotch 

Scotch-Irish. 

Servian 

Slovak 

Slovenian .' 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father. 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



50 
12 

109 
9 

276 
12 
11 

243 
36 
22 

513 
65 
2 
71 



(«) 
(a) 



(<0 



.8 
.1 

.1 

1.6 

.2 



247 

3S 

431 

52 

865 

44 

48 

1,109 

177 

84 

2,047 

275 

4 

264 



(<0 

O) 



« 



0.2 
.4 
.7 



.1 
.1 

1.7 
.2 



31,562 



119, 028 



100.0 



3,386 
19,478 
12,084 



10.7 
61.7 
38.3 



12,985 
68, 716 
50,312 



10 9 
57.7 
42.3 



a Less than 0.05 per cent. 

The total number of cases reporting race of head of case assisted 
from December 1, 1908, to May 31, 1909, by the charity societies 
of the 43 cities was 31,562, involving 119,028 persons. 

The head of the case was native-born in 19,478 cases, or 61.7 per. 
cent of the total number, involving 68,716 persons, or 57.7 per cent 
of the total number of persons; the head was foreign-born in 12,084 
cases, or 38.3 per cent of the total number, involving 50,312 persons, 
or 42.3 per cent of the total number of persons. Included with the 
cases in which the head was native-born were 3,386 cases, or 10.7 
per cent of the total number, in which the head was native-born of 
foreign father, involving 12,985 persons, or 10.9 per cent of the total 
number of persons. 



16 



The Immigration Commission. 



e 



§ 



s 



•a 

• 2 

to 

CO 

e 




Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



17 



The races represented by 100 or more cases, in the order of numeri- 
cal importance, are — 



Race and general nativity. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent 
of total. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent 
of total. 



White, native-born of native father 

Negro, native-born of native father 

German, foreign-born 

Polish, foreign-born 

Irish, foreign-born 

German, native-born of foreign father 

Irish, native-born of foreign father 

English, foreign-born 

Italian, South, foreign-born 

Hebrew, foreign-born 

Swedish, foreign-born 

Canadian (other than French), foreign-born 

Bohemian and Moravian, foreign-born 

Scotch, foreign-born 

English^ native-born of foreign father 

Norwegian, foreign-born 

Slovak, foreign-born 

Magyar, foreign-born 

Italian (not specified), foreign-born 

Lithuanian, foreign-born 

Canadian, French, foreign-born 

Russian, foreign-born 

Dutch, foreign-born 

Danish, foreign-born 

French, native-born of foreign father 



12, 597 

3,489 

2,156 

2,048 

1,959 

1,373 

1,082 

805 

760 

659 

513 

482 

314 

276 

254 

248 

243 

206 

148 

136 

113 

109 

106 

105 

102 



39.9 

11.1 

6.8 

6.5 

6.2 

4.4 

3.4 

2.6 

2.4 

2.1 

1.6 

1.5 

1.0 

.9 

.8 

.8 

.8 

.7 

.5 

.4 

.4 

.3 

.3 

.3 



44,600 

11, 113 

8,475 

10, 245 

7,509 

5,721 

3,934 

2,641 

3,613 

3; 108 

2,047 

1,641 

1,537 

865 

776 

911 

1,109 

815 

708 

620 

486 

431 

436 

362 

410 



37.5 

9.3 

7.1 

8.6 

6.3 

4.8 

3.3 

2.2 

3.0 

2.6 

1.7 

1.4 

1.3 

.7 

.7 

.8 

.9 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.4 

.4 

.3 



The white native-born of native father show the greatest pro- 
portion of cases receiving assistance, numbering 12,597, or 39.9 per 
cent of the total number, with 44,600 persons involved, or 37.5 

Eer cent of the total number of persons. The cases in which the 
ead was a negro native-born of native father show the next highest 
percentage assisted, numbering 3,489, or 11.1 per cent of the total 
number of cases, and involving 11,113 persons, or 9.3 per cent of the 
total number of persons. 

Among immigrants of the second generation, the Germans are 
represented by the largest number, followed by the Irish. 



18 



The Immigration Commission. 



Twenty-five foreign races are represented by 50 or more cases. 



Race. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent 
of total. 



Persons Involved. 



Number. 



Per cent 
of total. 



German 

Polish 

Irish 

English 

Italian, South 

Hebrew 

Swedish 

Canadian (other than French) 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Scotch 

Norwegian 

Slovak 

Magyar 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Canadian, French 

Russian 

Dutch 

Danish 

French 

Italian, North 

Welsh 

Syrian 

Portuguese 

Finnish 



2,156 

2,048 

1,959 

805 

760 

659 

513 

482 

314 

278 

248 

243 

206 

148 

136 

113 

109 

106 

105 

94 

78 

71 

65 

60 

50 



6.8 
6.5 
6.2 
2.6 
2.4 
2.1 
1.6 
1.5 
1.0 



8,475 

10,245 

7,509 

2,641 

3,613 

3,108 

2,047 

1,611 

1,537 

865 

911 

1,109 

815 

708 

620 

486 

431 

436 

362 

317 

352 

264 

275 

247 

186 



7.1 

8.6 

6.3 

2.2 

3.0 

2.6 

1.7 

1.4 

1.3 

.7 

.8 

.9 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.4 

.4 



.2 
.2 
.2 
.2 



The largest proportion of cases in which the head was foreign-bom 
is shown by the German, with 2,156, or 6.8 per cent of the total num- 
ber of cases, involving 8,475 persons, or 7.1 per cent of the total num- 
ber of persons. The next largest is shown by the Polish, with 2,048 
cases, or 6.5 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 10,245 
persons, or 8.6 per cent of the total number of persons. The Irish, 
English, South Italian, Hebrew, Swedish, etc., follow in the order 
shown in the preceding table. But few cities reported any number 
of Hebrews, owing to the fact that these people are assisted chiefly 
by the charity societies of their own race. 

A much larger proportion of the population is of foreign birth in 
the northern and western States than in the southern States, there- 
fore the cases assisted and the persons involved have been summarized 
for the cities within each of the following geographical divisions : 

North Atlantic States. 

North Central States. 

Southern States. 

Western States. 

The cities included under each of the divisions are as follows: 

North Atlantic States. — Boston, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Elmira, Hart- 
ford, Lancaster, Lynn, Maiden, Newark, Newport, Orange, Paw- 
tucket, Pittsburg, Rochester, Springfield, Wilkesbarre, Worcester. . 

North Central States. — Bloomington, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, 
Columbus, Dayton, Des Moines, Evansville, Grand Rapids, Indian- 
apolis, Kalamazoo, Lincoln, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Peoria, St. 
Louis, St. Paul, Youngstown. 

Southern States. — Atlanta, Baltimore, Louisville, Washington. 

Western States. — Denver, Oakland, San Francisco, Seattle. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



19 



The tables -which, follow show the number of cases and the num- 
ber of persons involved in these cases in each geographical division, 
by general nativity and race of head of case. The percentage of the 
total which the cases and persons of each race form is also shown. 

Table 4. — Cases assisted in the cities within each geographical division, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 



[Not including 123 


cases, involving 407 persons, race not reported.] 








Number of cases assisted. 


Race distribution; percentages. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


North 

Atlan- 
tic 

States 
(17 

cities). 


North 
Cen- 
tral 

States 
(18 

cities). 


South- 
ern 
States 

(4 
cities). 


West- 
ern 

States 
(4 

cities). 


Total 

(43 
cities). 


North 

Atlan- 
tic 

States 
(17 

cities). 


North 
Cen- 
tral 

States 
(18 

cities). 


South- 
ern 
States 

(4 . 
cities). 


West- 
ern 

States 
(4 

cities). 


Total 

(43 
cities). 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


3,177 

382 

2 

1 
20 
15 


5,656 

1,394 

4 

42 

4 

26 

6 

13 

141 

1 

73 

877 

22 

599 

1 

3 


2,894 
1, 683 


870 

30 


12,597 

3,489 

6 

47 

24 

43 

9 

17 

254 

2 

102 

1,373 

45 

1,082 

1 

10 

4 

3 

3 

47 

94 

3 

2 

92 

19 

4 

9 

67 

1 

1 

28 

1 

22 

314 

7 

113 

482 

47 

6 

105 

106 

2 

805 

1 

50 

6 

94 

2,156 

22 

669 

1 

5 

1 

1,959 

78 

760 

148 

1 

136 


33.2 
4.0 
CO 

(„) 
.2 
.2 
.0 

(a) 
1.0 

(a) 
.2 

3.4 

.1 

3.7 

.0 

.1 

CO 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.3 
.0 
.0 
.2 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.1 
.0 

(<■) 

.1 

.0 
.2 
.1 

(<0 

.6 
3.3 

(<0 

CO 
.3 
.2 

(a) 
4.0 

(») 
.3 
.0 
.3 
6.3 
.1 
4.3 
.0 

CO 
.0 

11.3 
.3 
5.6 
.8 
.0 
.4 


38.2 
9.4 
CO 

.3 

(a) 
.2 

CO 
.1 

1.0 

00 

.5 

5.9 

.1 

4.0 

.0 

CO 

.0 
.3 

.4 

ii 

.4 

CO 

.0 

.1 

.0 

(») 

1.8 

(a) 

.3 

.9 

.3 

CO 

.4 

.5 

.0 

1.8 

.0 

.1 

(<0 

.3 

8.2 

CO 

1.4 

.0 

CO 

.0 

4.9 

- .2 

1.1 

.4 

.0 

.6 


54.8 

31.9 

.0 

.1 
.0 
CO 
.0 

.0 

CO 

.0 

.1 

2.0 
.1 
.7 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.0 

CO 

.0 
.0 

.1 

.0 
(<0 
CO 

.0 
.0 
.0 
.0 

(a) 
.0 
.6 

CO 

00 
.1 
.0 

CO 
.1 
.1 

O) 

.7 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.2 

3.5 
(a) 
.2 
.0 
.0 
.0 

1.2 
.1 
.3 
.2 
.0 
.2 


45.4 
1.6 

.0 

.0 
.0 

.1 

.2 
.2 

1.0 
.0 
.3 

3.1 
.3 

4.8 
.0 
.1 
.1 
.1 
.2 
.3 

:! 
.i 

.7 
.5 
.0 
.4 
.4 
.0 
.0 
.2 

.0 
.1 
.4 
.1 
.3 

1.6 
.1 
.0 
.9 
.3 
.0 

0.3 
.0 
.3 
.1 

1.0 

8.2 
.1 

2.1 
.1 
.1 
.1 

4.4 
.9 

1.7 
.2 
.1 
.1 


39.9 




11.1 




CO 

.1 

.1 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 
Bohemian and Moravian. 


4 






1 
1 


1 
3 
3 
19 


.1 




CO 


Dutch 


1 

93 

1 

17 

328 

13 

353 


'.1 




.8 




(<0 

.3 




6 

108 

5 

39 


6 

CO 
5 
91 




4.4 




.1 




3.4 




(a) 




5 
3 




2 
1 
2 
3 
5 

2 

1 
14 
10. 

7 

7 


(<0 




(a) 




1 








m 






42 

60 
1 
1 

57 
9 
3 
1 

54 
1 


2 

3 

1 
1 


.1 


Polish 


32 


.3 




CO 






CO 




18 


.3 




.1 






ft 








6 


.2 




CO 




1 
8 






CO 


Welsh 


17 


1 

32 
2 
1 
6 

1 
3 
4 
1 
35 


3 

2 
7 
1 
6 
30 
1 

18 
6 

120 


M 


Foreign-born: 


(<0 




18 
6 
2 

56 

311 

3 

2 

30 

17 

1 

384 

1 

29 


2 

269 

2 

50 

135 

43 

2 

54 

79 

260 


.1 


Bohemian and Moravian . 


1.0 

(<0 


Canadian, French 


.4 
1.5 




.1 




(a) 




.3 


Dutch ; 


.3 




(a) 




2.6 




CO 




15 
4 
42 
1,211 
4 
200 


8 

183 

2 

9 


6 

2 

20 

157 

2 

40 

1 

2 

1 

85 

17 

33 

3 

1 

1 


.2 




(a) 




24 
605 

14 
410 


.3 




6.8 




.1 




2.1 




(<0 




2 


1 




CO 




CO 


Irish , 


1,081 
28 
539 
74 


730 
27 

170 
61 


63 
6 
18 
10 


6.2 




' .2 


Italian, South - 

Italian (not specified) 


2.4 
.5 

(") 




37 


89 


9 


.4 



o Less than 0.05 per cent. 



20 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 4.— Cases assisted in the cities within each geographical division, by general nativity 
and race of head of case — Continued. 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Foreign-born— Continued. 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Persian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian 

Scotch 

Scotch-Irish 

Servian 

Slovak 

Slovenian 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 



Grand total . 



Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



Number of cases assisted. 



North 

Atlan- 
tic 

States 
(17 

cities). 



8S0 
12 
3 
59 
6 
138 
6 
2 
42 



3 
113 

35 

1 

34 



9,563 



915 
4,476 
5,087 



North 
Cen- 
tral 

States 
(18 

cities). 



182 

1 
4 



2 

7 
196 
36 
4 
359 
24 
1 
33 



14,807 



2,055 
9,109 
5,698 



South- 
ern 
States 

(4 
cities). 



171 

4,748 

529 



West- 
ern 
States 

(4 
cities). 



33 



1,915 



245 

1,145 

770 



Total 

(43 
cities). 



206 
23 
41 

248 

1 

2,048 

50 

12 

109 
9 

276 
12 
11 

243 
36 
22 

513 
65 
2 
71 



31,562 



19,478 
12,084 



Race distribution; percentages. 



North 

Atlan- 
tic 

States 
(17 

cities). 



0.2 
CO 

.3 
.3 
.0 



W 6 
.1 
1.4 
.1 

W 4 
.0 
00 
1.2 

.4 

00 

.4 



100.0 



9.6 
46.8 
53.2 



North 
Cen- 
tral 

States 
(18 

cities). 



1.3 

.0 

7.2 

.0 

(a) 

.2 
00 
.6 

00 
00 

1.3 

.2 

00 

2.4 
.2 

00 

.2 



100.0 



13.9 
61.5 
38.5 



South- 
ern 
States 

(4 
cities). 



0.1 
.0 

.1 
.1 
00 

1.6 
.0 

W 2 
.0 
.2 

00 
00 

.0 
.0 

W i 
.1 

.0 
.0 



100.0 



3.2 
90.0 
10.0 



West- 
ern 

States 
(4 

cities). 



0.2 

1.1 
.0 

1.2 
.0 
.7 

2.0 
.0 
.4 
.0 

1.7 
.2 
.1 
.3 
.0 
.7 

2.0 
.1 
.0 
.2 



12.8 
59.8 
40.2 



Total 

(43 
cities). 



0.7 
.1 
.1 
.8 

00 

6.5 
.2 
00 
.3 

00 

.9 
(•) 

W .s 

.1 

.1 

1.6 

.2 

W 2 



100.0 



10.7 
01.7 
38.3 



a Less than 0.05 per cent. 

Table 5. — Persons involved in cases assisted in the cities within each geographical division, 
by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[Not including 123 cases, involving 407 persons, race not reported.] 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Number of persons involved in cases 
assisted. 



North 

Atlan- 
tic 

States 
(17 

cities). 



North 
Cen- 
tral 

States 
(18 

cities). 



South- 
ern 
States 

(4 
cities). 



West- 
ern 

States 
(4 

cities). 



Total 

(43 
cities). 



Race distribution; percentages. 



North 

Atlan- 
tic 

States 
(17 

cities). 



North 
Cen- 
tral 

States 
(18 

cities). 



South- 
ern 
States 

(4 
cities). 



West- 
ern 
States 

(4 
cities). 



Total 

(43 
cities). 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Indian 

Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 

Bohemian and Moravian. 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Danish 

Dutch 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

.Irish 

. Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) . . . 

Magyar 

Mexican 



10,942 
1,132 

6 



5 
119 
45 



325 

4 

67 

1,458 

58 

1,464 



20,349 

4,501 

12 



214 

18 

121 

23 

44 

418 

2 

293 

3,639 

59 

2,ll5 

8 

7 



11,141 
5,386 



2,168 
94 



34 
498 

16 
166 



16 

126 

19 



44,600 

11,113 

18 



240 

137 

170 

26 

56 

776 

6 

410 

5,721 

152 

3,934 

8 

34 

15 

4 



29.6 
3.1 
00 



.1 

.0 

(0 

.9 

(0) 2 

3.9 

.2 

4.0 

.0 

.1 

00 

.0 

.0 



35.2 

7.8 

00 



.4 

(■0 

.2 

.7 

W 5 

6.3 

.1 

3.7 



.0 

00 

.0 



57.8 

28.0 

.0 



.1 
.0 

W o 

.0 

W o 

.2 
2.6 
.1 
.9 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.0 



■43.2 

1.9 
.0 



.0 
.0 

<•>! 

.1 
.5 
.0 
.3 

2.6 
.4 

3.8 
.0 
.2 

8. 



37.5 
9.3 
00 



.2 
.1 



.7 

W 3 

4.8 

.1 

3.3 



a Less than 0.05 per cent. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 21 



Table 5. — Persons involved in cases assisted in the cities within each geographical division, 
by general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 



- 


Number of persons involved in cases 
assisted. 


Race distribution; percentages. 


General nativity and race oi 
head of case. 


North 

Atlan- 
tic 

States 
(17 

cities). 


North 
Cen- 
tral 

States 
(18 

cities). 


South- 
ern 
States 

( 4 
cities). 


West- 
ern 
States 

( 4 
cities). 


Total 

(43 
cities). 


North 
Atlan- 
tic 
States 

.(" 
cities). 


North 
Cen- 
tral 

States 
(18 

cities). 


South- 
ern 

States 

( 4 
cities). 


West- 
ern 
States 

(4 
cities). 


Total 

(43 
cities). 


Native-born oi foreign father, 
by race of father— Cont'd. 




132 
245 

2 

2 

216 

17 

12 

2 
206 

4 


6 

10 

4 

7 


7 

8 

1 

33 

21 

27 
25 


139 

363 

10 

3 

321 

38 

16 

36 

250 

4 

2 

105 

1 

76 

1,537 

17 

486 

1,641 

234 

22 

362 

436 

4 

2,641 

1 

186 

21 

317 

8,475 

94 

3,108 

1 

5 

3 

7,509 

352 

3,613 

708 

1 

620 

815 

66 

118 

911 

1 

10,245 

247 

38 

431 

52 

865 

44 


0.0 
.3 

.0 
.0 
.2 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.1 
.0 

w .l 

.0 
.2 
.1 
(a) 
.7 
2.9 

n 

.3 
.1 
00 
3.7 
(<0 
.3 
.0 
.2 
6.4 
.1 
5.5 
.0 
(a) 

.0 

11.1 

.4 

6.7 

1.0 

.0 

..4 

.2 

(a) 

.2 

.3 

.0 

11.3 

.2 

00 

.6 

.1 

1.3 

.1 


0.2 

n 

.4 

( i 

00 
.0 

.1 

.0 
(a) 
2.3 

W 4 
.8 
.4 

00 

.4 
.6 
.0 

1.6 

.0 

.1 

00 

.3 

8.7 
(a) 

1.5 
.0 
(a) 
.0 

5.2 
.2 

1.5 
.5 
.0 
.7 

1.3 

1.3 

.0 

9.7 

.0 

(«) 

.2 
00 

.4 
(a) 

.1 

1.6 

.3 

00 
2.6 
.2 
(a) 
.2 


0.0 

00 
.0 
.0 

.1 

.0 

(a) 

(a) 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.0 

00 - 

.0 
.8 

\\ 
'.0 

00 

CO 
00 

.4 
.0 
.0 
.0 
.1 

3.5 
.1 
.2 
.0 
.0 
.0 

1.2 
.1 
.5 
.2 
.0 
.2 

00 
.0 

ii 

2.0 
.0 
C<0 
.2 
.0 
.2 

00 

.0 
.0 

(a) 

(a) 

.0 

.0 


0.1 
.0 
.2 

O) 

.7 
.4 
.0 
.5 
.5 
.0 
.0 
.1 

.0 

W 2 

1.9 

.1 

.0 

.8 

.1 

.0 

4.9 

.0 

.5 

(a) 

1.1 

8.3 

.2 

3.6 

00 

00 

10 
1.3 
3.4 
.2 

«?. 

1.1 

.0 

.9 

.0 

1.4 

3.7 

.0 

.4 

.0 

1.9 

.1 

.1 

.3 

.0 

1.1 

2.3 

.1 

.0 

.1 


0.1 


Polish 


112 


.3 




00 






W 3 




62 




n 










00 

.2 




19 




(a) 




2 

37 






<<0 
.1 


W elsh 


65 


1 

147 
6 
4 
15 

8 
4 

17 
2 

85 


3 

2 
7 
1 
11 
93 
3 

39 
6 

244 


Foreign-born: 


(a) 




70 

33 

4 

263 

1,086 

12 

3 

105 

45 

2 

1,375 

1 

105 


4 

1,350 

6 

218 

447 

219 

11 

214 

368 

937 


' ' 1 


Bohemian and Moravian. 


1.3 

00 


Canadian, French 


.4 

1.4 




.2 




00 




.3 




.4 




(<0 




2.2 




O) 

.2 




57 
19 

162 

5,013 

17 

849 


17 

678 

15 

29 


24 

2 

54 

416 

9 

182 

1 

2 

3 

201 

63 

170 

11 

1 

1 

5 

56 

47 

72 
185 

19 




("0 




84 
2,368 

53 
2,048 


.3 




7.1 




.1 




2.6 




00 




2 


1 




(") 




(a) 




4,091 
131 

2,496 
360 


2,979 
133 
859 
293 


238 
25 
88 
44 


6.3 




.3 




3.0 


Italian (not specified) 


.6 
00 




154 
70 
2 
82 

105 


426 

734 

8 

22 

752 


39 
6 

14 

7 

1 

378 


.5 




.7 




.1 




.1 




.8 




00 


Polish 


4,167 

62 

12 

234 

32 

477 

22 

5 

192 


5,628 


8.6 




.2 




24 
141 

20 
257 

12 

37 
902 
177 

12 
1,503 

99 

3 

112 


2 
37 


00 




.4 




00 

.7 




37 
3 
2 


94 
7 
4 

15 




ft 




48 (") 




1,109 
177 
84 
2,047 
275 
4 
264 


.5 

.0 
(a) 
1.1 

.4 
00 

.4 


.9 




.1 




14 
424 
159 

1 
145 


3 

4 
13 


55 

116 

4 


.1 




1.7 




.2 




00 

.2 


Welsh 




7 








36,985 


57,753 


19,267 


5,023 


119,028 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






Total native-born of foreign 


3,819 
15, 899 
21,086 


7,866 
32,728 
25,025 


771 

17, 298 

1,969 


529 
2,791 
2,232 


12,985 
68,716 
50,312 


10.3 
43.0 
57.0 


13.6 
56.7 
43.3 


4.0 
89.8 
10.2 


10.5 
55.6 
44.4 


10.9 




57.7 




42.3 







a Less than 0.05 per cent. 



22 



The Immigration Commission. 



The proportion of heads of cases of each general nativity group 
in each geographical division is shown in the following statement: 





Per cent oi heads of cases. 


Geographical division. 


Native-born of na- 
tive father. 


Native- 
born of 
foreign 
father. 


Foreign- 
born. 




White. 


Negro. 




33.2 
38.2 
54.8 
45.4 


4.0 

9.4 

31.9 

1.6 


9.6 
13.9 

3.2 
12.8 


53.2 




38.5 




10.0 




40.2 






Total 


39.9 


11.1 


10.7 


38.3 







Of the persons involved, the proportion in cases where the head of 
case was foreign-born was 57 per cent in the North Atlantic States, 
43.3 per cent in the North Central States, 10.2 per cent in the Southern 
States, and 44.4 per cent in the Western States. 

Referring again to the table relating to cases, it is seen that among 
the races where the head of case was foreign-born or native-born of 
foreign father the races ranking first, second, and third in the pro- 
portion of cases within each geographical division were as follows: 

North Atlantic. — Irish, foreign-born, 11.3 per cent ; Polish, foreign- 
born, 9.2 per cent; German, foreign-born, 6.3 per cent. 

North Ventral. — German, foreign-born, 8.2 per cent; Polish, for- 
eign-born, 7.2 per cent; German, native-born of foreign father, 5.9 
per cent. 

Southern. — German, foreign-born, 3.5 per cent; German, native- 
born of foreign father, 2 per cent; Polish, foreign-born, 1.6 per cent. 

Western. — German, foreign-born, 8.2 per cent; English, foreign- 
born, 6.3 per cent; Irish, native-born of foreign father, 4.8 per cent. 

The table which follows shows for each city the proportion of cases 
assisted of each general nativity and race. Races represented by less 
than 200 cases are not presented separately in this table. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



23 



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Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



25 



The figures fox the general nativity totals and for the total of the 
43 cities have already been discussed in connection with previous 
tables. Attention will here be called only to a few of the races impor- 
tant numerically. Thirty-nine and eight-tenths, of all cases reported 
in the 43 cities were native-born white of native father. More than 
two-thirds of the cases are of this race in seven of the cities. These 
cities are — 

Per cent. 

Springfield 69. 5 

Dayton 69. 3 

Elmira 68. 8 



Per cent. 

Evansville 88. 

Atlanta 79. 6 

IndianapoliB 76. 9 

Des Moines 73. 1 



In 10 of the cities less than one-fourth of the cases were native-born 
white of native father. The cities are — 



Per cent. 

Milwaukee 5.8 

Buffalo 15. 

St. Paul 16. 6 

Chicago 17. 8 

Cleveland 20. 5 



Per cent. 

Youngstown 22. 

Newark 23. 3 

Worcester 23. 6 

San Francisco 24. 1 

Hartford 24.4 



The negroes native-born of native father constituted more than 
one-fifth of the cases in seven cities and more than one-half of the 
cases in one of those cities, as follows: 



Per cent. 

St. Louis 22. 6 

Baltimore 21. 

Orange 20.5 



Per cent. 

Washington 56. 9 

Columbus 31. 8 

Louisville 28.9 

Dayton 23. 5 

Among the foreign-born, the Germans are numerically the most 
important, and in seven cities more than 10 per cent of the cases 
were of that race. The cities are — 



Per cent. 

Milwaukee 33. 3 

St.Paul 16.1 

San Francisco 13. 1 

Lincoln 11.2 



Per cent. 

Rochester 11. 2 

Buffalo 11.1 

Cleveland 10. 9 



In five of the cities more than 10 per cent of the cases were foreign- 
born Polish. These cities are — 



Per cent. 

Buffalo 32. 

Chicago 20. 

Wilkesbarre 18. 8 



Tercent. 

Milwaukee 16. 8 

Cleveland 11. 3 



65812°— vol 34—11- 



26 



The Immigration Commission. 



In seven of the cities more than 15 per cent of the cases were foreign- 
born Irish, as follows: 



Per cent 

Orange 26.4 

Newport 22. 2 

Worcester 21. 8 

Lynn 19.3 



Per cent. 

Boston 17.2 

Brooklyn 15. 2 

Hartford 15. 1 



The foreign-born English form 14.9 per cent of the cases in Paw- 
tucket, but in no other city does the proportion of this race reach 10 
per cent. 

The foreign-born South Italians form 5 per cent or more of the cases 
in five cities, as follows: 



Per cent. 

Rochester 14. 6 

Boston 9. 6 

Buffalo 9. 1 



Per cent. 

Hartford 6. 4 

Youngstown 5. 



In many of the cities the Hebrews maintain a separate charity 
organization for their own race, but in six cities more than 5 per cent 
of the cases assisted by the charity organizations societies reporting 
were foreign-born Hebrews. The cities are — 



Per cent. 

Brooklyn 18. 1 

Maiden 15. 7 

Lynn 7.1 



Percent. 

Minneapolis 6. 9 

Hartford 6. 1 

St. Paul 5. 7 



The foreign-born Bohemians and Moravians form 5.9 per cent of the 
cases in Chicago; the foreign-born Canadians other than French, 10.7 
per cent of the cases in Lynn; the foreign-bornMagyars, 5.4 per cent of 
the cases in Cleveland ; the foreign-born Norwegians, 8.3 per cent of the 
cases in Minneapolis ; the foreign-born Scotch, 6.3 per cent of the cases 
in Pawtucket; the foreign-born Slovaks, 7 per cent of the cases in 
Youngstown and 6.4 per cent in Cleveland, and the foreign-born 
Swedes, 12.5 per cent of the cases in Minneapolis. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 27 



The table which, follows shows for each city the races ranking- first 
and second in number of cases among the foreign-born: 

Table 7. — Races ranking first and second in number of cases among the foreign-born, 

by city. 





Foreign race ranking first. 


Foreign race ranking second. 


City. 


Race. 


Per cent 
of all 
cases. 


Race. 


Per cent 
of all 
cases. 




1 German 1 . 


1.1 
1.1 

5.7 

6.2 

17.2 

18.1 

32.0 

20.0 

2.9 

11.3 

3.1 

4.2 

5.2 

2.4 

2.4 

2.4 

3.2 

3.2 

1.8 

5.7 

5.7 

15.1 

2.7 

3.3 

4.9 
11.2 

2.5 
19.3 

15.7 

33.3 

12.5 

10.9 

22.2 

9.6 

26.4 

14.9 

9.2 

9.8 

14.6 

6.9 

16.1 
9.2 

13.1 
6.1 
1.3 

18.8 

21.8 

14.0 

6.8 




0.9 






Polish 


3.4 




do 




3.7 




Trish 


Canadian (other than 
French). 


11 8 






15.2 




Polish 




11.1 




do 




9.9 






do 


1.1 




Polish 




10.9 








1.4 




do 


do 


1.1 




do 


do 


4.1 






1. ...do 








1.9 












/German 


2.4 






Irish 


.6 




IDutch 


(Canadian (other than 
/ French). 


4.0 




\Polish 




Hartford 




6.4 






[Canadian (other than 

\ French). 

[Italian, South 


.7 




Dutch 


.7 


■R>ia.Tpa7,oo 




2.7 






do 


2.7 
2.8 




do 




1.9 




do 




.9 






Canadian (other than 
French). 


10.7 


Maiden 




14.5 






Polish 


16.8 








8.3 








8.9 




do 




3.2 








9.2 






Italian (not specified) 


7.3 






12.6 






do 


4.8 






Polish 


7.8 




Italian, South 




11.2 




(English 


1.2 




do 


\Irish 


1.2 


St. Paul 


do 


8.8 


Seattle 






8.6 








7.0 






do 


4.1 






do 


1.0 






(German 


4.8 








4.8 






6.8 






(English 


7.0 






(Slovak 


7.0 


Total 


Polish 


6.6 











a In this city new eases only are included. 



28 The Immigration Commission. 

Among the foreign races, the German ranks first in Baltimore, 
Bloomington, Cincinnati, Columbus, Dayton, Denver, Evansville, 
Indianapolis, Lancaster, Lincoln, Louisville, Milwaukee, Oakland, 
Peoria, St. Louis, St. Paul, San Francisco, Washington. The German, 
with other races which have the same number, also ranks first in 
Atlanta, Des Moines, and Elrnira. 

The Irish ranks first among the foreign races in Boston, Hartford, 
Lynn, Newark, Newport, Orange, Pittsburg, Worcester, Youngstown. 
With the German, which has the same number, the Irish also ranks 
first in Elmira. 

The Polish ranks first among foreign races in Buffalo, Chicago, 
Cleveland, and Wilkesbarre; and with the Dutch, which has the same 
number, also ranks first in Grand Rapids. 

The English ranks first among foreign races in Pawtucket, Seattle, 
and Springfield, and with the German, which has the same number, 
also ranks first in Atlanta. 

The Hebrew ranks first among foreign races in Brooklyn and 
Maiden, and with other races which have the same number, also 
ranks first in Des Moines. The Dutch ranks first in Kalamazoo," and 
with the Polish, which has the same number, also ranks first in Grand 
Rapids. The Swedish ranks first in Minneapolis, and with other 
races which have the same number, also ranks first in Des Moines. 
The South Italian ranks first in Rochester. 

APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED. 

The classification of the apparent causes of need has been made 
under 15 headings, and these causes have been grouped under six 
general classes. The general classes and the causes in detail are as 
follows : 

1. Death, or disability of breadwinner: 

Accident to breadwinner. 
Death of breadwinner. 
Illness of breadwinner. 

2. Death or disability of another member of family: 

Accident to another member of family. 
Death of another member of family. 
Illness of another member of family. 

3. Lack of employment or insufficient earnings: 

Insufficient earnings. 
Lack of employment. 

4. Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner: 

Desertion by husband. 
Incarceration of breadwinner. 
Intemperance of breadwinner. 
Neglect by breadwinner. 

5. Old age. 

6. Other: 

Loss by fire. 
Other. 

The following tables and charts present for each general class of • 
apparent causes of need the proportion of cases and of persons involved, 
by race of head of case. The per cents for each race total more than 
100, owing to the fact that in many cases more than one cause was 
reported. The first table, with its accompanying charts, relates to 
cases and the second to persons involved in these cases. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



29 



Table 8.— Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, 
by general nativity and race of head of case, 

[This table includes only races represented by 50 or more cases, as shown in Table 3. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
■ causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disabil* 
ityof 
bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
of another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


12.556 
3,483 

254 

102 

1,370 

1,076 

94 

92 

67 

312 
113 
480 
105 
105 
799 
49 
93 
2,137 
652 
1,941 
78 
757 
138 
129 
193 
247 
2,036 
50 
108 
276 
224 
512 
65 
69 


26.4 
32.9 

29.9 
25.5 
27.4 
28.0 
25.5 
18.5 
26.9 

30.8 
30.1 
26.5 
33.3 
22.9 
27.7 
26.5 
23.7 
30.8 
28.7 
31.7 
30.8 
32.9 
32.6 
28.7 
30.1 
33.6 
31.1 
32.0 
21.3 
19.6 
28.6 
35.9 
20.0 
29.0 


17.6 
22.4 

16.1 
21.6 
18.8 
■ 14.2 
17.0 
17.4 
17.9 

25.6 
22.1 
19.2 
13.3 
19.0 
19.5 
10.2 
24.7 
17.7 
23.2 
18.4 
21.8 
19.8 
27.5 
20.9 
16.1 
26.7 
18.4 
20.0 
22.2 
14.5 
16.1 
26.2 
26.2 
18.8 


60.0 
50.2 

68.1 
64.7 
62.8 
61.2 
57.4 
63.0 
49.3 

63.5 
38.9 
54.2 
56.2 
59.0 
63.3 
53.1 
63.4 
58.1 
55.7 
54.8 
59.0 
67.8 
68.1 
58.9 
65.3 
52.2 
65.9 
64.0 
63.9 
61.2 
64.7 
46.1 
75.4 
62.3 


19.6 
16.9 

15.7 
20.6 
19.6 
25.0 
34.0 
23.9 
29.9 

16.3 
18.6 
22.9 
14.3 
12.4 
14.0 
30.6 
10.8 
15.7 
12.6 
20.9 
10.3 

8.7 
10.9 
25.6 
18.1 
25.9 
19.3 

8.0 
18.5 
19.9 
25.0 
22.5 
12.3 
20.3 


5.0 
9.7 

9.4 
6.9 
3.0 
3.7 
.0 
9.8 
1.5 

3.2 

15.0 

6.9 

1.9 

11.4 

9.0 

4.1 

16.1 

11.6 

.8 

11.7 

.0 

- 2.6 

1.4 

.0 

.0 

10.1 

3.6 

10.0 

.0 

8.3 

.9 

8.0 

.0 

13.0 


11.5 




9.3 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


7.8 




6.9 




9.1 




9.9 


Polish 


8.6 




15.2 




16.4 


Foreign-bom: 

Bohemian and Moravian 


12.5 
14.2 




15.4 




11.4 


Dutch 


18.1 


English 


9.9 




10.2 




12.9 




9.8 




7.8 




8.3 




7.7 




6.9 


Italian (not specified) 


6.5 
7.0 




4,7 




11.7 


Polish "... 


4.3 




18.0 




6.5 




12.0 


Slovak 


4.0 




11.1 




10.8 


Welsh 


18.8 








31,374 


28.7 


18.9 


59.0 


18.7 


6.2 


10.0 






Total native-bom of foreign 


3,376 
19,421 
11,953 


27.2 
27.7 
30.2 


17.4 
18.4 
19.5 


62.1 
58.6 
59.8 


22.1 
19.5 
17.5 


3.9 
5.6 
7.1 


9.6 




10.8 




8.6 







30 



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Table 9. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class of appar- 
ent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

|This table includes only races represented by 50 or more cases, as shown In Table 3. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent of persons Involved in cases assisted for each speci- 
fied class of apparent causes of need. 



Death or 
disabil- 
ity of 
bread- 
winner. 



Death or 
disabil- 
ity of 
another 
member 
offamily. 



Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
Insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 



Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 



Old age. 



Other. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 

English 

French 

German 

Irish 

Polish 

Scotch 

Swedish 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . . 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Danish 

Dutch 

English 

Finnish 

French. _-. 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish.. 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Welsh 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

lather 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



44, 498 
11,103 



770 
410 
5,708 
3,908 
363 
321 
250 

1,524 
486 

1,628 
362 
435 

2,617 
185 
316 

8,394 

3,081 

7,441 
352 

3,595 
670 
580 
75S 
905 
10, 177 
247 
425 
865 

1,016 

2,043 
275 

' 262 



118,299 



12, 941 
68,560 
49,739 



25.2 
29.2 



27.6 
25.9 
20.8 
28.5 
23.7 
17.4 
22.8 

30.1 
27.2 
26.2 
38.7 
23.7 
29.0 
27.6 
25.0 
32.0 
29.9 
32.1 
32.1 
29.7 
30.3 
29.5 
29.9 
28,4 
31.5 
31.2 
24.9 
21.0 
28.7 
35.8 
18.9 
29.4 



28.0 



26.7 

26.1 
30.6 



22.2 
27.4 



20.5 
24.6 
21.8 
19.9 
21.8 
23.4 
23.6 

27.8 
26.7 
25.4 
23.2 
27.6 
27.5 
14.1 
34.8 
21.4 
26.3 
23.0 
20.1 
20.3 
28.5 
20.5 
20.1 
33.1 
19.6 
22.7 
29.6 
22.0 
18.3 
33.1 
32.0 
21.4 



62.7 
54.7 



72.9 
69.3 
65.1 
61.1 
59.0 
65.7 
53.6 

67.1 
41.4 
53.1 
51.4 
60.2 
63.8 
45.9 
65.8 
61.9 
57.6 
56.8 
58.2 
09.2 
70.0 
59.1 
65.4 
57.1 
68.4 
70.0 
59.5 
57.5 
67.7 
46.1 
81.8 
B.9 



22.0 
19.4 



19.2 
22.0 
22.4 
30.3 
36.9 
30.8 
31.6 

16.9 
22.2 
28.5 
19.3 
17.0 
16.8 
35.7 
15.8 
17.6 
10.3 
24.1 
10.8 

7.0 
12.7 
25.9 
20.1 
32.2 
19.3 

9.3 
19.8 
24.0 
25.1 
25.0 
10.2 
17.6 



23.1 



61.8 



20.8 



21.9 
23.0 

23.4 



63.9 
61.6 
62.1 



25.6 
22.3 
18.8 



2.5 
5.2 



4.4 
2.9 
1.5 
1.7 

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3.7 

.4 



5.8 
3.9 

.6 
5.1 
4.9 
1.6 
7.0 
5.3 

.5 
4.7 

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1.4 

.6 

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4.1 
1.6 
6.3 

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4.5 

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3.3 

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6.9 



1.7 
2.8 
3.0 



10.2 
10.6 



5.8 
6.8 
8.1 
7.6 
8.5 
16.8 
20.0 

12.1 

15.2 

15.7 

14.9 

23.9 

8.5 

12.4 

13.0 

9.4 

6.5 

8.0 

8.2 

7.3 

6.1 

7.2 

3.7 

11.5 

4.0 

17.8 

6.1 



10.4 
7.6 
12.2 



9.1 



S.2 
9.9 

8.0 



The per cent of the total number of cases and the per cent of the 
total number of persons involved reporting the different classes of 
apparent causes of need are, in order of importance, as follows: 



Class of apparent causes of need. 




Persons 
Involved. 



Lack of employment or Insufficient earnings 

Death or disability of breadwinner 

Death or disability of another member of family. 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner 

Old age 

Other causes 



Per cent. 
61.8 
28.0 
23.1 
20.8 
2.9 
9.1 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 41 

The cause reported in the largest proportion of cases and involve 
ing the largest proportion of persons is lack of employment or insuf- 
ficient earnings. This cause was reported in 59 per cent of the total 
number of cases, involving 61.8 per cent of the total number of per- 
sons. The cases in which the head was foreign-born report this 
cause of need in 59.8 per cent of the total number of cases, the total 
native-born reporting 58.6 per cent, and the native-born of foreign 
father, 62.1 per cent. 

The races for which lack of employment or insufficient earnings 
was the apparent cause of need for two-thirds or more of the cases are 
as follows: 



Race. 




Persons 
involved. 



Syrian, foreign-born 

English, native-born of foreign father. 
Italian (not specified), foreign-born... 
Italian, South, foreign-born 



Per cent. 
81.8 
72.9 
70.0 
69.2 



The French Canadian foreign-born, with 38.9 per cent, the 
Swedish foreign-born, with 46.1 per cent, and the Swedish native- 
born of foreign father, with 49.3 per cent, show small proportions 
reporting lack of employment or insufficient earnings. Of the white 
native-born of native father, 60 per cent reported this cause. 

The second most important apparent cause of need was death or 
disability of breadwinner. The per cent of the total number of 
cases reporting this cause is 28.7, involving 28 per cent of the total 
number of persons. The cases in which the head was foreign-born show 
a slightly larger proportion, 30.2 per cent, reporting death or disa- 
bility of breadwinner than do the total native-born, with 27.7 per cent 
so reported, and the native-born of foreign father, with 27.2 per cent. 
The races reporting a large proportion where this was the apparent 
cause of need are the Swedish foreign-born, with 35.9 per cent; the 
Norwegian foreign-born, with 33.6 per cent; and the Danish foreign- 
born, with 33.3 per cent. The races with a small proportion of cases 
reporting death or disability of breadwinner are the Scotch native- 
born of foreign father, with 18.5 per cent; the Scotch foreign-born, 
with 19.6 per cent; and the Syrian foreign-born, with 20 per cent. 
The cases in which the head was white native-born of native father 
show 26.4 per cent thus reported. 

Death or disability of another member of family was reported in 
18.9 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 23.1 per cent of 
the total number of persons. 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner was reported in 18.7 per 
cent of the total number of cases, involving 20.8 per cent of the total 
number of persons. The cases in which the head was Polish native- 
born of foreign father, and Swedish native-born of foreign father, 
show the largest proportions of cases reporting this cause, their per- 
centages being 34 and 29.9, respectively. The white native-born of 
native father show 19.6 per cent so reported. 

Old age was reported m 6.2 per cent of the total number of cases, 
involving 2.9 per cent of the total number of persons. The smaller 

65812°— vol 34—11 4 



42 The Immigration Commission. 

proportion shown for the number of persons is due to the fact that 
the cases in which this cause was reported consisted, with but few 
exceptions, of from one to three individuals. Old age was reported 
as the apparent cause of need in 7.1 per cent of the foreign cases; 
3.9 per cent of the cases of immigrants of the second generation; 
9.7 per cent of the negro native-born of native father; and 5 percent 
of the white native-born of native father. 

For 8 of the foreign races old age was reported as the apparent 
cause of need in one-tenth or more of the cases, as follows: 

Per cent. 

French 16. 1 

Canadian, French 15. 

Welsh 13. 

Irish 11.7 

German 1L 6 

Dutch , 1L4 

Norwegian 10. 1 

Portuguese 10. 

The apparent cause of need was reported in detail under fifteen 
headings, as indicated on the following page. Several of these causes 
closely overlap, while in many cases more distinct causes were re- 
ported. The tables which follow show for each race the per cent 
of cases and the per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for 
each of the 15 specified causes. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 43 



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46 



The Immigration Commission. 



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Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 47 

The cause of need most frequently reported is lack of employ- 
ment, which was given as either the sole cause or one of the causes 
in almost one-hall of the cases. The table which follows shows the 
percentage of cases reporting each specified cause of need and the 
percentage of persons involved : 

Table 12. — Per cent of cases reporting each specified apparent cause of need and the per 
cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each cause, by general nativity of head of 





Cases assisted. 


Persons involved. 


Apparent cause of need. 


Native-born 
of native 
father. 


Native- 
born of 
foreign 
father. 


For- 
eign- 
born. 


Total. 


Native-born of 
native father. 


Native- 
bom of 
foreign 
father. 


For- 
eign- 
born. 


Total. 




White. 


Negro. 


White. 


Negro. 




Accident to breadwin- 


3.1 

.6 
4.1 

1.0 

7.7 
20.0 

16.3 

1.5 
20.5 

8.2 
43.5 
.2 
4.7 
5.0 
11.3 


3.2 

1.3 
4.1 

1.2 
8.4 
26.5 

20.4 

1.5 
25.3 

5.7 
29.9 
.3 
3.9 
9.7 
9.1 


3.2 

.4 
5.4 

.9 
8.2 
19.8 

16.4 

2.6 
20.7 

9.7 
46.0 
.2 
5.8 
3.8 
11.1 


3.3 

.6 
7.8 

1.2 
6.7 
20.3 

18.4 

2.2 
17.4 

7.2 
46.0 
.4 
4.3 
7.1 
8.2 


3.2 

.7 
5.7 

1.1 
7.5 
20.8 

17.6 

1.9 
19.9 

7.7 
43.2 
.3 
4.6 
6.2 
9.9 


3.1 

.8 
4.3 

1.1 
7.6 
18.6 

20.8 

1.9 
23.2 

9.9 
44.2 
.2 
6.1 
2.5 
10.0 


3.1 

1.9 
4.3 

1.5 

8.8 

22.7 

24.8 

1.9 
27.9 

7.0 
32.9 
.3 
4.9 
5.2 
10.3 


3.0 

.6 
5.7 

1.1 
8.2 
19.1 

20.8 

3.1 
23.1 

12.2 

45.0 

.3 

7.1 
1.7 

7.8 


3.5 

.7 
8.2 

1.4 
6.0 
20.2 

22.1 

2.5 
20.0 

8.4 
46.8 
.5 
5.4 
3.0 
7.5 


3.3 

.8 
6.1 

1.3 
7.1 
19.7 

21.7 


Accident to another 

member of family 

Death of breadwinner. . . 
Death of another mem- 


Desertion by husband. . . 
Illness of breadwinner.. 
Illness of another mem- 


Incarceration of bread- 


Insumcient earnings 

Intemperance of bread- 


22.3 


Lack of employment 


44.3 


Neglect by breadwinner. 


5.8 


Other 









AID GIVEN. 



The specific aid furnished by the societies is shown in the following 
tables, giving for each race the proportion of cases and persons 
assisted. Many cases were furnished more than one kind of assist- 
ance, and therefore appear under more than one heading. 



Table 13- 



-Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head of 
case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 50 or more cases, as shown in Table 3. 

are for all races.] 



The totals, however, 





Num- 
ber re- 
porting 
com- 
plete 
data. 






Per cent of 


cases given aid specified. 






General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


1 


a 

a 

o 

O 




u 

& 8 
9" 

H 


to 

■a 
1 

o 
■a 
o 
o 
Eh 


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a 


a. 

'So' 

3 


OS . 

©"cO S 

££% 
=S§J 

o- P w 




M 

O 

ftfl 
tn o 

U 

Eh 


u 

a 
O 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


12,522 
3,470 

'254 
101 
1,360 
1,070 
91 
92 
67 


7.1 
4.1 

7.9 
11.9 
8.1 
7.8 
6.6 
7.6 
11.9 


24.7 
19.8 

20.9 
28.7 
30.9 
27.5 
28.6 
33.7 
19.4 


22.9 
11.9 

32.3 
28.8 
22.8 
28.0 
18.7 
30.4 
23.9 


46.8 
43.4 

61.0 
55.4 
54.3 
53.6 
57.1 
59.8 
31.3 


25.0 
32.1 

32.3 
34.7 
36.5 
29.3 
40.7 
22.8 
23.9 


5.9 

.8 

6.7 
5.9 
3.8 
8.2 
5.5 
12.0 
3.0 


15.9 
24.9 

8.3 
12.9 
14.4 
15.3 
22.0 

8.7 
19.4 


3.6 
2.0 

11.0 
6.9 
S.1 
6.1 

7.7 
7.6 

4.5 


3.1 
1.3 

3.1 
3.0 
1.5 
1.8 
1. 1 
.0 
3.0 


19.0 




12.2 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 
English 


10.6 




13.9 




14.9 


Irish 


15.9 


Polish 


20.9 


Scotch ^ 


. 15.2 




35.1 



48 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 13. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head of 

case — Continued. 





Num- 
ber re- 
porting 
com- 
plete 
data. 




Per cent of cases 


;iven aid specified. 






General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


1 

D 


1 

o 

5 


a 
<d_: 

S3 

3 o 

a" 


CD 

a 

o 

-o 

o 
o 
N 


3 


bi 

.a 

bo 

■a 

o 


as a 

"■oS 
•oS.2 
i* 9 55 


1 


i 

u 
o 

if 


o 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . . 


306 

111 

■474 

105 

104 

793 

49 

93 

2,112 

655 

1,896 

78 

756 

135 

134 

186 

246 

2,019 

50 

109 

274 

206 

511 

65 

70 


8.8 

11.7 

8.2 

7.6 

2.9 

7.7 

14.3 

11.8 

7.0 

13.6 

8.0 

5.1 

2.9 

7.4 

6.7 

3.8 

16.7 

5.9 

4.0 

8.3 

5.1 

4.4 

11.9 

6.2 

2.9 


29.1 
24.3 
17.9 
24.8 
37.5 
22.7 
40.8 
19.4 
27.5 
13.3 
21.9 
28.2 
24.7 
26.7 
35.1 
38.7 
22.0 
24.4 
26.0 
11.9 
23.7 
41.7 
19.2 
24.6 
32.9 


16.3 
14.4 
25.3 
25.7 
26.9 
27.5 
30.6 
26.9 
20.2 
15.3 
30.2 
25.6 
23.8 
26.7 
20.9 
28.0 
24.4 
24.8 
22.0 
19.3 
28.1 
23.3 
20.7 
35.4 
21.4 


47.7 
47.7 
52.5 
46. 7 
46.2 
50.6 
34.7 
47.3 
55.0 
32.7 
48.9 
51.3 
65.3 
57.0 
63.4 
46.8 
43.9 
65.8 
46.0 
45.0 
46.7 
59.7 
45.0 
49.2 
68.6 


24.2 
30.6 
29.5 
21.0 
21.2 
22.1 
16.3 
25.8 
32.1 
12.7 
25.3 
10.3 
36.4 
11.1 
20.9 
17.2 
31.7 
41.2 
16.0 
15.6 
15.7 
12.1 
30.9 
18.5 
22.9 


3.9 
4.5 
6.1 

19.0 
5.8 
9.6 
2.0 
8.6 
4.6 
4.0 
5.1 
6.4 
1.6 
.0 
4.5 
3.8 
7.3 
2.1 
.0 

15.6 

13.1 

4.4 

5.7 

.0 

10.0 


29.4 
27.9 
16.9 
21.0 
12.5 
18.5 

8.2 
29.0 
15.5 
40.0 
20.6 
21.8 
13.5 
23.0 
15.7 
15.1 
24.8 
17.9 
22.0 
22.9 
17.2 
12.6 
22.1 
21.5 

8.6 


7.2 
4.5 
4.0 
2.9 
2.9 
3.3 
2.0 
4.3 
4.8 
4.0 
5.0 
5.1 
8.3 
3.7 
5.2 
4.8 
9.3 
7.8 
2.0 
1.8 
44 
1.9 
7.4 
4.6 
2.9 


.3 
2.7 
2.5 
4.8 

.0 
3.4 
4.1 
2.2 
1.9 
5.3 
1.8 
2.6 
1.3 
1.5 
4.5 
10.8 
2.0 
1.5 
4.0 
8.3 

.7 

.0 
3.9 
1.5 
5.7 


28.8 
26.1 




21.7 




24.8 


Dutch ' 


22.1 




17.7 




20.4 




17.2 




17.1 




20.2 


Irish.., 


15.3 
23.1 




12.4 


Italian (not specified) 


16.3 
17.2 




12.9 




35.4 


Polish 


14.1 




34.0 




18.3 




19.3 




14.6 




29.0 




18.5 


Welsh 


21.4 








31,171 


7.0 


24.3 


22.5 


49.6 


27.7 


4.9 


18.2 


4.4 


2.5 


17.6 






Total native-born of foreign 


3,354 
19,352 
11,819 


8.2 
6.7 
7.5 


28.0 
24.4 
24.2 


25.6 
21.4 
24.2 


53.6 
47.4 
53.3 


32.1 
27.5 
28.1 


5.9 
5.0 
4.9 


14.7 
17.3 
19.6 


6.0 
3.7 
5.5 


2.0 
2.6 
2.4 


16.6 
17. T 






18.0 







Table 14. — Per cent of -persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 50 or more cases, as shown in Table 3. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Num- 
ber re- 
porting 
com- 
plete 
data. 



Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified. 



o ~ 



>T3 * 
) P CO 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 

English 

French 

German 

Irish... 

Polish 

Scotch 

Swedish 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian.... 
> Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Danish 

. Dutch........ 



44,362 
11,058 



776 
407 
6,657 
3,867 
347 
321 
250 

1,487 
473 

1,609 
362 



7.2 
3.8 



7.0 
10.8 
7.4 
9.5 
8.4 
11.2 
14.8 



11.0 
9.1 



3.0 



29.1 
26.0 



24.2 
35.9 

35.3 
30.1 
32.3 
34.9 
21.2 

33.5 
31.5 
21.4 
30.1 
41.3 



22.0 
12.3 



32.0 
24.1 
21.7 
26.3 
18.4 
30.5 
23.6 

14.8 
10.6 
26.2 
28.7 
18.2 



4S.2 
45.4 



62.9 
57.5 
54.4 
56.2 
57.9 
62.0 
36.0 

47.3 
43.8 
53.7 
42.8 
43.2 



27.3 
30.2 



35.2 

32.9 
3S..1 
35.6 
47.3 
30.5 
33.6 

26.0 
27.9 
32.8 
26.8 
23.8 



2.5 

.4 



2.6 
4.2 
1.2 
2.9 
2.9 
4.7 



17.6 
23.4 



17.0 
15.5 
IS. 6 
25.1 
7.5 
18.8 



1.8. 31.5 



3.2 
2.1 
5.5 
1.4 



33.8 
20.4 
26.0 
15.7 



3.S 
2.3 



10.1 
7.4 
5.S 
7.6 
8.1 
8.4 
6.6 

8.2 
3.8 
3.6 
7.2 
1.6 



2.3 
.9 



l.S 
2.5 
1.1 
1.1 
.6 
.0 
1.2 

.1 

.8 
2.3 
2.5 

.0- 



18.3 , 
12.1 



12.8 
15.7 
14.6 
15.8 
19.6 
16.2 
32.8 

2S.2 
25.8 
21.5 
30.9 
27.5 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



49 



Table 14. — Per cent of persons involved in oases given aid specified, by general nativity 
and race of head of case — Continued. 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Num- 
ber re- 
porting 
com- 
plete 
data. 



Foreign-born— Continued. 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North. 

Italian, South , 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Welsh 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



2,594 

183 

312 

8,297 

3,101 

7,251 

352 

3,593 

657 

609 

740 

904 

10,096 

247 

431 

853 

959 

2,044 

275 

262 



117,462 



12,822 
68,258 
49,204 



Per cent of persons involved in cases given and specified. 



6.7 

12.6 

11.5 

7.1 

14.4 

7.7 

0.8 

2.8 

7.0 

6.9 

5.3 

14.8 

0.5 

3.6 

10.9 

4.6 

4.5 

12.7 

9.8 

1.1 



8.5 
6.9 
7.6 



27.2 
53.6 
26.3 
33.2 
15.5 
28. 
36.1 
28.6 
31.4 
41.9 
49.1 
25.2 
29.0 
38.9 
15.5 
28.0 
47.1 
23.1 
27.6 
37.4 



29.2 



31.9 
29.1 
29.4 



s s 



23.9 
20.8 
20.9 
19.7 
13.5 
31.1 
20.7 
23.0 
25.1 
18.4 
27.4 
25.8 
24.7 
27.9 
18.1 
24.4 
21.9 
20.1 
38.5 
13.7 



21. 



23.9 
20.8 
23.2 



52.6 
45.4 
46.8 
55.4 
32.8 
51.0 
50.0 
62.8 
56.2 
65.5 
55.0 
45.6 
60.2 
52.0 
47.6 
52.5 
59.5 
40.4 
52.4 
76/0 



51.4 



55.1 
49.0 
54.8 



26.5 
21.9 
31.1 
32.0 
13.0 
25.6 
9.4 
35.3 
11.7 
22.0 
21.4 
35.6 
41.1 
19.4 
19.7 
20.4 
12.0 
32.8 
20.7 
26.0 



29.4 



36.0 
29.4 
29.5 



3.7 
1.6 
2.6 
1.8 
1.9 
1.8 
1.4 

.6 

.0 
3.6 
1.2 
4.1 
1.0 

.0 
4.2 
6.1 
3.0 
2.3 

.0 
7.6 



2.1 
21 
1.9 



3 £■£ 



22.4 
11.5 
40.7 
18.3 
43.4 
23.7 
24.7 
14.1 
21.8 
14.3 
18.1 
23.7 
18.9 
26.3 
23.2 
20.9 
13.1 
25.0 
25.8 
11.5 



19.9 



16.7 

18.3 
22.0 



3.5 
2.2 
4.2 
4.9 
4.4 
5.4 
6.5 
7.1 
4.7 
4.9 
6.2 
10.6 
8.5 
3.6 
2.8 
5.9 
1.9 
8.7 
3.3 
1.5 



6.8 
4.1 
6.0 



2.8 
1.1 

.6 
1.7 
3.0 
1.3 
1.4 

.8 
1.7 
3.9 
4.7 
1.2 
1.3 
1.2 
6.5 

.9 

.0 
2.5 
1.8 
2.7 



1.8 



1.3 
1.9 
1.7 



16.3 
26.8 
20.5 
17.0 
19.0 
15.8 
30.1 
13.8 
19.2 
20.0 
14.5 
37.6 
13.6 
26.7 
20.0 
18.2 
14.8 
30.3 
15.3 
19.3 



17.4 



16.4 
17.0 
17.9 



The per cent of cases and: the proportion of persons involved in 
cases receiving each specified aid, in the order of importance, follow: 



Aid given. 



Persons 
Involved. 



Food or meals 

Fuel 

Clothing 

Employment secured 

Medicine or medical assistance 

Cash 

Lodging 

Rent 

Transportation 

Other aid 




Food or meals were furnished to 49.6 per cent of the cases, which 
involved 51.4 per cent of the total number of persons. This aid was fur- 
nished to more than 60 per cent of the cases of the races which follow: 

Per cent. 

Welsh, foreign-born 68. 6 

Polish, foreign-born 65. 8 

Italian, South, foreign-born 65. 3 

Lithuanian, foreign-born 63. 4 

English, native-born of foreign father 61. 



50 



The Immigration Commission. 



■ Fuel was furnished to more than one-third of the cases of the fol- 
lowing races: 

Per cent. 

Polish, foreign-born 41. 2 

Polish, native-born of foreign father 40. 7 

German, native-born of foreign father 36. 5 

Italian, South, foreign-born 36. 4 

French, native-born of foreign father 34. 7 

Clothing was furnished to more than one-third of the cases of the 
following races : 

Per cent 

Slovak, foreign-born 41. 7 

Finnish, foreign-born 40. 8 

Magyar, foreign-born 38. 7 

Dutch, foreign-born 37. 5 

Lithuanian, foreign-born 35. 1 

Scotch, native-born of foreign father 33. 7 

Medicine or medical assistance was furnished to one-fourth or more 
of the cases of the following races : 

Per cent. 

Hebrew, foreign-born 40. 

Bohemian and Moravian, foreign-born 29. 4 

French, foreign-born 29. 

Canadian, French, foreign-born 27. 9 

The percentages of cases furnished the aid specified, by general 
nativity of head of case, were as follows: 



Aid given. 



Native-born of na- 
tive father. 



White. Negro. 



Native- 
born of 
foreign 
father. 



Foreign- 
born. 



Total. 



Cash 

Clothing 

Employment secured 

Food or meals 

Fuel 

Lodging. 

Medicine or medical assistance. 

Rent 

Transportation 

Other 



7.1 
24.7 
22.9 
46.8 
25.0 

5.9 
15.9 

3.6 

3.1 
19.0 



4.1 

19.8 

11.9 

43.4 

32.1 

.8 

24.9 

2.0 

1.3 

12.2 



8.2 
28.0 
25.6 
53.6 
32.1 

5.9 
14.7 

6.0 

2.0 
16.6 



7.5 
24.2 
24.2 
53.3 
28.1 

4.9 
19.6 

5.6 

2.4 
18.0 



7.0 
24.3 
22.5 
49.6 
27.7 

4.9 
18.2 

4.4 

2.5 
17.0 



The most radical differences in the above comparisons are with 
respect to the negro native-born of native father. Employment was 
secured for a much smaller proportion and medicine and medical 
assistance were furnished in a much larger proportion of cases of that 
race than of any of the other classes shown in the above table. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



51 



PERSONS PEE CASE. 

The per cent of cases assisted consisting of each specified number 
of persons is shown, by general nativity and race of nead of case, in 
the table which follows : 

Table 15. — Per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general nativity and 

race of head of case . 

[This table includes only races represented by 60 or more cases, as shown in Table 3. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race "of 
head of case. 



Native-bom of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 

English 

French 

German 

Irish 

Polish 

Scotch 

Swedish 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Danish 

Dutch 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Welsh 

Grand total 

Total native-born of native 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



Total 
number 
of cases. 



12,597 
3,489 



254 
102 
1,373 
1,082 
94 
92 
07 

314 

113 

482 

105 

106 

805 

50 

94 

2,156 

659 

1,959 

78 

760 

148 

136 

200 

248 

2,048 

50 

109 

276 

243 

513 

65 

71 



31,562 



3,386 
19,478 
12,084 



Per cent of cases having each specified number of persons. 



22.4 

22.8 



31.9 
12.7 
13.8 

27.1 
8.5 
35.9 
20.9 

8.0 

20.4 

25.1 

40.0 

31.1 

30.4 

18.0 

29.8 

17.9 

12.7 

24.9 

15.4 

5.9 

8.1 

8.1 

18.4 

26.2 

4.6 

8.0 

26.6 

40.6 

6.2 

18.9 

12.3 

22.5 



20.4 



20.9 
22.2 
17.5 



10.9 
23.7 



19.3 
14.7 
13.5 
14.3 
12.8 
13.0 
9.0 

8.9 
14.2 
17.0 
12.4 
17.0 
18.9 
14.0 
20.2 
18.2 

7.0 
10.0 

5.1 
11.6 

0.8 

0.6 
10.2 
13.3 

9.2 
20.0 

9.2 
11.2 
11.9 
13.8 

6.2 
18.3 



16.1 



14.0 
17.6 
13.7 



15.5 
17.0 



12.2 
24.5 
13.5 
12.4 
25.5 
7.0 
17.9 

9.2 
15.0 
10.0 
10.5 

3.8 
12.4 
22.0 

9.6 
12.9 
12.6 
10.8 
20.5 
14.7 
14.2 
16.2 
12.6 
12.1 
14.1 

2.0 
11.9 
14.9 
16.9 
11.5 
23.1 
14.1 



14.6 



13.9 
15.0 
13.0 



14.4 
12.7 



12.2 
11.8 
10.4 
12.0 
22.3 
8.7 
14.9 

18.2 
8.8 
13.1 
3.8 
8.5 
10.3 
8.0 
12.8 
13.1 
15.8 
11.2 
12.8 
16.6 
20.3 
19.9 
10.0 
12.1 
14.6 
12.0 
10.1 
7.6 
16.0 
15.6 
9.2 



13.8 



14.2 
14.1 
13.4 



11.1 
9.0 



9.1 
13.7 
15.1 
10.1 
13.8 
10.9 
19.4 

18.2 
6.2 
9.1 
9.5 
9.4 
9.0 
18.0 
11.7 
11.5 
12.7 
10.0 
11.5 
14.1 
12.2 
15.4 
19.4 
11.3 
17.2 
20.0 
12.8 
6.2 
17.7 
12.3 
23.1 
8.5 



11.6 



12.6 
11.0 
12.6 



8.4 
6.5 



7.1 

3.9 
11.7 
9.1 
7.4 
8.7 
7.5 

14.3 
9.7 
8.3 
4.8 
4.7 
6.8 
12.0 
4.3 
9.9 
12.1 
8.6 
14.1 
15.5 
16.2 
10.2 
13.1 
10.9 
15.2 
10.0 
10.1 
7.2 
11.9 
13.1 
15.4 
12.7 



9.4 



9.6 

8.2 
11.2 



5.9 
4.0 



6.3 

8.8 
8.4 
7.7 
0.4 
5.4 
4.5 



9.7 

5.2 

7.6 

6.6 

5.0 

2.0 

2.1 

7.8 

12.9 

8.1 

6.4 

10.1 

8.8 

11.0 

6.8 

7.9 

11.3 

12.0 

10.1 

5.4 

9.1 

7.0 

7.7 

4.2 



6.9 



7.7 

5.8 
8.5 



3.2 
2.1 



1.2 
5.9 
4.6 
3.9 
2.1 
4.3 
6.0 

7.0 
6.2 
3.3 
3.8 
5.7 
3.6 
4.0 
3.2 
3.8 
7.9 
5.8 
5.1 
6.1 
10.8 
4.4 
.5 
4.0 
7.3 
4.0 
4.6 
2.9 
5.8 
4.9 
1.5 
5.6 



4.0 



4.1 
3.1 

5.3 



.0 
2.0 
1.7 
2.6 

.0 
4.3 

.0 

4.1 
5.3 
1.9 
4.8 
5.7 
1.7 

.0 
3.2 
3.2 
3.8 
2.8 
6.4 
2.9 

.7 
2.2 
1.9 
2.0 
4.0 
6.0 
3.7 
1.4 
3.3 
2.1 

.0 
4.2 



2.0 



1.9 
1.4 
3.0 



10 or 
more. 



0.8 
.7 



.8 
2.0 
1.3 

.9 
1.1 
1.1 

.e- 

2.2 
4.4 

.4 
2.9 
7.5 
1.2 
2.0 
3.2 
1.5 
1.8 
1.8 
2.6 
2.6 
2.0 

.0 
1.0 

.4 
2.5 
6.0 

.9 
2.6 
1.2 

.8 
1.5 

.0 



1.2 



1.2 

.9 
1.8 



The large proportion of cases consisting of only a few persons is 
worthy of note. Of the 31,562 cases, the per cent consisting of each 
specified number of persons is as follows : 



Per cent. 

1 person 20.4 

2 persons 16. 1 

3 persons 14. 6 

4 persons 13. 8 

5 persons 11. 6 



Per cent. 

6 persons 9. 4 

7 persons 6. 9 

8 persons 4. 

9 persons 2. 

10 or more persons 1. 2 



52 The Immigration Commission. 

The cases where the head was foreign-born aTerage a somewhat 
larger number of persons per case than do the cases where the head 
was native-born. Those consisting of eight or more persons show 
10.1 per cent where the head of case was foreign-born and 5.4 per 
cent where the head of case was native-born. 

The races having comparatively large proportions of cases consist- 
ing of eight or more persons are — 

Per cent. 

Dutch, foreign-born 18. 9 

Portuguese, foreign-born 16. 

Canadian, French, foreign-born 15. 9 

Italian, North, foreign-born 14. 1 

"type" OF CASE. 

The cases included in this investigation have been classified under 
four groups and each group has been termed a "type." The groups 
are— 

1. Cases consisting of husband and wife, with or without children. 

2. Cases consisting of a widow, with or without children. 

3. Cases consisting of a widower, with or without children. 

4. All other cases. 

The number of cases of each "type," and the size of each family 
involved is shown in the table next presented. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



53 



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54 



The Immigration Commission. 



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Immigrants as Charily Seekers: General Summary. 



55 



The table which follows shows for each race the per cent of cases 
consisting of (1) husband and wife, with or without children; (2) 
widow, with or without children; (3) widower, with or without 
children; (4) others. 

Table 17. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with or 
without children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 60 or more cases, as shown in Table 3. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Per cent of cases consisting of— 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Husband 
and wife, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widow, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widower, 
with or 
without 

children. 


Other* 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


12,597 
3,489 

254 

102 

1,373 

1,082 

94 

92 

67 

314 

113 

482 

105 

106 

805 

50 

94 

2,156 

659 

1,959 

78 

760 

148 

136 

206 

248 

2,048 

50 

109 

276 

243 

513 

65 

71 


48.6 
39.5 

48.0 
64.7 
52.4 
46.2 
50.0 
43.5 
38.8 

49.0 
54.9 
44.8 
41.9 
48.1 
47.2 
46.0 
48.9 
51.2 
66.2 
43.5 
66.7 
65.1 
68.2 
64.0 
62.1 
40.3 
63.0 
60.0 
52.3 
36.2 
68.3 
44.2 
G3.1 
47.9 


28.0 
37.9 

28.3 
20.6 
30.8 
25.1 
33.0 
15.2 
41.8 

38.2 
28.3 
32.4 
20.0 
17.0 
24.2 
40.0 
245 
33.0 
19.7 
37.0 
15.4 
23.8 
21.6 
22.8 
18.0 
39.1 
29.2 
14.0 
19.3 
29.0 
25.1 
38.0 
18.5 
33.8 


4.5 
4.0 

3.9 
49 
2.9 
4 4 
l.l 
10.9 
.0 

4.5 
6.2 
3.7 
6.7 

11.3 
7.7 
4 
43 
45 
5.2 
4 8 
3.8 
2.6 
2.0 
2.9 
8.7 
3.2 
2.6 
6.0 

15.6 
8.7 
2.9 
5.5 
3.1 
7.0 


18.9 




18.8 


Native-horn of foreign father, fcy race of 
father: 


19.7 




9.8 




13.9 


Irish 


24.2 


Polish 


16.0 




30.4 




19.4 


Foreign-born: 


8.3 




10.0 




19.1 




31.4 


Dutch 


23.6 




20.9 


Finnish 


10.0 




22.3 




11.4 




9.0 




14.7 


Italian, North 


141 




8.4 




8.1 




10.3 




11.2 




17.3 


Polish 


5.1 




20.0 




12.8 




26.1 


Slovak 


3.7 




12.3 
15.4 


Welsh 


11.3 








31, 562 


49.6 


29.7 


44 


16.3 








3,386 
19, 478 
12,084 


49.7 
47.2 
53.4 


27.6 
29.7 
29.7 


3.7 
4.3 
4.7 


19.0 




18.9 




12.2 







Of the total number of cases, 49.6 per cent consisted of husband and 
wife, with or without children; 29.7 per cent consisted of widows, with 
or without children; 4.4 per cent consisted of widowers, with or without 
children; and 16.3 per cent were of "other types." The proportion 
of cases consisting of husband and wife, with or without children, 
was greater among the foreign-born than among the native-born, the 
percentages being 53.4 and 47.2, respectively. 



56 



The Immigration Commission. 



Among the following races more than 35 per cent of the cases were 
widows, with or without children: 

Per cent. 

Swedish, native-born of foreign father 41. 8 

Finnish ; foreign-born 40. 

Norwegian, foreign-born 39. 1 

Bohemian and Moravian, foreign-born '. 38. 2 

Swedish, foreign-born 38. 

Negro, native-born of native father 37. 9 

Irish, foreign-born 37. 

Table 16 shows that a rather surprisingly large number of cases, 
or 2,560, consisted of husband and wife without children, which is 8.1 
per cent of the total number. The table which follows shows for 
each race the per cent of such cases. 

Table 18. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 25 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 
totals, however, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 


Total 

number of 

cases. 


Cases consisting only of 
husband and wife. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


12,597 
3,489 

254 
1,373 

1,082 

482 

805 
2,156 

659 
1,959 

760 
2,048 

513 


1,058 
399 

29 
93 
84 

31 

91 
234 

28 
146 

43 
101 

31 


8.4 




11.4 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


11.4 




6.8 




7.8 


Foreign-born: 


6.4 




11.3 




10.9 




4.2 




7.5 




5.7 




4.9 




6.0 








31,562 


2,560 


8.1 








3,386 
19,478 
12,084 


249 

1,706 

854 


7.4 




8.8 




7.1 







The above table shows that a somewhat larger proportion of 
native-born than of foreign-born cases consisted only or husband and 
wife; the percentages are 8.8 and 7.1, respectively. For four of the 
races more than 10 per cent of the cases were of this type. The 
races are: 

Per cent. 

Negro, native-born of native father 11. 4 

English, native-born of foreign father 11. 4 

English, foreign-bom 11. 3 

German, foreign-born -, 10. 9 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



57 



The table which follows shows for cases consisting of husband and 
wife without children, the per cent assisted for each specified cause. 

Table 19. — Per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

{This table includes only races represented by 25 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 

totals, however, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Dis- 
ability of 
husband. 


Death or 
disability 

of 
another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 

or bad 

habits of 

husband. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


1,058 
398 

29 
93 
84 

31 

89 
231 

27 
142 

43 
101 

31 


32.6 
33.2 

27.6 
36.6 
35.7 

22.6 
27.0 
34.2 
25.9 
35.9 
34.9 
16.8 
35.5 


21.0 
21.9 

31.0 
12.9 
13.1 

19.4 
21.3 
19.0 
22.2 
• 16.9 
32.6 
11.9 
19.4 


57.4 
53.8 

82.8 
51.6 
59.5 

61.3 
67.4 
48.1 
37.0 
51.4 
65.1 
62.4 
51.6 


9.0 
9.3 

10.3 
12.9 
20.2 

16.1 
6.7 
6.5 
3.7 

12.0 
4.7 
6.9 

12.9 


12.5 
14.6 

20.7 
11.8 
4.8 

22.6 
21.3 
35.5 
3.7 
27.5 
18.6 
37.6 
29.0 


9.1 




8.0 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


6.9 




4.3 




3.6 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


6.B 




7.9 




7.8 




18.5 




2.1 




2.3 


Polish 


3.0 




9.7 








2,547 


31.9 


19.9 


56.7 


9.5 


18.0 


7.7 






Total native-bom of foreign 


249 

1,705 

842 


34.1 
33.0 
29.8 


17.3 
20.6 
18.4 


59.8 
56.9 
56.2 


15.7 
10.0 
8.3 


11.6 
12.8 
28.4 


4.8 




8.2 




6.5 







Lack of employment or insufficient earnings was the apparent 
cause in the greatest proportion of cases, or 56.7 per cent of the total 
number. Disability of husband was reported as an apparent cause 
in 31.9 per cent of the cases, death or disability of another member 
of family in 19.9 per cent, old age in 18 per cent, neglect or bad 
habits of husband m 9.5 per cent, and other causes in 7.7 per cent of 
the cases. Old age was reported as an apparent cause in a consider- 
ably larger proportion of the cases where the head was foreign-born 
than of the cases where the head was native-born, the percentages 
being 28.4 and 12.8, respectively. 

65812°- -vol 34—11 5 



58 



The Immigration Commission. 



The age of the husband in the cases which consisted of husband and 
wife without children is shown in the table which follows. 

Table 20. — Age of head of case where case consisted only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 25 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. 
The totals, however, are lor all races.) 



General nativity and race of head 
of case. 



Number 
report- 
ing com- 
plete 
data. 



Number where head was — 



Under 

50 
years. 



50 to 

59 
years. 



years. 



70 
years 



Per cent where head was — 



Under 
50 

years. 



50 to 

59 
years. 



60 to 

69 
years. 



70 
years 



Native-born of native lather: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 

English 

German 

Irish 

Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than French) 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Polish 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



1,049 
397 



29 
93 

84 

31 

90 
234 

28 
144 

43 
101 

31 



575 
238 



1C1 

56 



122 
50 



54.8 
59.9 



44.8 
58.1 
71.4 

48.4 
43.3 
29.1 
78.6 
31.3 
41.9 
42.6 
51.6 



18.2 
13.4 



17.2 
19.4 
16.7 

19.4 
11.1 
15.4 
7.1 
25.0 
23.3 
10.9 
12.9 



15.3 
14.1 



20.7 
12.9 
6.0 

10. 1 
22.2 
26.5 
7.1 
22.9 
23.3 
20.8 
12.9 



1,309 



419 



428 



3S8 



51.5 



16.5 



16.8 



249 
1,695 



151 
964 
345 



42 
286 
133 



29 
246 

182 



27 
199 
189 



60.6 
56.9 
40.6 



16.9 
16.9 
15.7 



11.6 
14.5 
21.4 



11.6 

12.6 



17.2 
9.7 
6.0 

16.1 

2.3. 3 
29.1 
7.1 
20.8 
11.6 
25.7 
22.6 



15.3 



10.8 
11.7 
22.3 



The number of cases for which this information was secured is 
2,544, and the husband was under 50 years of age in 51.5 per cent 
of the cases, from 50 to 59 in 16.5 per cent, from 60 to 69 in 16.8 

fier cent, and 70 or over in 15.3 per cent of the cases. A considerably 
arger proportion of the f oreign-^orn than of the native-born were in 
the older groups, as indicated by the following : 



Age of husband. 


Native- 
born. 


Foreign- 
born. 




Per cent. 
56.9 
16.9 
14.5 
11.7 


Per cent. 
40.6 


50 to 59 


15.7 


60 to 69 


21.4 




22.3 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



59 



AGE OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The table which follows shows for all persons involved in the cases 
assisted the number and per cent within each specified age group. 
The groupings used are: Under 16, 16 to 39, 40 to 59, and 60 or over. 

Table 21. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 50 or more cases, as shown in Table 3. The totals, however, 

"are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified 
age group. 


Per cent within each speci- 
fied age group. 


head of case. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Under 
16. 


10 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


44,234 
10,904 

774 
410 
5,706 
3,914 
363 
319 
250 

1,523 

478 

1,618 

362 

433 

2,613 

186 

315 

8,435 

3,053 

7,441 

348 

3,572 

665 

614 

780 

908 

10,195 

243 

426 

864 

1,063 

2,037 

271 

260 


20,595 
4,900 

337 
211 
3,086 
1,955 
212 
146 
137 

907 
252 
771 
177 
208 

1,109 
105 
146 

4,142 

1,771 

3,629 
202 

2,098 
377 
361 
408 
432 

6,051 
138 
240 
395 
613 

1,043 
153 
115 


14,746 
3,583 

261 
125 
1,787 
1,269 
140 
101 
81 

422 
125 
507 
112 
120 
770 
47 
90 

2,252 
946 

1,972 
102 
975 
213 
188 
278 
269 

2,777 
75 
137 
237 
331 
544 
102 
80 


6,846 
1,584 

130 

58 
698 
563 
10 
50 
30 

168 
63 

256 
61 
68 

511 

23 

48 

1,397 

305 

1,324 

43 

433 
68 
63 
91 

152 

1,166 

14 

47 

181 

115 

353 
14 
44 


2,047 
837 

46 
16 
135 
127 
1 

22 
2 

26 
38 
84 
12 
31 
223 
11 
31 
644 
31 
516 

1 
66 

7 

2 

3 

55 

211 

16 

2 
51 

4 
97 

2 
21 


40.6 
44.9 

43.5 
51.5 
54.1 
49.9 
58.4 
45.8 
54.8 

59.6 
52.7 
47.7 
48.9 
48.0 
42.4 
56.5 
46.3 
49.1 
58.0 
48.8 
58.0 
58.7 
56.7 
58.8 
52.3 
47.6 
59.4 
56.8 
56.3 
45.7 
57.7 
51.2 
56.5 
44.2 


33.3 
32.9 

33.7 

30.5 

31:3 

32.4' 

38.6 

31.7 

32.4 

27.7 
26.2 
31.3 
30.9 
29.1 
29.5 
25.3 
28.6 
26.7 
31.0 
26.5 
29.3 
27.3 
32.0 
30.6 
35.6 
29.6 
27.2 
30.9 
32.2 
27.4 
31.1 
20. 7 
37.6 
30.8 


15.5 
14.5 

16.8 
14.1 
12.2 
14.4 
2.8 
15.7 
12.0 

11.0 
13.2 
15.8 
16.9 
15.7 
19.6 
12.4 
15.2 
16.6 
10.0 
17.8 
12.4 
12.1 
10.2 
10.3 
11.7 
16.7 
11.3 

5.8 
11.0 
20.9 
10.8 
17.3 

5.2 
16.9 


4.6 




7.7 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


5.9 




3.9 




2.4 


Irish 


3.2 


Polish 


.3 




6.9 




.8 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . 


1.7 
7.9 




5.2 




3.3 


Dutch 


7.2 




8.5 




5.9 




9.8 




7.6 




1.0 

6.9 




.3 




1.8 


Italian (not specified) . - . 


1.1 
.3 




.4 




6.1 


Polish 


2.1 




6.6 




.5 




5.9 


Slovak 


.4 




4.8 




.7 


Welsh 


8.1 






Grand total 


117, 887 


58,615 


36,595 


17,206 


5,471 


49.7 


31.0 


14.6 


4.6 


Total native-born of foreign 


12,933 
68, 089 
49, 798 


6,705 
32,208 
26,407 


4,196 
22,531 
14,064 


1,664 

10,087 

7,119 


378 
3,203 
2,208 


51.6 
47.3 
53.0 


32.4 
33.1 
28.2 


12.8 
14.8 
14.3 


2.9 




4.8 




4.4 







Practically one-half of the 117,887 persons involved, for whom 
information relative to age was secured, were under 16 years of age, 
the percentage being 49.7. Thirty-one per cent were from 16 to 39 
years of age; 14.6 per cent 40 to 59; and 4.6 per cent 60 or oyer. 
The cases where the head was foreign-born have a larger proportion 
of persons under 16 and a smaller proportion from 16 to 39 than have 
the cases where the head was native-born. In the_ two older age 
groups there is practically no difference between native and foreign 
cases. 



60 



The Immigration Commission. 



The following statement shows the per cent in each age group, by 
general nativity of head of case. 



Age. 


Head. of 

case 
native- 
bom. 


Head of 

case 
foreign- 
born. 


Under 16 


Percent. 

47.3 

33.1 

14.8 

4.8 


Per cent.. 
63.0 


16 to 39 


28.2 


40 to 59 


14.3 




4.4 







In the age group "under 16" were 59.6 per cent of the persons in 
the Bohemian and Moravian foreign-born cases, 59.4 per cent of 
the persons in the Polish foreign-born cases, and 58.8 per cent of the 
persons in the Lithuanian foreign-born cases. 

The races show wide variations in the proportions of persons 60 
years of age or over. The French foreign-born have the largest 
proportion 60 years of age or over, the percentage being 9.8; the 
English foreign-born are second in order, with 8.5 per cent, and the 
Welsh third, with 8.1 per cent. 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The general table relating to conjugal condition groups the persons 
according to age, but the text table which follows shows the data only 
for the total number of persons 20 years of age or over. The data are 
presented by sex and by general nativity and race of the individual. 

Table 22. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal con- 
dition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only races "With SO or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.] 

MALE. 



General nativity and race of 
individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Number — 



Single. 



Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 



Single. 



Married. 



Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 

Bohemian and Moravian . . . 

English 

French •. 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Scotch 

Swedish 

Foreign-bom: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . , 

Canadian, French 

Canadian , Other 

Croatian 

Danish 

Dutch 

English 

French 

German 

Hebrew --. 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 



9,424 
1,943 



54 
233 

83 
1,072 

38 
959 

41 
104 

82 

65 

193 
76 

296 
35 
80 
92 

595 

70 

1,417 

526 

1,137 

66 

593 



2,297 
307 



23 
88 
10 

257 
10 

373 
23 
52 

L'« 

36 

19 
7 

60 
2 

29 
25 

133 
IS 

172 
64 

155 
12 
67 



6,605 
1,501 



30 
133 
69 
770 
26 
545 
18 
51 
46 
28 

161 
62 

223 
33 
46 
57 

409 

48 

,154 

452 

S90 
52 

515 



522 
135 



24.4 
15.8 



42.6 
37.8 
12.0 
24.0 

26.3 
38.9 
58.1 
50.0 
31.7 
55.4 



9.2 
20.3 

5.7 
36. 3 
27.2 
22.4 
25.7 
12.1 
12.2 
13.6 
18.2 
11.3 



70.1 
77.3 



55.6 
57.1 
S3. 1 
71. S 
68.4 
56.8 
43.9 
49.0 
56.1 
43.1 

S3. 4 
81.6 
75.3 
94.3 
57.5 
62. 
68.7 
68.6 
81.4 
85.9 
78.3 
78.8 
86. 8 



5.5 
6.9 



1.9 
5.2 
4.8 
4.2 
5.3 
4.3 
.0 
1.0 
12.2 
1.5 

6.7 
9.2 
4.4 
.0 
6.3 
10.9 
S. 9 
5.7 
6.4 
1.9 
S. 1 
3.0 
1.9 



Immigrants as Charily Seekers: General Summary. 



61 



Table 22. — Number and per cent of persons %0 years of age or over in each conjugal con- 
dition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual — Continued. 



MALE— Continued. 



General nativity and race of 
individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Number — 



Single. 



Married. 



Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 



Per cent — 



Single. 



Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 



Foreign-born— Continued. 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish. 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Welsh 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-bom. 

Total foreign-born 



109 

105 

167 

143 

,501 

41 

92 

195 

179 

300 

51 

50 



22, 037 



2,925 
14, 296 
8,341 



11 
12 

18 
32 
112 

4 
17 
62 

6 
39 

4 
11 



91 
148 
107 
1,349 
34 
73 
119 
171 
2.38 
45 
36 



10.1 
11.4 
10.8 
22.4 

7.5 

9.8 
18.5 
31.8 

2.8 
13.0 

7.8 
22.0 



4,711 



16, 722 



1,204 



20.1 



981 
3,585 
1,126 



1,818 
9,928 
6,794 



126 
783 
421 



33.5 
25.1 
13.5 



88.1 
86.7 
88.6 
74.8 
89.9 
82.9 
79.3 
61.0 
95.5 
79.3 
88.2 
72.0 



73.9 



62.2 
09.4 
81.5 



1.8 

1.9 

.6 

2.8 
2.7 
7.3 
2.2 
7.2 
1.7 
7.7 
3.9 
CO 



4.3 
5.5 
5.0 



FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father: 
White 


11,804 
3,420 

69 
219 

65 
1,353 

43 
947 

59 
151 

49 

97, 

303 

98 

459 

47 

63 

69 

614 

63 

1,873 

568 

1,896 

57 

692 

117 

128 

168 

232 

1,957 

46 

79 

183 

235 

468 

50 

65 


1,018 
329 

14 
37 
2 

147 
8 

158 
16 
31 
11 
31 

8 
1 
33 


6,899 
1,597 

41 

108 

44 

779 

28 

489 

27 

93 

23 

40 

175 
61 

263 
34 
40 
47 

378 

33 

1,066 

439 

1,021 

44 

496 
82 
91 

129 

118 
1,336 
32 
60 
92 

177 

248 
35 
41 


3,887 
1,494 

14 
74 
19 

427 
7 

300 
16 
27 
15 
26 

120 
36 

163 
13 
19 
18 

210 
29 

748 

117 

759 
10 

179 
32 
34 
38 

100 

576 
13 
18 
77 
56 

197 
12 
22 


8.6 
9.6 

20.3 
16.9 
3.1 
10.9 
18.6 
16.7 
27.1 
20.5 
22.4 
32.0 

2.6 
1.0 
7.2 

.0 
6.3 
5.8 
4.2 
1.6 
3.2 
2.1 
6.1 
6.3 
2.5 
2.6 
2.3 

.6 
6.0 
2.3 
2.2 
1.3 
7.7 

.9 
4.9 
6.0 
3.1 


58.4 
46.7 

59.4 
49.3 
67.7 
67.6 
65.1 
51.6 
45.8 
61.6 
46.9 
41.2 

57.8 
62.2 
57.3 
72.3 
63.5 
68.1 
61.6 
52.4 
56.9 
77.3 
53.9 
77.2 
71 7 
70.1 
71.1 
76.8 
50.9 
68.3 
69.6 
75.9 
50.3 
75.3 
53.0 
70.0 
63.1 


32.9 




43.7 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 
Bohemian and Moravian . . . 


20.3 

33.8 




29.2 




31.6 




16.3 


Irish 


31.7 




27.1 


Polish 


17.9 




30.6 




26.8 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . . 


39.6 
36.7 




35.5 




27.7 




4 
4 

26 
1 

59 

12 

116 

3 

17 
3 
3 
1 

14 

45 
1 
1 

14 
2 

23 
3 
2 


30.2 


Dutch 


26.1 




34.2 




46.0 




39.9 




20.6 




40.0 




17.5 




25.9 


Italian (not specified) 


27.4 
26.6 




22.6 




43.1 


Polish 


29.4 




28.3 




22.8 




42.1 




23.8 




42.1 




24.0 


Welsh 


33.8 








29,205 


2,254 


16,958 


9,993 


7.7 


58.1 


34.2 






Total native-born of foreign 


3,222 
18, 455 
10,750 


499 

1,846 

408 


1,762 
10,264 
6,694 


961 
6,345 
3,648 


15.5 
10.0 
3.8 


54.7 
55.6 
62.3 


29.8 




34.4 




33.9 







62 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 22. — Number and per cent of persons 9.0 years of age or over in each conjugal con- 
dition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual — Continued. 



TOTAL. 



General nativity and race of 
individual. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

English 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Scotch 

Swedish 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian . . 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Croatian 

Danish 

Dutch 

English 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

' Italian, South 

Italian (not specified J 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Welsh 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



21,228 
5,363 



123 
452 
148 

2,455 
81 

1,906 
100 
255 
131 
162 

496 

174 

755 

82 

143 

161 

1.209 

183 

3,230 

1.094 

3,033 

123 

1,285 

226 

335 
375 
3,458 
87 
171 
37S 
414 



101 

115 



6,147 
32, 751 
19,091 



Single. 



3,315 



37 

125 

12 

404 

18 

531 

39 

83 

37 

67 



93 
2 
33 
29 

159 
19 

231 
76 

271 
15 
84 
14 
15 
19 
46 

157 
5 
18 
76 
7 
62 
7 
13 



1,480 
5,431 
1,534 



Married. 



13,504 



71 

241 
113 
1,549 
54 
1,034 
45 
144 
69 



336 
123 
480 

67 

86 
104 
7S7 

81 

2,220 

891 

1,911 

96 
1,011 
178 
1S2 
277 
225 
2,685 

66 
133 
211 
348 
4 Ml 

SO 

77 



3.580 
20,192 
13,488 



Deserted 



rated, or 
widowed. 



4,409 
1,629 



23 

472 

9 

341 

16 

2S 

25 

27 

133 

43 

176 

13 

24 

28 

2i-3 

33 

839 

127 

851 

12 

190 

34 

36 

39 

104 

616 

16 

20 

91 

59 

220 

14 

25 



1,087 
7,128 
4,069 



Per cent — 



Single. 



15.6 
11.9 



30.1 
27.7 
8.1 
16.7 
22.2 
27.9 
39.0 
32.5 
28.2 
41.4 

5.4 

4.6 

12.3 

2.4 

23.1 

18.0 

13.2 

14.3 

7.0 

6.9 

8.9 

12.2 

6.5 

6.2 

6.4 

5.7 

12.3 

4.5 

5.7 

10.5 

20.1 

1.7 

8.1 

6.9 

11.3 



24.1 
16.6 
8.0 



Married. 



63.6 
57.8 



57.7 
53.3 
76.4 
63.9 
66.7 
54.2 
45.0 
56.5 
52.7 
42.0 

67.7 
70.7 
64.4 
81.7 
60.1 
04.6 
65.1 
60.9 
67.5 
81.4 
63.0 
78. 
78.7 
78.8 
78.1 
82.7 
60.0 
77.6 
75.9 
77. S 
55.8 
84.1 
63.3 
79.2 
67.0 



65.0 



58.2 
61.7 
70.7 



Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 



20.8 
30.4 



12.2 
19.0 
15.5 
19.5 
11.1 
17.9 
16.0 
11.0 
19.1 
16.7 

26.8 
24.7 
23.3 
15.9 
16.8 
17.4 
21.8 
24.8 
25.5 
11.6 
28. 1 
9.8 
14.8 
15.0 
15.5 
11.6 
27.7 
17.8 
18.4 
11.7 
24.1 
14.3 
28.6 
13.9 
21.7 



21.6 



17.7 
21.8 
21.3 



Of the total number of persons 20 years of age or over reporting 
conjugal condition, 13.4 per cent were single, 65 per cent married, and 
21.6 per cent deserted, separated, or widowed. 

A considerably smaller proportion of the foreign-born than of the 
native-born were single; the percentages are 8 and 16.6, respectively. 
The proportion of those widowed varies only slightly in the general 
nativity groups, but varies materially among the races. 

The following races show more than one-fourth of all persons 
involved, either deserted, separated, or widowed: 

Per cent. 

Negro, native-born of native father 30. 4 

Swedish, foreign-born 28. 6 

Irish, foreign-born 28. 1 

Norwegian, foreign-born 27. 7 

Bohemian and Moravian, foreign-born 26. 8 

German, foreign-born 25. 5 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 


63 


A comparison of the sexes as to conjugal condition shows the 
folio wing: 


.. 


Male. 


Female. 




Per cent. 
20.8 
73.9 
5.3 


Per cent. 
7.7 




58.1 




34.2 







Of the foreign-born males 13.5 per cent were single, while of the for- 
eign-born females only 3.8 per cent were single. Of the foreign-born 
males 5 per cent and of the foreign-born females 33.9 per cent were 
deserted, separated, or divorced. 

Of the females, 40 per cent or mors in the following races were 
deserted, separated, or divorced: 

Per cent. 

French., foreign-born : 46. 

Negro, native-born of native father 43. 7 

Norwegian, foreign-born 43. 1 

Scotch, foreign-born 42. 1 

Swedish, foreign-born , 42. 1 

Irish, foreign-born 40. 

The next table shows, by race, the number of cases where the wife 
was the head, reported widowed, deserted, or separated, and the per 
cent which each forms of the total. 



Table 23. — Number and per cent of cases assisted in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 50 or more cases, as shown in Table 3. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number — 


Per cent- 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


12, 597 
3,489 

254 
102 
1,373 
1,082 
94 
92 
67 

314 
113 
482 
105 
106 
805 
50 
94 

2,156 
659 

1,959 
78 
760 
148 
136 
206 
248 


2,323 
1,001 

52 

10 
242 
185 

15 
9 

12 

93 
20 
99 
13 
13 

159 
6 
20 

549 
65 

604 
7 

140 
31 
17 
18 
67 


1,326 
403 

17 
8 
174 
103 
13 
5 
13 

21 

14 

54 

6 

4 

43 

9 

5 

173 

58 

132 

4 

36 

1 

16 

19 

' 31 


18.4 
28.7 

20.5 
9.8 
17.6 
17.1 
16.0 
9.8 
17.9 

29.6 
17.7 
20.5 
12.4 
12.3 
19.8 
12.0 
21.3 
25.5 

9.9 
30.8 

9.0 
18.4 
20.9 
12.5 

8.7 
27-0 


10.5 




11.8 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


6.7 




7.8 




12.7 




9.5 


Polish 


13.8 




5.4 




19.4 


Foreign-born: 


6.7 




12.4 




11.2 




5.7 




3.8 




5.3 




18.0 




5.3 




8.0 




8.8 




6.7 




5.1 




4.7 




.7 




11.8 




9.2 


Norwegian 


12.5 



64 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 23. — Number and per cent of cases assisted in which wife was head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race and head of case — Continued. 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Foreign-born — Continued. 

Polish 


2,048 

50 

109 

276 

243 

513 

65 

71 


378 
8 
8 
52 
30 
127 
6 
16 


180 
1 

10 
22 
27 
65 
7 
5 


18.5 
16.0 

7.3 
18.8 
12.3 
24.8 

9.2 
22.5 


8.8 




2.0 




9.2 




8.0 




11.1 




12.7 




10.8 


Welsh 


7.0 








31, 562 


6,456 


3,065 


20.5 


9.7 








3,386 
19,478 
12,084 


555 
3,880 
2,576 


377 

2,107 

958 


16.4 
19.9 
21.3 


11.1 




10.8 




7.9 







The cases where a widow was the head comprise 20.5 per cent of the 
total number. The percentages, by general nativity, are 21.3 for 
foreign-born and 19.9 for native-born. 

For several races the head was a widow in more than one-fourth 
of all cases. The races are — 

Per cent. 

Irish, foreign-born 30. 8 

Bohemian and Moravian, foreign-born 29. 6 

Negro, native-born of native father 28. 7 

Norwegian, foreign-born 27. 

German, foreign-born 25. 5 

The cases where the head was a woman deserted or separated, com- 
prise 9.7 per cent of the total number. The percentages by general 
nativity are, for the native-born 10.8 and for the foreign-born 7.9. 

The next table includes the same cases as are shown in the table 
immediately preceding. This table, however, shows for all cases in 
which the wife was the head, reported widowed, deserted, or separated, 
the proportion of cases in which she was widowed, and the propor- 
tion of cases in which she was deserted or separated. 

Table 24. — Number and per cent of cmes in which wife is head and reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 50 or more cases, as shown in Table 3. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted 

or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted 

or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 

While 


3,649 
1,404 

69 
18 
416 
288 
28 
14 
25 


2,323 
1,001 

52 

10 
242 
185 

15 
9 

12 


1,326 
403 

17 
8 
174 
103 
13 
5 
13 


63.7 
71.3 

75.4 

C) 
58.2 
64.2 
53.6 

00 
48.0 


36.3 




28.7 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


24.6 




00 




41.8 




35.8 


Polish . 


46.4 




00 




52.0 



a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



65 



Table 24. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 





Number. 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


"Widowed. 


Deserted 

or, 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted 

or 
separated. 


Foreign-born: 


114 
34 

153 
19 
17 

202 
15 
25 

722 

123 

736 
11 

176 
32 
33 
37 
98 

558 

9 

18 

74 

57 

192 
13 
21 


93 
20 
99 
13 
13 

159 
6 
20 

549 
65 

604 
7 

140 
31 
17 
18 
67 

378 
8 
8 
52 
30 

127 
6 
16 


21 

14 

54 

6 

4 

43 

9 

5 

173 

58 

132 

4 

36 

1 

16 

19 

31 

180 

1 

10 

22 

27 

65 

7 

5 


81.6 
58.8 
64.7 

n 

78.7 

00 
80.0 
76.0 
52.8 
82.1 

00 
79.5 
96.9 
51.5 
48.6 
68.4 
67.7 

70.3 
52.6 
66.1 
00 
76.2 


18.4 




41.2 




35.2 




00 
00 


Dutch 




21.3 




00 

20.0 






24.0 




47.2 




17.9 




00 




20.5 




3.1 




48.5 




51.4 




31.6 


Polish 


32.3 




(<0 
00 
29.7 






Slovak 


47.4 




33.9 




00 


Welsh 


23.8 








9,521 


6,456 


3,065 


67.8 


32.2 








932 
5,987 
3,534 


555 

3,880 

, 2, 576 


377 

2,107 

958 


59.5 
64.8 
72.9 


40.5 




35.2 




27.1 







a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

The wife was reported widowed in 67.8 per cent and deserted or 
separated in 32.2 per cent of all cases where a wife was the head of a 
case and reported widowed, deserted, or separated. Among the for- 
eign-born 27.1 per cent, and among the native-born 35.2 per cent, were 
reported deserted or separated. 

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF PERSONS UNDER 16 TEARS OF AGE. 

The next table shows for each race the percentage of children at 
home, at school, and at work. These data are shown in the general 
tables for all children under 16 and also for each of the age groups— 
under 6. 6 to 13, and 14 and 15. 



66 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 25. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes in each section only races with 20 or more reporting. The totals, however, are for all 

races.] 

MALE. 



General nativity and race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent — 


At home. 


At school. 


At work. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


8,411 
1,572 

267 
76 

181 
34 
59 
59 

300 

22 

45 

1,362 

341 

1,292 

40 

317 
51 
90 
49 

126 

1,593 

31 

54 

109 
97 
23 

364 
25 
36 

66 
54 
45 

130 

181 
26 
21 

260 
37 
33 
51 
30 

312 
51 
25 


10.2 
12.0 

5.6 
3.9 
8.3 
8.8 
8.5 
5.1 
7.0 

22.7 
8.9 
7.2 

11.7 
5.3 

17.5 
8.8 
6.9 
6.7 

14.3 
6.3 

11.4 

12.9 
9.3 

10.1 

19.6 

17.4 
8.5 

16.0 
8.3 

4.5 
.0 
4.4 
8.5 
12.2 
.0 
4.8 
5.8 
21.6 
12.1 
13.7 
6.7 
9.0 
17.6 
16.0 


83.8 
82.9 

86.1 
89.5 
87.3 
88.2 
89.8 
91.5 
89.0 
72.7 
80.0 
86.5 
85.3 
88.9 
77.5 
88.0 
86.3 
86.7 
83.7 
84.9 
83.2 
77.4 
87.0 
82.6 
73.2 
82.6 
86.3 
80.0 
77.8 

93.9 
96.3 
82.2 
85.4 
86.2 
96.2 
90.5 
89.6 
70.3 
84.8 
82.4 
90.0 
84.6 
78.4 
80.0 


5.9 




5.1 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


8.2 




6.6 




4.4 




2.9 




1.7 


Dutch 


3.4 




4.0 




4.5 




11.1 




6.3 




2.9 




5.8 




5.0 




3.2 




7.8 




6.7 




2.0 




8.7 


Polish 


5.4 




9.7 




3.7 




7.3 




7.2 




.0 




5.2 




4.0 


Welsh 


13.9 


Foreign-born: 


1.5 




3.7 




13.3 




6.2 




1.7 




3.8 




4.8 




4.6 




8.1 




3.0 




3.9 




3.3 


Polish 


6.4 




3.9 




4.0 








18,536 


9.7 


84.7 


5.6 








7,093 
17,077 
1,459 


8.6 
9.7 
9.0 


85.8 
84.6 
86.3 


5.6 




5.7 




4.7 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



67 



Table 25. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual — Continued. 

FEMALE. 



General nativity and race of individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent- 



At home. At school. 



At work. 



Native-bora of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Danish 

Dutch 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified ) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Welsh 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian (other than French) 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



8,294 
1,5G0 

236 

5S 

183 

37 

65 

313 

23 

48 

1,353 

333 

1,224 

33 

311 

71 

00 

49 

104 

1,402 

44 

54 

122 

111 

342 

24 

38 

51 
52 
53 

120 

223 
22 
28 

267 
24 
24 
46 
29 

285 
44 
24 



17,997 



11.6 

15.3 

4.7 
0.9 
5.5 
8.1 
6.2 
8.0 
8.7 
4.2 
7.9 
10.5 
7.8 
6.1 
6.8 
7.0 
15.0 
6.1 
11.5 
13.1 
22.7 
13.0 
9.0 
11.7 
10.8 
12.5 
10.5 

3.9 
11.5 
3.8 
7.9 
7.0 
4.5 
10.7 
11.0 
8.3 
8.3 
19.6 
3.4 
12. 
13.6 
4.2 



11. 



83.4 

82.1 

86.9 
89.7 

90.2 
89.2 
87.7 
87.5 
91.3 
93.8 
85.0 
86.5 
87.9 
93.9 
91.0 
90.1 
70.7 
85.7 
83.7 
81.2 
75.0 
85.2 
87.7 
83.8 
80.3 
87.5 
80.8 

90.2 
84.6 
94.3 
85.7 
88.3 
86.4 
78.6 
85.0 
87.5 
87.5 
78.3 
79.3 
82.1 
79.5 
91.7 



84.2 



5.0 
2.6 

8.5 
3.4 
4.4 
2.7 
6.2 
4.5 

.0 
2.1 
7.1 
3.0 
4.3 

.0 
2.3 
2.8 
8.3 
8.2 
4.8 
5.6 
2.3 
1.9 
3.3 
4.5 
2.9 

.0 
2.6 

5.9 
3.8 
1.9 
6.3 
4.0 
9.1 

10.7 
3.4 
4.2 
4.2 
2.2 

17.2 
5.6 
6.8 
4.2 



4.8 



6,718 

16, 580 

1,417 



9.4 
11.1 
10.0 



85.6 
S4.2 
84.4 



5.0 

4.8 
5.6 



68 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 25. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual — Continued. 



TOTAL. 



General nativity and race of individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



At home. At school. 



At work. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Croatian 

Danish. 

Dutch 

English 

Finnish 

French. 

German. 

Hebrew- 

Irish ... . 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian* 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Slovenian 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Welsh... 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Syrian 



Grand total. 



Total native-born of foreign father.. 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



16, 705 
3,138 

503 

134 

3134 

53 

96 

124 

613 

45 

93 

2,715 

674 

2,516 

73 

028 

122 

150 

9S 

23 

230 

2,995 

75 

108 

231 

208 

39 

706 

49 

74 

117 
22 

100 
98 

256 

404 
48 
49 

527 
61 
57 
97 
59 

597 
26 
30 
22 
95 
49 
:.' 



36,533 



10.9 
13.7 

5.2 
5.2 

0.9 
13.2 
8.3 
5.6 
7.5 
15.0 
6.5 
7.0 
11.1 
6.5 
12.3 
7.8 
6.6 
10.0 
10.2 
8.7 
8.7 
12.2 
IS. 7 
11.1 
9.5 
15.4 
12.8 
9.6 
14.3 
9.5 

4.3 
4.5 
5.7 
4.1 
S. 2 
9.7 
2.1 
8.2 
8.7 
10.4 
10.5 
16.5 
5.1 
10.6 
11.5 
3.3 
13.6 
15.8 
10.2 
.0 



10.3 



13,811 
33, 657 
2,876 



9.0 
10.4 
9.5 



83.0 
82.5 



88.7 
83.0 
89.6 
89. 5 
88.3 
82.2 
87.1 
85.7 
85.9 
88.4 
84.9 
89.5 
88. 5 
82.7 
84. 7 
91.3 
84.3 
S2.3 
76.0 
86.1 
85.3 
78.8 
84.6 
SO. 3 
83.7 
82.4 

92.3 
81.8 
90.6 
8S.8 
8.5.5 
87.4 
91.7 
83.7 
87.3 
77.0 
80.0 
80.4 
S4.7 
83.4 
84.6 
SO.O 
86.4 
78. 9 
S5.7 
S7.0 



4.5 



5 5 
3.8 

8.4 
5.2 
4.4 
3.8 
2.1 
4.8 
4.2 
2.2 
6.5 
6.7 
3.0 
5.1 
2.7 
2.7 
4.9 
7.3 
5.1 
.0 
7.0 
5.5 
5.3 
2 8 
5.2 
5.8 
2.6 
4.1 
2.0 
8.1 

3.4 

13.6 
3.8 
7.1 
6.3 
3.0 
6.3 
8.2 
4.0 
0.6 
3.5 
3.1 

10. 2- 
6.0 
3.8 

16.7 

.0 

5.3 

4.1 

13.0 



5.2 



85.7 
84.4 
85.4 



5 3 
5.3 
5.1 



Of the 36,533 children 6 and under 16 years of age involved in the 
cases assisted, 10.3 per cent were at home, 84.5 per cent were at 
school, and 5.2 per cent were at work. There is very little difference 
in the proportions for those of native birth and those of foreign birth; 
10.4 per cent of those of native birth and 9.5 per cent of those of for- 
eign birth were at home; 84.4 per cent of those of native birth and 
85.4 per cent of those of foreign birth were at school; and 5.3 per 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



69 



cent of those of native birth and 5.1 per cent of those of foreign birth 
were at work. 

Comparing the totals for each sex, it is seen that a slightly smaller 
proportion of males than of females were at home and that a some- 
what larger proportion of males than of females were at "work. 

The next table simply brings together for convenient comparison 
the foreign-born children and the second generation. For the pur- 

f»ose of comparison, data for white children native-born of native 
ather are also entered. 

Table 26. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at 
school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children horn in the United States, and also 20 or more 
children born abroad. The white native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.) 



General nativity and race of 
lather. 



Birthplace of 
child. 



Num- 
ber re- 
porting 
com- 

Slete 
ata. 



Number — 



At 
home. 



At 
school. 



At 
work. 



Per cent — 



At 
home. 



At 
school. 



At , 
work'. 



Native-born: 

White 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified). . . 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Syrian 



United States. 

United States 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States 
Abroad 



503 
117 
134 
22 
364 
lOfi 
613 
98 
2,715 
250 
674 
404 
2,516 
48 
73 
49 
028 
527 
122 
61 
150 
57 
98 
97 
230 
59 
2,995 
597 
75 
2(1 
10S 
30 
231 
22 
208 
95 
706 
49 
49 
23 



26 

5 

7 

1 

25 

6 

46 

4 

205 

21 

75 

39 

164 

1 

9 

4 

49 

46 

8 

10 

15 

6 

10 

16 

20 

3 

365 

63 

14 

3 

12 

1 

22 

3 

32 

15 

68 

5 

7 



13,971 

435 
108 
120 

18 
323 

96 
541 

87 
2,328 
219 
579 
353 
2,224 

44 

62 

41 
562 
460 
108 

47 
124 



78 

194 

50 

2,465 

498 
57 
22 
93 
24 

197 
19 

164 
75 

609 
42 
41 
20 



913 

42 
4 
7 
3 

16 
4 

26 

7 

182 

16 

20 

12 
128 
3 
2 
4 

17 

21 
6 
4 

11 
2 
5 
3 

16 

6 

165 

36 



5.2 

4.3 

5.2 

4.5 

6.9 

5.7 

7.5 

4.1 

7.6 

8.2 

11.1 

9.7 

6.5 

2.1 

12.3 

8.2 

7.8 

8.7 

6.6 

1G.4 

10.0 

10.5 

10.2 

16.5 

8.7 

5.1 

12.2 

10.6 

18.7 

11.5 

11.1 

3.3 

9.5 

13.6 

15.4 

15.8 

9.6 

10.2 

14.3 

.0 



86.5 
92.3 
89.6 
81.8 
88.7 
90.6 
88.3 
88.8 
85.7 
85.5 
85.9 
87. 4 
88.4 
91.7 
84.9 
83.7 
89.5 
87.3 
88.5 
77.0 
82.7 
86.0 
84.7 
80.4 
84.3 
84.7 
82.3 
83.4 
76.0 
84.6 
86.1 
80.0 
85.3 
86.4 
78.8 
78.9 
86.3 
85.7 
83.7 
87.0 



5.5 

8.4 
3.4 
5.2 

13.6 
4.4 
3.8 
4.2 
7.1 
6.7 
6.3 
3.0 
3.0 
5.1 
6.3 
2.7 
8.2 
2.7 
4.0 
4.9 
6.6 
7.3 
3.5 
5.1 
3.1 
7.0 

10.2 
5.5 
6.0 
5.3 
3.8 
2.8 

16.7 
5.2 
.0 
5.8 
5.3 
4.1 
4.1 
2.0 

13.0 



From the above table it is seen that of the Polish children 6 and 
under 16 years of age born abroad, 10.6 per cent were at home, 83.4 per 
cent at school, and 6 per cent at work, while of the Polish children 
born in the United States of foreign-born Polish fathers, 12.2 per 
cent were at home, 82.3 per cent at school, and 5.5 per cent at work. 



70 



The Immigration Commission. 



Six races are each represented by more than 100 children born 
in the United States and more than 100 born abroad. Those races 
are the Bohemian and Moravian, Canadian other than French, 
German, Hebrew, South Italian, and Polish. The proportion 
of children at work was greater among children of native birth 
than among those of foreign birth for the Bohemian and Moravian, 
Canadian other than French, and German; the same among those 
of each nativity for the Hebrew; and less among children of native 
birth than among those of foreign birth for the South Italian and 
Polish. 

TEARS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

In only a small proportion of cases were those receiving charitable 
assistance recent immigrants to the United States. The total number 
of cases in which the head of the case was foreign-born reporting years 
in the United States is 1 1 ,703. The tables and chart which follow show 
for each race represented by 50 or more cases the proportion in the 
United States each specified number of years. The second table 
shows the percentages in the cumulative form; that is, the per cent 
in the United States under 1 year, under 3 years, under 5 years, etc. 

Table 27< — Per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States under 1 year, 
1 year, 2 years, etc., by race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 50 or more cases, as shown in Table 3. The total, however, 

is for all foreign-born.] 



Kace of head of case. 



Bohemian and Moravian. 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Danish 

Dutch 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Welsh 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Total. 



309 
100 
443 
102 
100 
772 



2,103 

C35 

1,868 

78 

757 
133 
136 
202 
237 
2,024 
50 
100 
262 
241 
497 
62 
71 

11,703 



Per cent in United States each specified number of years. 



Under 
1. 



0.0 
1.9 
2.9 
2.9 
1.0 
3.4 
2.0 
2.2 

.8 
1.9 

.4 
2.6 

.9 
2.3 

.7 
5.9 

.8 

1.3 

, 2.0 

14.2 

3.4 

1.7 

.4 
4.S 
2.8 



2.3 

.0 
1.4 
4.9 
3.0 
1.8 
2.0 

.0 
1.0 
2.7 

.4 
2.6 
2.0 
2.3 
2.9 
5.9 

.4 

.8 
8.0 
2.8 
1.9 
1.2 

.6 
4.8 

.0 



3.2 
.0 
2.9 
3.9 
3.0 
4.5 
0.1 
1.1 
1.9 
4.6 
.8 
9.0 
7.0 
7.5 
5.9 
12.4 
3.8 
4.2 
4.0 
3.8 
5.0 
5.8 
.6 
9.7 
1.4 



1.6 1.4 3.6 3.5 



3.2 

.9 
2.5 
5.9 
1.0 
3.5 
2.0 

.0 
1.9 
6.0 

.5 
3.8 
7.5 
8.3 
5.9 
13.4 
1.3 
4.3 

.0 
10.4 
3.8 
7.5 

.8 
3.2 
1.4 



3.6 

.0 
1.6 
6.9 

.0 
1.8 
4.1 
4.5 
1.8 
6.1 

.8 
7.7 
9.1 
5.3 
7.4 
6.4 
4.2 
3.7 

.0 
7.5 
1.9 
5.8 
1.6 
3.2 
4.2 

3.3 



19.1 

9.4 
17.2 
11.8 
11.0 
10.5 
16.3 
10.1 

S.6 
31.0 

5.0 
28.2 
32.1 
26.3 
25.7 
2S.2 
15.2 
20.8 
22.0 
20.8 

8.0 
32.4 
11.1 
29.0 

8.5 

15.9 



10 to 

14. 



15.1 
16.0 

2.9 
10.0 

7.9 
16.3 

7.9 

6.1 
14.6 

7.3 
17.9 
IS. 2 
15.0 
19.1 
11.4 

7.6 
11.5 
14.0 

8.5 

9.5 
17.0 

9.5 
29.0 

4.2 

10.3 



15 to 
19. 



23.0 
14.2 
15.1 
10.8 
18.0 
11.5 
26.5 
11.2 
15.2 
17.2 
13.5 

9.0 
13.1 
12.8 
22.8 

8.4 
14.8 
24.4 
30.0 
18.9 
10.3 
13.3 
19.9 
14.5 

7.0 

16.4 



20 or 
over. 



3S.8 
58.5 
40.4 
50.0 
53.0 
55.1 
24.5 
62.9 
62.8 
15.9 
71.3 
19.2 
10.0 
20.3 
9.6 
7.9 
51.9 
29.1 
20.0 
13.2 
56.1 
15.4 
55.5 
1.6 
70.4 

44.0 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 71 



Table 28. — Per cent of foreign-horn heads of cases in the United States each specified 
number of years, by race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 50 or more cases, as shown in Table 3. The total, however, 

is for all foreign-born.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent in United States each specified number c 


" years. ( 


Race of head of case. 


Under 1. 


Under 3. 


Under 5. 


Under 10. 


Under 15. 


Under 20. 


Bohemian and Moravian. 


309 

106 

443 

102 

100 

772 

49 

89 

2,103 

635 

1,868 

78 

757 

133 

136 

202 

237 

2,024 

50 

106 

262 

241 

497 

62 

71 


0.0 
1.9 
2.9 
2.9 
1.0 
3.4 
2.0 
2.2 

.8 
1.9 

.4 
2.6 

.9 
2.3 

.7 
5.9" 

.8 
1.3 
2.0 
14.2 
3.4 
1.7 

.4 
4.8 
2.8 


5.5 
1.9 
7.2 

11.8 
7.0 
9.7 

10.2 
3.4 
3.6 
9.1 
1.6 

14.1 
9.9 

12.0 
9.6 

24.3 
5.1 
6.3 

14.0 

20.8 

10.3 
8.7 
1.6 

19.4 
4.2 


12.3 

2.8 
11.3 
24.5 

8.0 
15.0 
16.3 

7.9 

7.3 
21.3 

2.9 
25.6 
26.6. 
25.6 
22.8 
44.1 
10.5 
14.3 
14.0 
38.7 
16.0 
22.0 

4.0 
25.8 

9.9 


31.4 
12.3 
28.4 
36.3 
19.0 
25.5 
32.7 
18.0 
15.9 
52.3 
7.9 
53.8 
5S.7 
51.9 
48.5 
72.3 
25.7 
35.0 
36.0 
59.4 
24.0 
54.4 
15.1 
54.8 
18.3 


38.2 
27.4 
44.5 
39.3 
29.0 
33.4 
49.0 
25.8 
22.0 
66.9 
15.2 
71.8 
76.9 
66.9 
67.6 
83.7 
33.3 
46.5 
50.0 
67.9 
33.6 
71.4 
24.5 
83.9 
22.5 


61.2 










Dutch 














37.1 








84 1 




28.7 




80.8 




90.0 




79.7 




90.4 




92.1 




48.1 


Polish 


70.9 




80.0 




86.8 




43.9 


Slovak 


84.6 




44.5 




98.4 


Welsh 


29.6 






Total 


11, 752 


1.6 


6.6 


13.3 


29.4 


39.7 


56.1 







Per cent. 

English 3.4 

Scotch 3. 4 



It is shown in the preceding table that of the total number of foreign- 
born heads of cases, 56.1 per cent had been in the United States less 
than twenty years, 39.7 per cent less than fifteen years, 29.4 per cent 
less than ten years, 13.3 per cent less than five years, 6.6 per cent less 
than three years, and 1.6 per cent less than one year. 

The five races showing the largest percentage of foreign-born heads 
of cases residing in the United States less than one year are — 

Per cent, 

Russian 14. 2 

Magyar 5. 9 

Syrian 4. 8 

The five races showing the largest percentage of foreign-born heads 
of cases residing in the United States less than three years are — 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Magyar 24.3 Italian, North 14.1 

Russian 20.8 Portuguese 14.0 

Syrian 19.4 

The five races showing the largest percentage of foreign-born heads 
of cases residing in the United States less than five years are — 



Per cent. 

Magyar 44. 1 

Russian 38. 7 

Italian, South 26. 6 



Per cent. 

Syrian 25.8 

Italian, North 25. 6 



72 



The Immigration Commission. 



t* 



•fe. 



£ 






X' 



I 



■s. 



3 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



73 



The five races showing the largest percentage of foreign-born heads 
t>f cases residing in the United States less than ten years are — 



Per cent. 

Magyar 72. 3 

Russian 59. 4 

Italian, South 58. 7 



Per cent. 

Syrian 54.8 

Slovak 54. 4 



The five races showing the largest percentage of foreign-born heads 
of cases residing in the United States less than fifteen years are — 



Per cent. 

Syrian 83.9 

Magyar 83. 7 

Italian, South 76. 9 



Per cent. 

Italian, North 71. 8 

Slovak 71.4 



The five races showing the largest percentage of foreign-born heads 
of cases residing in the United States less than twenty years are — 



Per cent. 

Syrian 98.4 

Magyar 92. 1 

Lithuanian 90. 4 



Per cent. 

Italian, South 90. 

Russian 86. 8 



The five races showing the largest percentage of foreign-born heads 
of cases residing in the United States twenty years or over are — 



German 

Canadian, French. 



Per cent. 
. . 62. 8 
. . 58. 5 



Per cent. 

Irish 71: 3 

Welsh 70. 4 

French 62. 9 

It will be noted that of the various races assisted included in Table 
28, the Syrian, Magyar, and Kussian are the most recent to come to 
the United States, and that the Irish, Welsh, French, and German 
have had the longest period of residence. 

Two tables follow snowing the years the foreign-born persons in- 
volved in cases assisted had been in the United States. These tables 
present the data by race of individual. In the second table the 
percentages are cumulative. 

Table 29. — Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States under 1 year, 1 year, 
2 years, etc., by race of individual. 

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all 

foreign-born.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent in United States each specified number of 


years. 


Race of individual. 


Under 
1. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5 to 
9. 


10 to 
14. 


15 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 




640 

198 

853 

103 

153 

182 

1,327 

80 

135 

3,574 

1,605 

2,974 

183 

2,003 

326 

—6 


2.2 
1.0 
4.3 
1.9 
2.0 
3.8 
4.1 
1.3 
1.5 
1.3 
2.1 
.3 
2.2 
2.1 
4.6 


1.7 
.5 
2.3 
1.0 
3.3 
8.8 
2.3 
6.3 
.7 
1.1 
3.5 
.4 
3.8 
2.6 
3.7 


8.1 

.5 

4.5 

12.6 

3.3 

1.6 

6.8 

6.3 

.7 

3.1 

5.9 

1.3 

15.3 

11.3 

10.4 


5.3 

5.1 

5.7 

4.9 

7.8 

.5 

5.0 

1.3 

4.4 

3.1 

9.0 

.7 

4.4 

10.1 

14.4 


6.3 

.0 

2.2 

8.7 

7.2 

.0 

2.6 

2.5 

7.4 

3.2 

8.2 

.9 

9.3 

10.6 

7.7 


22.3 
12.6 
18.8 
38.8 
14.4 
11.5 
11.6 
21.3 

8.1 
11.8 
34.3 

5.6 
32.2 
33.8 
26.1 


8.3 
15.2 
16.1 
14.6 

3.3 
12.6 

8.1 
15.0 
10.4 

7.0 
14.5 

8.6 
16.9 
14.9 
12.3 


17.5 
16.2 
15.1 
15.5 
11.8 
19.8 
11.6 
25.0 
14.8 
14.8 
12.1 
15.3 
5.5 
8.9 
10.4 


28.3 




49.0 




30.9 




1.9 




47.1 


Dutch 


41.2 




47.9 




21.3 




51.9 




54.6 




10.4 




66.9 




10.4 




5.6 




10.4 


65812°— vol 34—11— 







74 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 29. — Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States under 1 year, 1 year, 
% years, etc., by race of individual — Continued. 



Race of individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Percent in United States each specified number of years. 



Under 
1. 



5 to 



10 to 
14. 



15 to 
19. 



20 or 
over. 



Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian. 

Polish 

Portuguese. 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Slovenian.. 
Swedish... 

Syrian 

Welsh 

Total 



314 
493 
436 
4,302 
129 
201 
404 
549 
94 
807 
137 
125 



1.0 
6.3 
1.4 
1.7 
3.9 
8.0 
3.7 
1.5 
.0 
.7 
5.1 
1.6 



3.2 

6.5 

.5 

2.0 

17.8 

1.5 

2.0 

2.7 

2.1 

.5 



6.7 
14.2 
5.0 
6.6 
1.6 
6.5 
7.7 
7.8 
17.0 
1.5 
10.8 
4.0 



10.2 
15.6 
4.1 
6.5 
.8 
10.0 
3.7 
7.3 
9.6 
1.4 
4.4 



7.6 
9.1 
6.7 
4.0 
.0 
6.0 
2.0 
7.7 
7.4 
2.6 
2.2 
2.4 



33.8 
27.0 
19.7 
24.0 
34.9 
29. 9 
9.7 
36.2 
21.3 
14.1 
25.5 
10.4 



13.7 
9.3 
7.8 
12.0 
11.6 
11.9 
8.4 
1.5.7 
19.1 
10.4 
25.5 
3.2 



17.5 
7.1 
13.8 
21.5 
17.8 
15.9 
11.9 
10.6 
19.1 
20.2 
11.7 
7.2 



22,719 



6.0 



20.0 



10.! 



15.0 



6.4 

4.9 
41.1 
21.8 
11.6 
10.4 
51.0 
10.6 

4.3 
48.6 

2.2 
69.6 



33.9 



Table 30. — Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number 
of years, by race of individual. 

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all 

foreign-born.] 



Race of individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent in United States each specified number of years. 



Under 1. Under 3. Under 5. Under 10. Under 15. Under 20. 



Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian , French 

Canadian, Other 

Croatian 

Danish 

Dutch 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Sloven ian 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Welsh 

Total 



640 

19S 

853 

103 

153 

182 

1,327 

80 

135 

3,574 

1,605 

2,974 

183 

2,003 

326 

314 

493 

436 

4,302 

129 

201 

404 

549 

94 

807 

137 

125 



2.2 
1.0 
4.3 
1.9 
2.0 
3.8 
4.1 
1.3 
1.5 
1.3 
2.1 
.3 
2.2 
2.1 
4.6 
1.0 
6.3 
1.4 
1.7 
3.9 
8.0 
3.7 
1.5 
.0 
.7 
5.1 
1.6 



12.0 

2.0 
11.1 
15.5 

8.5 
14.3 
13.1 
13.8 

3.0 

5.5 
11.5 

2.1 
21.3 
16.0 
IS. 7 
10.8 
27.0 

6.9 
10.2 
23.3 
15.9 
13.4 
12.0 
19.1 

2.7 
28.5 

6.4 



23.0 

7.1 
19.1 
29.1 
23.5 
14.8 
20.8 
17.5 
14.8 
11.8 
2S.7 

3.6 
35.0 
36.7 
40.8 
2S.7 
51.7 
17.7 
20.7 
24.0 
31.8 
19.1 
27.0 
30.2 

6.7 
35.0 

9.0 



45.9 
19.7 
37.9 
68.0 
37.9 
26.4 
32.4 
38.8 
23.0 
23.6 
63.0 
9.3 
67.2 
70.5 
66.9 
62.4 
7S.7 
37.4 
44.7 
58.9 
61.7 
2S.7 
63.2 
57.4 
20. S 
CO. 6 
20.0 



54.2 
34.8 
53.9 
82.5 

41.2 
39.0 
40.5 
53.8 
33.3 
30.6 
77.4 
17.9 
S4.2 
85. 4 
79.1 
76.1 
88.0 
45.2 
56.7 
70.5 
73.0 
37.1 
7S.9 
76.6 
31.2 
86.1 
23.2 



71.7 
51.0 
69.1 
98.1 

52.9 
55. S 
52.1 
7S.8 
48.1 
45.4 
89.6 
33.1 
89.6 
94.4 
89.6 
93.6 
95.1 
5S.9 
7S.2 
88.4 
89.6 
49.0 
89.4 
95.7 
51.4 
97.8 
30.4 



22,719 



10.: 



20.4 



40.5 



51.4 



66.4 



The above tables show that of the 22,719 foreign-born persons 
involved in the cases assisted, the proportion with each specified 
period of residence in the United States is as follows: 

Per cent. 
Under 1 year 2. 1 

1 year 2.2 

2 years 6. 

3 years 5. 5 

4 years i. 6 



Per cent. 

5 to 9 years 20.0 

10 to 14 years 10.9 

15 to 19 years 15.0 

20 years or over 33. 9 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



75 



If the percentages are expressed in cumulative form, they show the 
following: 



Per cent. 

Under 1 year 2. 1 

Under 3 years 10.3 

Under 5 yearB 20.4 



Per cent. 

Under 10 years 40.5 

Under 15 years 51.4 

Under 20 years 66.4 



ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH. 

For all persons involved, 6 years of age or over and belonging to non- 
English-speaking races, the table which follows shows the per cent who 
speak English. The data are shown for each sex by general nativity 
and race of individual. 

Table 31. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and gen- 
eral nativity and race of individual. 



[This table includes only non-English-speaking rases with 40 or more persons reporting, 
ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.] 



The totals, how- 



General nativity and race of individual. 



Number reporting complete 
data. 



Male. Female. Total. 



Per cent who speak English. 



Male. Female. Total. 



Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian, French 

Croatian 

Danish 

Dutch 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

■Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Slovak 

Slovenian 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Foreign-born: 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian, French 

Croatian 

Danish 

Dutch 

Finnish ". 

French 

German - 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Slovak 

Slovenian •. 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total foreign-born 



375 

114 
37 
82 
94 
26 

137 
2,743 

429 
44 

345 
70 

100 
04 

194 

1,912 

40 

Gl 

126 
24 

497 
29 

25 

272 

96 



106 

34 

76 

1,596 

31 

708 

91 

921 

175 

147 

246 

16 

27 

176 

1,917 

58 

111 

242 

42 

27 

336 

70 



335 
99 
23 
61 

101 
20 

126 
3,004 

423 
41 

3C0 
95 
02 
02 

204 

1,779 

5G 

03 

138 
18 

534 
29 

19 

309 

118 

54 

08 

80 

47 

67 

2,053 

16 

857 

90 

1,037 

104 

101 

233 

33 

31 

271 

2,331 

65 

95 

304 

48 

23 

499 

04 



710 
213 

60 
143 
195 

52 

203 

5,747 

852 

85 
705 
105 
102 
126 
398 
3,691 

96 
124 
204 

42 
1,031 

58 

44 
641 
214 
102 
154 
186 

81 

143 

3,649 

47 
1,625 
1S1 
1,958 
339 
308 
479 

49 

58 
447 
4,248 
123 
206 
546 

90 

50 
835 
134 



99.5 
100.0 
91.9 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
99.3 
99.3 
99.1 
95.5 
97.1 
100.0 
99.0 
90.9 
100.0 
94.2 
100.0 
98.4 
94.4 
87.5 
99.6 
100.0 

70.0 
80.1 
97.9 
70.8 
97.7 
86.8 
76.5 
94.7 
93.4 
77.4 
89.7 
80.8 
70.2 
78.3 
84.4 
74.4 
81.3 
85.2 
94 .3 
70.3 
94.8 
75.7 
75.0 
71.4 
59.3 
97.3 
87.1 



100.0 
100.0 
95.7 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
99.0 
99.1 
100.0 
99.2 
96.8 
93.5 
96.8 
99.5 
93.7 
94.6 
100.0 
97.1 
100.0 
99.6 
100.0 

42.1 
05.9 
94.1 
44.4 
100.0 
88.8 
85.1 
95.5 
89.4 
50.0 
80.3 
68.9 
57.2 
55.5 
51.6 
55.4 
63.6 
96.8 
91.9 
55.0 
73.8 
74.7 
50.3 
50.0 
34.8 
90.0 
79.7 



99.7 
100.0 

93.3 
100.0 
100.0 

ioo.o 

99.6 
99.2 
99.1 
97.0 
98.2 
98.2 
90.9 
90.8 
99.7 
94.0 
90.9 
99.2 
95.8 
92.9 
99.6 
100.0 

61.4 
71.9 
95.8 
56.9 
98.7 
87.6 
81.5 
95.1 
91.1 
0S.1 
87.9 
77.9 
63.3 
67.3 
07.2 
65.1 
69.4 
91.4 
92.8 
61.9 
83.7 
75.2 
64.8 
00.0 
48 
90.9 
83.0 



15, 420 



16,949 



32, 309 



P9.0 



S3. ,; 



86.4 



7,610 
7,810 



7,698 
9,251 



15, 308 
17,061 



97.8 

SI. 5 



97.8 
71.8 



97.8 
76.3 



76 



The Immigration Commission. 



Of the 15,420 persons included in the above table, 86.4 per cent 
speak English; the percentage for males is 89.6 and for females 83.6. 
Seventy-six and three-tenths per cent of the total foreign-born and 
97.8 per cent of the total native-born of foreign father speak English. 
Of the foreign-born, 81.5 per cent of the males and 71.8 per cent of the 
females speak English. Of the native-born of foreign father (immi- 
grants of the second generation) 97.8 per cent of both males and 
females speak English. Several of the foreign races show low propor- 
tions speaking English. Those races are — 



Per cent. 

Spanish 48. 

Croatian 56.9 

Slovenian 60. 

Armenian 61. 4 



Per cent. 

Polish 61.9 

Italian, South 63. 3 

Slovak 64. 8 

Magyar 65. 1 



Among immigrants of the second generation the Slovenians, with 
92.9 per cent speaking English, show the lowest proportion, the 
Croatians, with 93.3 per cent, are second in order, and the Polish, 
with 94 per cent, are third. 

A comparison between the foreign-born and native-born of foreign 
father of each. non-English-speaking race as to the percentage speak- 
ing English, is shown in the following statement: 



Race. 





Native- 


Foreipn- 


born of 


born. 


foreign 




father. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


71.9 


99.7 


95.8 


100.0 


56.9 


93.3 


98.7 


100.0 


S7.6 


ioo.o 


SI. 5 


100.0 


95.1 


99.6 


91.1 


99.2 


87.9 


99.1 


77.9 


97.6 


63.3 


9S.2 



Race. 



Nati ve- 
born of 
foreign 
father. 




Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian, French 

Croatian 

Danish 

Dutch 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 



Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Magyar , 

Norwegian 

Polish , 

Portuguese 

Russian., 

Slovak 

Slovenian 

Swedish 

Syrian 



CITIZENSHIP. 



Data relative to citizenship were tabulated for all foreign-born 
males who had been in the United States five years or over and who 
were 21 years of age or over at the time of arrival. The object was 
to include only those who had been in the United States long enough 
to secure naturalization papers and who were of sufficient age when 
they arrived that it would require effort on their part, rather than on 
their fathers' part, to become citizens. The table shows for each 
race the number and per cent fully naturalized and the number and 
per cent having only first naturalization papers. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Summary. 



77 



Table 32. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United 
States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race 
of individual. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.] 





Number 
reporting 
complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


Race of individual. 


Fully nat- 
uralized. 


Having 

first papers 

only. 


Fully nat- 
uralized. 


Having 

first papers 

only. 




89 
37 

114 
24 
45 

239 
35 

658 

220 

478 
31 

317 
37 
55 
54 
63 

802 
23 
27 
87 
94 

168 
22 


48 
26 
73 
18 
35 

171 
23 

504 
88 

400 
13 

107 
13 
24 
13 
49 

323 
4 
10 
64 
33 

142 
21 


7 
1 
2 


53.9 
70.3 
64.0 
75.0 
77.8 
71.5 
65.7 
76.6 
40.0 
83.7 
41.9 
33.8 
35.1 
43.6 
24.1 
77.8 
40.3 
17.4 
37.0 
73.6 
35.1 
84.5 
95.5 


7.9 




2.7 




1.8 




.0 


Dutch 


3 
13 

2 
55 
- 33 
21 
6 
58 
4 
5 
8 
5 
123 


6.7 




5.4 




5.7 




8.4 




15.0 




4.4 




19.4 




18.3 




10.8 




9.1 




14.8 




7.9 


Polish 


15.3 




.0 


Russian 


6 
8 
18 
5 
1 


22.2 
9.2 




19.1 




3.0 


Welsh . 


4.5 






Total 


3,838 


2,246 


400 


58.5 


10.4 







Of the 3,838 persons included, 2,246, or 58.5 per cent, were fully 
naturalized, and 400, or 10.4 per cent, had taken out only first natu- 
ralization papers. Several of the races show three-fourths or more 
fully naturalized. Those races are — 



Per cent. 

Welsh 95. 5 

Swedish 84. 5 

Irish 83.7 

Dutch 77.8 



Per cent. 

Norwegian 77. 8- 

German 76. 6 

Danish 75. 



Seven of the races included in the above table show 40 per cent or 
less fully naturalized, as follows : 



Per cent. Per cent. 

Slovak 35.1 

Russian 37. 

Hebrew 40. 



Portuguese 17. 4 

Magyar 24. 1 

Italian, South 33.8 

Italian (not specified) 35. 1 

The races showing high proportions fully naturalized are of the 
older immigration and those showing low proportions are of the 
more recent immigration. In the grand summary, Table 19, page 
390, the table relating to citizenship shows the data according to 
length of residence in the United States. 



78 



The Immigration Commission. 



DIGEST OF THE REPORT ON HONOLULU, HAWAII. 

The report for Honolulu, Hawaii, covers the work of the Associated 
Charities from December 1, 1908, to May 31, 1909. In order to sat- 
isfactorily present the data, it was necessary to modify the form of 
tabulation used for the cities of continental United States. It was 
impossible, therefore, to combine the data for Honolulu with those 
for the other cities included in the Commission's report on immi- 
grants as charity seekers. 

During the period of the investigation 117 cases were assisted, in- 
volving 429 persons. The cases are divided as to nativity, as follows: 



Nativity of head of case. 


Cases assisted. 


Persons involved. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 




12 
3 

18 
3 
81 


10.3 
2.6 

15.4 
2.6 

69.2 


49 
7 

39 

4 

330 


11.4 




1.6 




9.1 


Born in continental United States of father born elsewhere 


.9 

76.9 






Total 


117 


100.0 


429 


100.0 







The cases in which the head was foreign-born comprise the larger 
proportion of those assisted, numbering 81 cases, or 69.2 per cent of 
the total number, and involving 330 persons, or 76.9 per cent of the 
total number of persons. 

The races represented by more than 10 cases are the following: 



Race of head of case. 



Portuguese, foreign-born 

White, born in continental United States of native father 

Porto Rican, foreign-born 

Hawaiian, born of Hawaiian father 



Cases assisted. 



Number. Percent. 



36.8 

14 5 
11.1 
10.3 



Persons involved. 



Number. Per cent. 



217 
31 
44 
49 



50.6 
7.2 
10.3 
11.4 



As will be seen from the preceding table, the foreign-born Portu- 
guese are represented by the largest number of cases, involving over 
one-half of the total number of persons. The other races represented 
by 10 or more cases are the white born in continental United States 
of native father, the foreign-born Porto Rican, and the native 
Hawaiian, born of Hawaiian father. 

DISCUSSION OF DATA FOR NINE CITIES. 



In what follows there is presented a discussion of the data for the 
cities of Baltimore, Boston, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Cincinnati, Minneapo- 
lis, St. Louis, Washington, and Honolulu, and a grand summary of 
all data in the form of general tables. 



BALTIMORE, MD. 



79 



BALTIMORE. 

The report for Baltimore, Md., was furnished by the Federated 
Charities, and includes all the cases assisted by the society from 
December 1, 1908, to May 31, 1909. 

GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE. 

A general summary of the assistance given by the Federated Chari- 
ties of Baltimore, by general nativity and race of head of case, fol- 
lows: 

Table 33. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head of 

case. 



[Not including 3 cases, involving 8 persons, race not reported.] 

* 






Cases assisted. 


Persons involved. 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


1,455 
520 

4 
1 
1 
3 

79 
2 

23 
2 
2 
1 
1 

1 

31 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 

19 

1 

140 

2 

2 

41- 
4 
6 
5 
9 
3 
1 
1 

85 
1 
8 
7 
1 
2 
1 


58.9 
21.0 

.2 
00 
00 

3^2 
.1 
.9 
.1 
.1 

(a) 

(a) 

00 

1.3 
00 
00 

A 

00 
.8 

W ,7 
.1 
.1 
1.7 
.2 
.2 
.2 
.4 
.1 

00 

00 
3.4 

00 
.3 
.3 

(a) 

.1 

(a) 


5,793 
1,652 

21 
3 
6 

18 

386 

6 

S3 
6 
6 
4 
7 

1 

146 

4 

8 

2 

11 

2 

47 

4 

539 

15 

16 

167 

18 

36 

27 

39 

6 

1 

1 

369 

1 

24 

22 

2 

3 

3 


00.9 




17.4 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


.2 




(a) 




.1 




.2 




4.1 




.1 




.9 




.1 




.1 




00 




.1 


Foreign-born: 


00 




1.5 




00 




.1 




00 




.1 




(a) 




.5 




00 




5.7 




.2 




.2 




1.8 




.2 




.4 




.3 




.4 




.1 




« 






3.9 




00 




.3 




.2 




00 




00 
(<0 










2,472 


100.0 


9,505 


100.0 




119 

2,094 

378 


4.8 
84.7 
15.3 


546 
7,991 
1,514 


5.7 




84.1 




15.9 







a Less than 0.05 per cent. 



81 



82 



The Immigration Commission. 



During the period of the investigation 2,472 cases reporting race of 
head of case were assisted, involving 9,505 persons. The cases in which 
the head was native-born comprise the larger proportion of the 
cases assisted, having 2,094, or 84.7 per cent of the total number, 
with 7,991 persons involved, or 84.1 per cent of the total number of 
persons. The cases in which the head was foreign-born numbered 
378, or 15.3 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 1,514 
persons, or 15.9 per cent of the total number of persons. The cases 
in which the head was native-born of foreign father show a total of 
119 cases, or 4.8 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 546 
persons, or 5.7 per cent of the total number of persons. 

The races represented by 20 or more cases are as follows : 



Race. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. Per cent 



Persons involved. 



Number. Per cent, 



White, native-born of native father — 

Negro, native-bom of native father 

German, foreign-born 

Polish, foreign-born 

German, native-born of foreign father. 

Irish, foreign-born 

Bohemian and Moravian, foreign-born 
Irish, native-born of foreign father 



1,455 
520 

140 

85 
79 
41 
31 
23 



58.9 
21.0 
5.7 
3.4 
3.2 
1.7 
1.3 



5,793 

1,652 

539 

369 

3SI-. 
167 
140 
83 



60.9 
17.4 
5.7 
3.9 
4.1 
1.8 
1.5 



As may be noted above, the cases in which the head was white, 
native-born of native father, received the greatest proportion of the 
assistance given by the society; 1,455 cases, or 58.9 per cent of the 
total number of cases, were assisted. These cases consisted of 5,793 
persons, or 60.9 per cent of the total number of persons. The number 
of cases in which the head was negro, native-born of native father, 
was 520, or 21 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 1,652 
persons, or 17.4 per cent of the total number of persons. The remain- 
der of the cases were small in number in comparison with the native- 
born of native father; in 5.7 per cent of the total number of cases 
the heads were German, foreign-born; in 3.4 per cent Polish, foreign- 
born; in 3.2 per cent German, native-born of foreign father; in 1.7 
per cent Irish, foreign-born; in 1.3 per cent Bohemian and Moravian, 
foreign-born, and in 0.9 per cent Irish, native-born of foreign father. 

The races represented by 20 or more cases have been selected for 
more detailed study. 

APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED. 



The apparent causes for seeking assistance from the society are 
shown in the following tables. These causes are given in more detail 
in General Tables 2-5, Volume II, pages 34-37. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Baltimore. 



83 



Table 34. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, 
by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 33. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Dea.t[hor 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
of another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


1,455 
520 

79 
23 

31 
140 
41 
85 


23.5 
34.0 

26.6 
26.1 

35.5 
29.3 
39.0 
23.5 


20.8 
20.0 

35.4 
21.7 

22.6 
22.9 
14.6 
15.3 


55.5 
41.5 

51.9 
52.2 

58.1 
50.7 
51.2 
47.1 


18.7 
18.3 

19.0 
13.0 

22.6 
13.6 
12.2 
22.4 


2.8 
5.6 

.0 
4.3 

3.2 
5.0 
12.2 
1.2 


9 8 




7.5 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


7.6 




13.0 


Foreign-bom: 

Bohemian and Moravian 


3.2 
7.1 




7.3 




1.2 








2,472 


26. 4 


20.8 


52.1 


18.0 


3.6 


8.7 






Total native-born of foreign 


119 

2,094 

378 


26.1 
26.3 
27.2 


32.8 
21.3 
18.3 


50.4 
51.7 
54.0 


17.6 
18.5 
15.3 


1.7 
3.4 
4.2 


10.1 




9.2 




6.1 







Table 35. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table33. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disabihty 
of another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


5,793 
1,652 

386 
83 

146 
539 
167 
369 


22.9 
29.4 

26.4 
19.3 

34.9 
28.4 
46.7 
18.2 


24.5 
24.0 

39.1 
32.5 

23.3 
25.2 
20.4 
19.5 


57.4 
45.7 

51.8 
53.0 

58.2 
54.9 
55.1 
48.0 


18.1 
21.9 

20.2 
12.0 

21.2 

14.3 

7.2 

25.2 


1.3 

2.5 

.0 
1.2 

1.4 

2.4 

5.4 

.3 


9.5 




8.8 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


11.9 




7.2 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 


.7 
7.4 




3.6 




1.1 








9,505 


24.7 


24.6 


54.8 


18.6 


1.5 


9.1 






Total native-born of foreign 


546 
7,991 
1,514 


25.3 
24.4 
26.2 


38.3 
25.3 
20.7 


51.1 
54.6 
55.7 


18.5 
18.9 
16.6 


.4 
1.5 
1.8 


13.4 




9.7 




6.1 







The per cent of cases and persons involved for each class of appar- 
ent causes of need, in the order of their importance, follows. It wiH 



84 



The Immigration Commission. 



be noted that the total of the per cents for each cause is more than 
100, due to the fact that more than one cause is often reported to a 
case. 



Persons 
involved. 




Lack of employment or insufficient earnings 

Death or disability of breadwinner 

Death or disability of another member of family 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner 

Old age 

Other 



Lack of employment or insufficient earnings, alone, or along with 
other causes, was reported as a cause of need in 52.1 per cent of the 
total number of cases, involving 54.8 per cent of the total number of 
persons. Over one-half the cases for each race report such a cause 
of need, with the exception of the cases in which the head was negro, 
native-born of native father, 41.5 per cent, and Polish, foreign-born, 
47.1 per cent. 

Sickness or death is classified under two headings — death or disa- 
bility of breadwinner and death or disability of another member of 
family; the former is reported in 26.4 per cent and the latter in 20.8 
per cent of the total number of cases. 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner was given as the cause of 
need in 18 per cent, and old age in 3.6 per cent of the total number of 
cases. 

AID GIVEN. 

The aid furnished by the society is presented in the following tables 
showing the per cent of cases and the per cent of persons involved for 
each specified aid given. More detailed information may be found 
in General Tables 6 and 7, Volume II, pages 38 and 39. 

Table 36. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity andraceof head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 33. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment se- 
cured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical as- 
sistance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White..., 


1,455 
520 

79 
23 

31 

140 

41 

85 


5.6 
3.7 

8.9 

8.7 

16.1 
10.0 
4.9 
2.4 


4.3 
2.1 

6.3 
4.3 

.0 
1.4 
.0 
.0 


22.3 
11.5 

22.8 
26.1 

25.8 
21.4 
22.0 
17.6 


46.3 
52.1 

45.6 
34.8 

38.7 
43.6 
43.9 
50.5 


11.7 
13.8 

11.4 
8.7 

12.9 
12.9 
4.9 
7.1 


28.1 






Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


41.8 




34.8 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 


25.8 
34.3 




36.6 


Polish 


20.0 








2,472 


5.8 


3.5 


20.2 


47.0 


11.7 


28.3 






Total native-born of foreign 


119 

2,094 

378 


10.1 
5.3 
8.5 


0.7 
3.9 
1.3 


23.5 
19.7 
22.8 


42.9 
47.5 
44.4 


10.9 
12.2 
9.0 


42.0 




28.5 




27.2 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Baltimore. 



85 



Table 37. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases as s'aown in Table 33. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment S3- 
cured. 


Food or 
mea's. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical as- 
sistance. 


Native-bom of native father: 
White 


5,793 
1,652 

386 
83 

146 
639 
167 
369 


6.0 
3.9 

8.0 
12.0 

15.8 
8.9 
7.8 
3.0 


5.9 
2.7 

8.5 
9.6 

.0 

2.4 

.0 

.0 


21.9 
11.3 

23.3 
28.9 

25.3 
23.4 
20.4 
19.0 


48.9 
55.6 

44.3 
47.0 

39.0 
44.3 
47.3 
58.5 


12.3 
12.8 

11.4 

4.8 

15.8 
13.4 
5.4 
8.4 


29.8 




25.7 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


44.0 




41.0 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . . 


28.8 
36.9 




42.5 


Polish 


19.8 








9,505 


6.2 


4.8 


20.4 


49.4 


11.8 


29.9 






Total native-born of foreign 


546 
7,991 
1,514 


10.8 
5.9 
8.0 


9.5 
5.5 
1.1 


24.0 
19.8 
23.3 


44.0 
50.0 
46.2 


10.3 
12.2 
9.8 


45.8 




30.1 




28.6 







The percentage of cases and persons involved therein furnished 
each specified aid in the order of their importance are : 



Cases. 


Per cent. ' 
47.0 
28.3 
20.2 
11.7 
5.8 
3.5 



Persons 
involved. 



Food or meals 

Medicine or medical assistance 

Employment secured 

Fuel 

Cash 

Clothing 



Per cent. 
49.4 
29.9 

20.4 
11.8 
6.2 
4.8 



Food or meals, alone, or along with other assistance, was furnished 
in 47 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 49.4 per cent 
of the total number of persons. Medicine or medical assistance was 
furnished to 28.3 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 
29.9 per cent of the total number of persons. Employment was 
secured for 20.2 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 20.4 
per cent of the total number of persons. Fuel was furnished to 11.7 
per cent of the total number of persons, involving 11.8 per cent of the 
total number of persons. Cash was furnished to 5.8 per cent of the 
total number of cases, involving 6.2 per cent of the total number of 
persons. Clothing was furnished to 3.5 per cent of the total number 
of cases, involving 4.8 per cent of the total number of persons. 

The only marked differences in the aid furnished the different 
nativities is shown by medicine or medical assistance, the native- 
born having 28.5 per cent, the foreign-born 27.2 per cent, and the 
native-born of foreign father 42 per cent of their cases so assisted. 



86 



The Immigration Commission. 



PERSONS PEE CASE. 

The total number of persons involved in the 2,472 cases assisted 
is 9,505. The average number of persons per case is 3.85. The 
average number of persons per case for the cases in which the head 
was foreign-born is 4.01, native-born of foreign father 4.59, total 
native-born 3.82, and white native-born of native father 3.89. (See 
Table 3, page 81.) 

The following table presents the number and per cent of cases, by 
race of head of case, consisting of each specified number of persons: 

Table 38. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 33. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases consisting of 
each specified number of 
persons. 


Per cent of cases consisting of 
each specified number of 
persons. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


"9 or 
more. 


Native-bom of native 
father: 
White 


1,455 
520 

79 
23 

31 
140 
41 
85 


190 
135 

3 

7 

2 
22 

8 
10 


724 
247 

31 
7 

14 
69 
16 
39 


492 
134 

42 
9 

14 
42 
16 
34 


43 
4 

3 

1 
7 
1 
2 


13.5 
26.0 

3.8 
30.4 

6.5 
15.7 
19.5 
11.8 


49.8 
47.5 

39.2 
30.4 

45.2 
49.3 
39.0 
45.9 


33.8 
25.8 

53.2 
39.1 

45.2 
30.0 
39.0 
40.0 


3.0 




.8 


Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of father: 


3.8 




.0 


Foreign-bom: 

Bohemian and Mora- 


3.2 




5.0 




2.4 


Polish 


2.4 








2,472 


410 


1,179 


820 


63 


16.6 


47.7 


33.2 


2.S 






Total native-born of for- 


119 

2,094 

378 


11 
342 
68 


46 

1,017 

162 


59 
685 
135 


3 

. 50 
13 


9.2 
16.3 
18.0 


38.7 
48.6 
42.9 


49.6 
32.7 
35.7 


2.5 




2.4 




3.4 







Of the 2,472 cases, 1,179, or 47.7 per cent, consisted of from 2 to 4 
persons; 820, or 33.2 per cent, consisted of from 5 to 8 persons; 63, or 
2.5 per cent, consisted of 9 or more persons, and 410, or 16.6 per cent, 
consisted of but 1 person. Of the cases in which the head is native- 
born of foreign father, 52.1 per cent consisted of 5 or more persons, 
total native-born 35.1 per cent, and foreign-born 39.1 per cent. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Baltimore. 



87 



type" of case. 



The number and per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, 
widow, and widower, with or without children, by race of head of 
case, is presented in the following tables: 

Table 39. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with 
each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or mere cases, as shown in Table 33. 

are for all races.] 



The totals, however, 





Total 


Number of cases consisting of— 


General nativit v 


Husband and 
and — 


wife 


Widow and — 


Widower and — 


Others. 








































and race of head 
of case. 


berof 
cases. 




c 


a 


a 
•a 






a 


d 


a 

aj 

2 






a 


a 









m 

a 
o 

to 








a 






o 




CI 




t* 


.a 








M 


id 






P< 








2 


3 


3 


b* 




■a 


3 


3 






2 


3 


3 


CD 
l-i 




a 


OJ 








J3 


cn 


in 


6 


"as 


■3 


c; 


io 


a 


~ 


a 


N 


io 


a 


~ 


w 


s 








o 




o ■ 


t* 


O 


o 


u 


o 




o 


o 


t- 


o 


t. 


o 


p. 




o 






'A 




CO 


CO 


H 


'A 




CO 


co 


H 


'A 




CO 


CO 


H 


rf 


CN 


H 


Native-bom of na- 








































tive father: 








































White 


1,455 
520 


117 


107 


330. 


79 

q 


842 


87 


16R 


107 


24 386 


■71 


in 


11 


6 


4Q 


87 


91 




Negro 


46 


59 


78 


19? 


70 


83 


53 


6 212 


17 


6 


4 


1 28 


48 


40 


88 


Native-born of for- 








































eign Father, by 








































race of father: 








































German 


79 


3 


12 


25 


7 


47 


S 


5 


15 




23 




2 


2 




4 




5 


5 


Irish 


23 


1 


1 


6 


1 


9 


7 


1 


1 


1 


10 




l 






1 




3 


3 


Foreign-born: 






I 




Bohemian and 






































Mnravirm , 


31 


3 


5 


5 


3 


16 




3 


7 


1 


11 


' 1 




1 




2 


1 1 


2 


German 


140 


21 


23 


28 


9 


81 


10 


11 


Ifi 


1 


38 


4 


2 


1 




7 


8 6 


14 




41 
85 


3 

2 


5 
19 


9 
23 


5 
5 


22 
49 


5 
5 


4 
8 


4 
14 


1 
1 


14 
28 


1 
2 




2 
1 




3 
3 


2.... 
3 2 


? 


Polish 


1 






Grand total. . . 


2,472 


205 


445 


535 


127 


1,312 


197 


285 


225 


35 


742 


54 


24 


23 


7 


108 


159 151310 


Total native-born 


































1 


of foreign father . . . 


119 


5 


19 


37 


8 


69 


10 


6 


16 


1 


33 


1 


3 


2 




6 


... ! 11 11 


Total native-born . . 


2,094 


IKK 


385 


454 


Oft 


1,103 


107 


257 


176 


31 


631 


4(1 


19 


17 


7 


83135 142'277 


Total foreign-born . . 


378 


37 


eo 


81 


31 


209 


30 


28 


49 


4 


111 


14 


5 


6 




25 24 9j 33 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 40. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widovj, or widower, with or 
without children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 33. The totals, however, 

are for all races. J 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Per cent of eases consisting of— 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Husband 
and wife, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widow, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widower, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Others. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


1,455 
520 

79 
23 

31 
140 
41 
85 


57.9 
36.9 

59.5 
39.1 

51.6 
57.9 
53.7 
57.6 


26-5 
40.8 

29.1 
43.5 

35.5 
27.1 
34.1 
32.9 


3.4 

5.4 

5.1 
4.3 

6.5 
5.0 
7.3 
3.5 


12.2 




16.9 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


6.3 




13.0 


Foreign-bom: 


6.5 




10.0 




4.9 




5.9 








2,472 


53.1 


30.0 


4.4 


12.5 








119 

2,094 

378 


58.0 
52.7 
55.3 


27.7 
30.1 
29.4 


5.0 
4.0 
6.6 


9.2 




13.2 




8.7 







It is shown that of the 2,472 cases, 1,312, or 53.1 per cent, con- 
sisted of husband and wife, with or without children, the greater 
number, or 535, consisting of husband and wife with from 3 to 5 chil- 
dren; 742 cases, or 30 per cent, consisted of widow, with or without 
children, the greater number, or 285, consisting of widow with 1 or 2 
children; and 108 cases, or 4.4 per cent, consisted of widower with or 
without children, with 54 cases consisting of the widower alone. 

Owing to the number of cases consisting only of husband and wife, 
the following table is shown, which gives the number and per cent of 
such cases, by race of husband : 

Table 41. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

(This table includes only races represented by 10 or more eases consisting only of husband and wife. The 
totals, however, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 


Total 

number of 

cases. 


Cases consisting only of 
husband and wife. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


1,455 
520 
140 


117 
40 
21 


8.0 




8.8 




15.0 








2,472 


205 


8.3 








119 

2,094 

378 


5 
168 
37 


4.2 




8.0 




9.8 







It will be noted that 205, or 8.3 per cent, of the 2,472 cases con- 
sisted only of husband and wife. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Baltimore. 



89 



AGE OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The number of persons involved in the cases assisted reporting age 
is shown in the following table, giving the number and per cent under 
each age group, by race of head of case : 

Table 42. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. . 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown 

are for all races.] 


m Table 33. The totals, however, 


General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified 
age group. 


Per cent within each specified 
age group. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 39. 


40 to 59. 


60 or 
over. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 39. 


40 to 59. 


60 or 
over. 


Native-born of native fa- 
ther: 
White 


5,786 
1,652 

386 
83 

146 
539 
167 
365 


2,586 
732 

198 
37 

72 
212 

78 
194 


2,028 
567 

132 
26 

51 
172 

38 
118 


881 
23S 

49 
12 

19 

101 
34 

49 


291 
115 

7 
8 

4 
54 

17 
4 


44.7 
44.3 

51.3 
44.6 

49.3 
39.3 
46.7 
53.2 


35.1 
34.3 

34.2 
31.3 

34.9 
31.9 
22.8 
32.3 


15.2 
14.4 

12.7 
14.5 

13.0 
18.7 
20.4 
13.4 


5.0 




7.0 


Native-born of foreign fa- 
ther, by race of father: 


1.8 


Irish 


9.6 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Mora- 


2.7 




10.0 




10.2 


Polish 


1.1 








9,492 


4,289 


3,246 


1,443 


514 


45.2 


34.2 


15.2 


5.4 






Total native-born of foreign 


546 
7,984 
1,508 


273 

3,591 

698 


184 

2,779 

467 


69 

1,188 

255 


20 
426 
88 


50.0 
45.0 
46.3 


33.7 
34.8 
31.0 


12.6 
14.9 
16.9 


3.7 




5.3 




5.8 







It may be noted that 4,289, out of a total of 9,492 persons reporting, 
were under 16 years of age, or 45.2 per cent. As shown in General 
Table 12, Volume II, page 49, 3,854 persons, or 40.6 per cent, were 
under 14 years of age, and 1,526, or 16.1 per cent, were under 6 years 
of age. More than three-fourths of the total number of persons 
reporting age were under 40 years, and for the races the only excep- 
tions are the foreign-born German and Irish, which show 28.7 and 
30.6 per cent, respectively, 40 years of age or over. 

65812°— vol 34—11 7 



90 



The Immigration Commission. 



CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 



The conjugal condition of persons 20 years of age or over involved 
in the cases assisted is shown m the following table, by sex and race of 
individual: 

Table 43. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condi- 
tion, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table Includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are lor all races.) 

MALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 
separated, 
or wid- 
owed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 
separated, 
or wid- 
owed. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


1,281 
292 

76 

102 
59 


311 
54 

18 

10 
6 


918 
209 

54 

87 
51 


52 
29 

4 

5 
2 


24.3 
18.5 

23.7 

9.8 
10.2 


71.7 
71.6 

71.1 

85.3 
86.4 


4.1 




9.9 


Native-born of foreign father, by 

race of father, German 

Foreign-born: 


5.3 
4.9 


Polish 


3.4 








1,969 


435 


1,428 


106 


22.1 


72.5 


5.4 






Total native-born of foreign fa- 


128 

1,701 

268 


42 
407 
28 


80 

1,207 

221 


6 

87 
19 


32.8 
23.9 
10.4 


62.5 
71.0 
82.5 


4.7 




5.1 




7.1 







FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father: 
White 


1,547 
540 

95 

120 
80 


192 
85 

17 

6 
1 


968 
246 

56 

72 
50 


387 
209 

22 

42 
29 


12.4 
15.7 

17.9 

5.0 
1.3 


62.6 
45.6 

58.9 

60.0 
62.5 


25.0 




38.7 


Native-born of foreign father, 

by race of father, German 

Foreign-born: 


23.2 
35.0 




36.3 








2,550 


311 


1,496 


743 


12.2 


58.7 


29.1 






Total native-born of foreign fa- 


130 

2,217 

333 


20 
297 

14 


77 

1,291 

205 


33 
629 
114 


.15.4 
13.4 
4.2 


59.2 
58.2 
61.6 


25.4 




28.4 




34.2 







TOTAL. 



Native-born of native father: 
White 


2,828 
832 

171 

222 
139 


503 
139 

35 

16 

7 


1,886 
455 

110 

159 
101 


439 
238 

26 

47 
31 


17.8 
16.7 

20.5 

7.2 
5.0 


66.7 
54.7 

64.3 

71.6 

72.7 


15.5 




28.6 


Native-born of foreign father, by 

race of father, German 

Fcreign-born: 


15.2 
21.2 


Polish 


22.3 








4,519 


746 


2,924 


849 


16.5 


64.7 


18.8 






Total native-Dorn of foreign fa- 


258 

3,918 

601 


62 
704 
42 


157 

2,498 

426 


39 
716 
133 


24.0 
18.0 
7.0 


60.9 
63.8 
70.9 


15.1 




18.3 




22.1 







Of the 4,519 persons 20 years of age or over reporting conjugal 
condition, 746, or 1G.5 per cent, were single; 2,924, or 64.7 per cent, 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Baltimore. 



91 



were married; and 849, or 18.8 per cent, were deserted, separated, or 
widowed. The foreign-born snow a larger proportion of persons 
married and deserted, separated, or widowed than the native-born, 
while the native-born show a larger proportion of single persons than 
the foreign-born. 

Separating by sex, 22.1 per cent of the males and 12.2 per cent of 
the females were single, 72.5 per cent of the males and 58.7 per cent 
of the females were married, and 5.4 per cent of the males and 29.1 
per cent of the females were deserted, separated, or widowed. 

Comparing the number of cases where the wife is the head reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated with the total number of cases and 
with the total number so reported, the following tables are presented: 

Table 44. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown In Table33. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent; — 


General nativity and race oi head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


367 
206 

22 
10 

10 
41 
13 
27 


242 
149 

17 
10 

6 
32 
12 
17 


125 
57 

5 


65.9 
72.3 

77.3 
00 

00 

78.0 

00 

63.0 


34.1 




27.7 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


22.7 




00 


Foreign-born: 


4 

9 

1 

10 


00 




22.0 




00 


Polish 


37.0 








715 


500 


215 


69.9 


30.1 








33 
606 
109 


27 
418 
82 


6 
188 
27 


81.8 
69.0 
75.2 


18.2 




31.0 




24.8 







a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

Table 45. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 33. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number- 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 


1,455 
520 

79 
23 

31 
140 
41 
85 


242 
149 

17 
10 

6 
32 
12 
17 


125 
57 

5 


16.6 
28.7 

21.5 
43.5 

19.4 
22.9 
29.3 
20.0 


8.6 




11.0 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


6.3 




.0 


Foreign-born: 


4 
9 
1 
10 


12.9 




6.4 




2.4 




11.8 








2,472 


500 


215 


20.2 


8.7 








119 

2,094 
378 


27 
418 
82 


6 

188 
27 


22.7 

' 20.0 

21.7 


5.0 




9.0 




7.1 







92 



The Immigration Commission. 



The total number of cases in which the wife is the head of the case 
and reported deserted, separated, or widowed is 715, or 28.9 per cent 
of the total number of cases. Of this number, 500, or 69.9 per cent, 
were widowed and 215, or 30.1 per cent, were deserted or separated. 

The cases in which the head is a widow represent 20.2 per cent of the 
total number of cases, and those in which the head is a wife reported 
deserted or separated represent 8.7 per cent. 



GENERAL OCCUPATION OF CHILDREN. 

The occupation of the children between the ages of 6 and 16 years 
involved in the cases assisted are presented in the following table : 

Table 46. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at hone, at school, and at 
i work, by general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes in each section only races with 20 or more reporting. The totals, however, are for all 

races.] 

male: 



General nativity and race of Individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent- 



At home. At school. At work. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

German 

Irish 

Polish 



958 
226 

60 
30 
55 



Grand total. 



Total native-born of foreign father.. 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



201 

1,385 

32 



5.2 
6.6 

1.7 
3.3 

5.5 



3.5 

5.2 
6.3 



87.3 
84.5 

85.0 
80.0 
89.1 



86.! 



86.1 
86.6 
93.8 



7.5 
8.8 

13.3 
16.7 
5.5 



S.O 



10.4 

8.2 

.0 



FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 


925 
201 

28 
60 
33 

28 


4.2 
6.0 

3.6 
3.3 
3.0 
3.6 


87.5 
90.5 

82.1 
81.7 
87.9 
89.3 


8.3 




3.5 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


14.3 




15.0 




9.1 


Polish 


7.1 








1,333 


4.7 


86.9 


8.3 








176 

1,302 

31 


4.5 
4.5 
12.9 


83.0 
87.3 
71.0 


12.5 




8.1 




16.1 







TOTAL. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

German 

Irish 

Polish 



Grand total. 



Total native-born of foreign father.. 

Total native-bom 

Total foreign-born 



44 
120 
63 

83 



2,750 



377 
2.687 



4.7 
6.3 

4.5 
2.5 
3.2 
4.8 



4.0 
4.9 
9.5 



87.4 
87.4 

86.4 
83.3 
84.1 
89.2 



84.6 
S7.0 
82.5 



7.9 
6.3 

9.1 
14.2 
12.7 

6.0 



8.1 



11.4 
8.2 
7.9 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Baltimore. 



93 



The children 6 and under 16 years of age involved in the cases 
assisted number 2,740. The percentage of these children at school 
was 86.9, at home 5, and at work 8.1. The children foreign-born and 
native-born of foreign father show a smaller proportion at school and 
a larger proportion at work than do the native-born of native father. 
The foreign-born show a larger proportion at home. The native-born 
of German and Irish father show the largest proportion of children at 
work with 14.2 and 12.7 per cent, respectively, as compared with 7.9 
per cent for the white native-born of native father. 

YEARS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The number of cases assisted by the society whose heads were 
foreign-born reporting length of residence in the United States was 
346. The data in detail are shown in General Tables 

Years in the United States is found in the table below for the 
foreign-born heads of cases by race of head of case. 

Table 47. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each 
specified number of years, by race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown 

is for all foreign-born.] 


in Table 33. The total, however, 


Race of head of case. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United 
States each specified 
number of years. 




Under 
5. 


5to 
9. 


10 to 
19. 


20 or 

over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 




30 
127 
38 
75 


7 
9 

6 


2 
11 

2 
13 


8 
21 

5 
25 


13 
86 
31 
31 


23.3 
7.1 
.0 
8.0 


30.0 

15.7 

5.3 

25.3 












Polish 








Total 


346 


40 


49 


71 


186 


11.6 


25.7 









Of the 346 foreign-born heads of cases, 186, or 53.8 per cent, had 
been in the United States twenty years or over; 40, or 11.6 per cent, 
had been here less than five years; 89, or 25.7 per cent, had been 
here less than ten years; and 160, or 46.2 per cent, had been here less 
than twenty years. The foreign-born Bohemian and Moravian 
heads of cases show 23.3 per cent here less than five years and 30 
per cent here less than ten years. 



04 



The Immigration Commission. 



Taking each individual who was foreign-born reporting years in 
the United States, the length of residence is shown in the following 
table by race of individual: 

Table 48. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified 
number of years, by race of individual. 

[This table includes only races with. 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign- 
born.] 



Race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United 
States each specified 
number of years. 




Under 
5. 


5 to 
9. 


10 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 




54 
221 

66 
140 


17 
37 

15 


4 
20 

3 
29 


15 
34 
11 
52 


18 
130 
52 
44 


31.5 

16.7 

.0 

10.7 


38.9 

25.8 

4.5 

31.4 


66.7 




41.2 




21.2 


Polish 










628 


112 


104 


134 


278 


17.8 


34 4 









Practically the same data are shown in the foregoing table as in 
Table 47. 



ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH. 



The ability to speak the English language for the non-English- 
speaking races is shown in the following table: 

Table 49. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general 
nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only non- English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all non- English-speaking races.] 



General nativity and race of individual. 


Number reporting 
a data. 


complete 


Per cent 


who speak English. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


35 
162 
73 

28 
112 
73 


38 
176 
36 

33 

132 
85 


73 
338 
109 

61 
244 
158 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

82.1 
97.3 
89.0 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

78.8 
97.7 
91.8 


100.0 




100.0 


Polish 


100.0 


Foreign-born: 


80.3 




97.5 


Polish 


90.5 








580 


590 


1,170 


96.0 


95.3 


95.6 








315 
265 


275 
315 


590 
580 


100.0 
91.3 


100.0 
91.1 


100.0 




91.2 







As seen in the foregoing table) the entire number of native-born of 
foreign father belonging to the non-English-speaking races can 
speak English. Of the foreign-born, 91.2 per cent can speak English, 
the lowest proportion (80.3) being shown by the Bohemian and 
Moravian and the highest (97.5) by the German. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Baltimore. 



95 



CITIZENSHIP. 



The proportion of foreign-born males who have been in the 
United States five years or over, and who were 21 years of age or over 
at the time of coming, having first and second naturalization papers 
is shown in the table which follows. 



Table 50. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United 
States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of 
individual. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


Race of individual. 


Fully nat- 
uralised. 


Having 

first papers 

only. 


Fully nat- 
uralized. 


Having 

first papers 

only. 




42 


28 


5 


66.7 


11.9 






Total 


105 


61 


7 


58.1 


6.7 







Considering the proportion of foreign-born who have been in the 
United States twenty years or over, as shown in Tables 47 and 48, 
the proportion of males having first or second papers is rather small. 
Of the 105 males who have been in the United States five years or 
over and who were 21 years of age or over at the time of coming, 
61, or 58.1 per cent, are fully naturalized, and 7, or 6.7 per cent, have 
only first papers. 



BOSTON, MASS. 



97 



BOSTON. 

The report furnished by the Associated Charities of Boston, Mass., 
includes only the new cases assisted by that society from December 
1, 1908, to May 31, 1909. 

GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE. 



The following table presents in detail, by general nativity and race 
of head of case, the number and per cent of cases assisted and the 
number and per cent of persons involved in such cases: 

Table 51. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity andrace of headofcase. 
[Not including 4 cases, involving 18 persons, race not specified.] 



General nativity and race of head oftcase. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent 
of total. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent 

of total. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

Canadian (other than French) 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Scotch 

Swedish 

Welsh 

Foreign-born: 

Armenian 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other. 

Danish 

English 

Filipino » — 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Hindu 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Lithuanian 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch 

Scotch-Irish 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



308 
34 



119 

6: 



23 

2 

174 

6 

97 

24 
2 

16 
5 

13 
5 
9 

20 
1 
1 

13 



1,006 



48 
390 
616 



30.6 
3.4 



1. 

2.3 

.2 

17.3 

.6 

9.6 

2.4 
.2 

1.6 
.5 

1.3 
.5 
.9 

2.0 
.1 
.1 

1.3 
.6 



100.0 



48 
38.8 
61.2 



102 

5 
13 
7 
144 
3 
8 
3 
5 

S 

29 

430 

23 

163 

1 

2 

6 

25 

4 

115 

2 

632 

27 

424 

111 

4 

39 

16 

46 

15 

40 

50 

4 

1 

42 

21 



3,482 



188 
1,216 
2,266 



(a) 



(«) 



2a 6 

2.9 

.1 
.4 
.2 
4.1 
.1 
.2 
.1 
.1 

.1 

.8 

12.3 
.7 
4.4 

.1 

.1 

.7 

.1 
3.3 

.1 
18.2 

.8 
12.2 
3.2 

.1 
1.1 

.5 
1.3 

.4 
1.1 
1.4 

.1 

1.2 



100.0 



5.4 
34.9 
65.1 



a Less than 0.05 per cent. 



100 



The Immigration Commission. 



The total number of cases assisted by the society reporting data 
was 1,006, and the total number of persons involved in these cases 
was 3,482. 

Of the 1,006 cases, 616, or 61.2 per cent, were cases in which the 
head of the case was foreign-born and 390, or 38.8 per cent, were cases 
in which the head was native-born. Included with the native-born are 
48 cases, or 4.8 per cent of the total number, in which the head was 
native-born of foreign father. 

The races represented by 20 or more cases, together with the num- 
ber and per cent of cases and persons involved, are as follows: 



Race. 



Cases assisted. 



Per cent. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent. 



White, native-born of native father 

Irish, foreign-born 

Canadian (other than French), foreign-born 

Italian, South, foreign-born 

English, foreign-born 

Negro, native-born of native father 

Irish, native-born of foreign father 

Italian (not specified), foreign-born 

Hebrew, foreign-born 

Scotch, foreign-born 



174 
119 
97 
51 
34 
32 
24 
23 
20 



30.6 
17.3 
11.8 
9.6 
5.1 
3.4 
3.2 
2.4 
2.3 
2.0 



920 
032 
430 
424 
153 
102 
144 
111 
115 
50 



20. 
18.2 
12.3 
12.2 
4.4 
2.9 
4 1 
3.2 
3.3 
1.4 



Of the total number of persons, 2,266, or 65.1 per cent, were per- 
sons involved in cases in which the head was foreign-born, and 1,216, 
or 34.9 per cent, were persons involved in cases in which the head was 
native-born. Included with the native-born were 188 persons, or 
5.4 per cent of the total number of persons, involved in cases in which 
the head was native-born of foreign father. 

The greatest proportion of assistance given any single race was to 
the white, native-born of native father, with 308 cases assisted, or 
30.6 per cent of the total number, involving 926 persons, or 26.6 per 
cent of the total number of persons. The Irish, Canadian, other 
than French, South Italian, English, Italian (not specified), Hebrew, 
and Scotch are the foreign-born races assisted by the society and 
showing percentages ranging in the order named from 11.8 to 2. 
The negro, native-bom of native father, show a percentage of 3.4, and 
the Irish, native-born of foreign father, 3.2. The races represented 
by 20 or more cases have been selected for a more detailed study. 



APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED. 



The classes of apparent causes of need are shown, by general 
nativity and race of head of case, for the cases and persons involved, 
in the tables which follow. This information may be found in more 
detail in General Tables 2-5, Volume II, pages 98-101. It will be 
noted that the per cents for each race are more than 100, due to the 
fact that more than one cause is often reported to a case. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Boston. 



101 



Table 52. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, 
by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 51. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 

of 
another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


308 
34 

32 

119 
51 
22 

174 
96 
24 
20 


27.3 
35.3 

31.3 

25.2 
25.5 
22.7 
38.5 
34.4 
29.2 
5.0 


14.9 
14.7 

28.1 

18.5 
15.7 
50.0 
20.7 
. 25.0 
29.2 
20.0 


52.9 
41.2 

31.3 

48.7 
54.9 
31.8 
29.9 
49.0 
54.2 
65.0 


19.8 
11.8 

46.9 

25.2 
15.7 
31.8 
21.3 
9.4 
12.5 
20.0 


5.2 

8.8 

3.1 

7.6 

11.8 

.0 

6.9 

.0 

.0 

15.0 


12.7 




11.8 


Native-born of foreign father, by 


18.8 


Foreign-bom: 

Canadian (other than 


16.8 




11.8 




.0 




12.6 




6.3 




16.7 
25.0 








1,003 


28.3 


19.7 


46.5 


20.1 


5.5 


13.3 






Total native-born of foreign 


48 
390 
613 


22.9 
27.4 
28.9 


25.0 
16.2 
22.0 


31.3 
49.2 
44.7 


47.9 
22.6 
18.6 


2.1 
5.1 
5.7 


22.9 




13.8 




12.9 







Table 53. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted/or each specified class of apparent 
causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 51. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 

of 
another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


926 
102 

144 

430 
153 
106 
632 
416 
111 
50 


27.0 
36.3 

29.9 

30.0 
26.8 
26.4 
31.8 
31.7 
26.1 
2.0 


18.6 
19.6 

29.9 

23.3 
24.2 
55.7 
25.5 
29.1 
32.4 
46.0 


48.8 
41.2 

27.1 

45.6 
56.9 
30.2 
33.1 
51.9 
48.6 
40.0 


25.3 
14.7 

52.8 

28.6 
17.0 
31.1 
24.4 
6.5 
18.0 
16.0 


2.8 
2.9 

4.2 

4.0 

5.2 
.0 

3.3 
.0 
.0 

6.0 


14.6 




13.7 


Native-born of foreign father, by 


16.7 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


19.8 




9.2 




.0 




14.9 




6.3 




13.5 
36.0 








3,464 


27.7 


25.6 


44.1 


23.3 


2.8 


14.4 






Total native-bom of foreign 


188 
1,216 
2.248 


23.4 
27.2 
28.0 


30.3 
20.5 
28.4 


28.2 
45.0 
43.5 


53.2 
28.7 
20.4 


3.2 
2.9 
2.8 


20.2 




15.4 




13.8 







102 



The Immigration Commission. 



The classes of apparent causes of need in the order of importance, 
together with the per cent of cases and per cent of persons involved, 
are as follows: 



Persons 
involved. 



Lack of employment or insufficient earnings 

Death or disability of bread-winner 

Neglect or bad habits of bread-winner 

Death or disability of another member of family 

Old age 

Other 



Per cent. 
46.5 
28.3 
20.1 
19.7 
5.5 
13.3 



Per cent. 
44.1 
27.7 
23.3 

25. 6 
2.8 
14.4 



Lack of employment or insufficient earnings alone, or along with 
other causes, was the apparent cause of need in the greatest propor- 
tion of cases, having 46.5 per cent of the total number so reported. 
The cases in which the head was foreign-born report lack of employ- 
ment or insufficient earnings as a cause of need in 44.7 per cent of 
their number and the native-born in 49.2 per cent. 

A larger proportion of the cases in which the head was foreign-born 
than native-born reported death or disability of breadwinner or 
another member of family as a cause of need. Included in these 
classes were accident, illness, or death of breadwinner or of another 
member of family. 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner includes desertion by hus- 
band, incarceration of breadwinner, intemperance of breadwinner, 
and neglect by breadwinner. This class of causes alone, or along with 
other causes, was reported in 20.1 per cent of the total number of 
cases, involving 23.3 per cent of the total number of persons. Of the 
cases in which the head was native-born, 22.6 per cent are so reported, 
and of the foreign-born 18.6 per cent. 

Old age was reported as a cause of need in 5.7 per cent of the cases 
in which the head was foreign-born and in 5.1 per cent of the cases in 
which the head was native-born. 

AID GIVEN. 

The aid furnished by the society is shown in the tables following 
for the cases and persons involved, by general nativity and race of 
head of case. Like the tables showing the causes of need, the per 
cents will not total 100. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Boston. 



103 



Table 54. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head of 

case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 51. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical as- 
sistance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


295 
34 

32 

119 
51 
23 

171 
94 
20 
19 


14.6 
2.9 

9.4 

13.4 
9.8 
39.1 
11.7 
2.1 
10.0 
(a) 


8.8 
8.8 

12.5 

8.4 
11.8 
30.4 
7.6 
8.5 
10.0 
(a) 


13.9 
2.9 

9.4 

14.3 
15.7 
13.0 
12.3 
17.0 
15.0 
(") 


42.7 
52.9 

50.0 

48.7 
51.0 
52.2 

, 50.3 
42.6 
70.0 

(a) 


18.3 
38.2 

43.8 

20.2 
15.7 
17.4 
27.5 
10.6 
10.0 


19.3 




29.4 


Native-born of foreign father, by 


28.1 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


28.6 




21.6 




56.5 




35.1 




34.0 


Italian (not specified) 


35.0 
(a) 








980 


12.1 


9.4 


13.9 


45.4 


20.0 


27.0 






Total native-born of foreign 


48 
377 
603 


8.3 
12.7 
11.8 


8.3 
8.8 
9.8 


8.3 
12.2 
14.9 


41.7 
43.5 
46.6 


33.3 
32.0 
18.7 


25.0 




21.0 




30.8 







a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

Table 55. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 51 . The totals, however, 

are for all races.J 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or medi- 
cal assist- 
ance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


902 
102 

144 

430 
153 
115 
628 
409 
92 
45 


15.0 
1.0 

11.8 

14.9 
9.2 

40.9 

11.5 
1.2 
6.5 

46.7 


8.6 
11.8 

13.9 

12.3 
13.1 
38.3 
10.2 
11.5 
13.0 
8.9 


13.5 

2.9 

6.3 

16.7 
17.0 
9.6 
15.0 
15.9 
12.0 
22.2 


53.5 
52.0 

55.6 

53.5 
56.9 
47.8 
57.6 
36.2 
70.7 
28.9 


25.7 
42.2 

41.7 

24.4 
22/2 
13.9 
32.6 
12.0 
7.6 
37.8 


19.5 




32.4 


Native-born of foreign father, by 


26.4 


Foreign-bom: 

' Canadian (other than 


34.2 




19.6 




58.3 




34.7 




35.9 


Italian (not specified) 


43.5 
13.3 








3,403 


12.3 


11.9 


13.6 


51.3 


24.7 


29.4 






Total native-born of foreign 


188 
1,192 
2,211 


9.6 
12.9 
11/9 


10.6 
9.2 
13.3 


5.9 
11.4 
14.8 


52.1 
53.2 
50.3 


37.2 

28. 9 „ 
22.3 


24.5 




21.4 




33.8 







104 



The Immigration Commission. 



The proportion of cases furnished each specified aid, alone or along 
with other assistance, together with the proportion of persons in- 
volved, is as follows: 




Persons 
involved. 



Food or meals 

Medicine or medical assistance 

Fuel 

Employment secured 

Cash 

Cloth tag 



Per cent. 
45.4 

27.0 
20.0 
13.9 
12.1 
9.4 



Per cent. 
51.3 
29.4 
24.7 
13.6 
12.3 
11.9 



Food or meals were given to 45.4 per cent of the total number of 
cases, medicine or medical assistance to 27 per cent, fuel to 20 per 
cent, employment secured for 13.9 per cent, cash to 12.1 per cent, 
and clothing to 9.4 per cent. 



PERSONS PER CASE. 



From Table 51 we learn that the average number of persons per 
case was 3.46. The average number of persons per case in which the 
head was ioreign-born was 3.68, total native-born 3.12, and native- 
born of foreign father 3.92. 

A table showing, by general nativity and race of head of case, the 
number and per cent of. cases consisting of each specified number of 
persons follows: 

Table 56. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 51. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases consisting of each 
specified number of persons. 


Per cent of cases consisting of each 
specified number of persons. 


of head of case. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


Native - born of native 
fattier: 
White 


308 
34 

32 

119 

51 
23 
174 
97 
24 
20 


106 
9 

2 

29 
15 
2 
49 
12 

10 


136 
15 

15 

49 
26 

8 
61 
43 
12 

7 


59 
10 

13 

38 
10 
11 
58 
37 
12 
2 


7 

2 

3 

2 
6 
5 

1 


34.4 
26.5 

6.3 

24.4 
29.4 
8.7 
28.2 
12.4 
.0 
50.0 


44.2 
44.1 

46.9 

41.2 
51.0 
34.8 
35.1 
44.3 
50.0 
35.0 


19.2 
29.4 

40.6 

31.9 
19.6 
47.8 
33.3 
38.1 
50.0 
10.0 


2.3 




.0 


Native - born of foreign 
father, by race of father, 
Irish 


* 
6.3 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


2.5 


English 


.0 




8.7 




3.4 




5.2 


Italian (not specified).. 


.0 
5.0 








1,006 


274 


425 


276 


31 


27.2 


42.2 


27.4 


3.1 






Total native-born of foreign 


48 
390 
616 


7 
122 
152 


22 
173 
252 


17 
86 
190 


2 
9 
22 


14.6 
31.3 
24.7 


45.8 
44.4 
40.9 


35.4 
22.1 
30.8 


4.2 




2.3 




3.6 









Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Boston. 



105 



Of a total of 1,006 cases, 425, or 42.2 per cent, consisted of from 2 
to 4 persons, which group contains the largest proportion of cases; 
276, or 27.4 per cent, of from 5 to 8 persons; 274, or 27.2 per cent, of 
but 1 person; and 31, or 3.1 per cent, consisted of 9 or more persons. 



TYPE OF CASE. 

The number and per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, 
with or without children; widow, with or without children; and 
widower, with or without children, are shown in the following tables: 

Table 57. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with 
each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 51. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





w 

3 
o 

"o 

Cl> 

■Q 
S 
S 

a 

S 
o 

n 


Number of cases consisting of — 


General nativity 
and race of head of 


Husband and wife 
and— 


Widow and— 


Widower and — 


Others. 




S3 


0) 




0} . 

O oj 

0-S 
*3 

CO O 





S3 


3 


CD 

°£ 

""a 

CO 





"c3 
O 


■s 
•a a 

og 
S3 


N d 


10 ri 

in 

CO 


%a 

el 

CO 


3 


d 


ft 


2 

c?ft 


i 


H 


Native-born of na- 
tive father: 
White 


308 
34 

32 

119 
51 
23 

174 
97 

24 
20 


20 
5 

1 

9 

8 

"io 

4 

3 
4 


69 
7 

4 

19 
8 
7 
17 
20 

7 

1 


39 

7 

4 

28 
8 
6 
35 
21 

8 
1 


10 

1 

6 

'"3 
13 
4 

.... 


138 
19 

10 

62 
24 
16 
75 
49 

18 
7 


18 
5 

6 
6 
1 
• 24 
4 


27 
1 

6 

15 
4 

"24 
12 


16 
1 

2 

6 
2 
3 
8 
2 

2 
1 


2 

1 

""2 
1 


63 
7 

9 

27 
12 
4 
58 
19 

2 
4 


28 


2 






30 
1 


60 
4 

2 

16 
7 
1 

22 
7 

"6 


17 
3 

11 

7 
5 
2 
13 

18 

3 
1 


77 




1 




7 


Native-born of for- 
eign father, by 
race of father, 






13 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other 

than French). 

English 


7 
2 








7 
3 


23 




1 




12 
3 




3 
1 


1 
3 


1 


1 


6 
4 

1 
2 


35 




75 


Italian (not 
specified) 




1 


3 


2 


1 


2 






7 












Grand total. . . 


1,006 


76 


175 


174 


46 


471 


76 


106 


48 


6 


236 


56 


6 


3 


2 


67 


142 

3 

67 

75 


90 

13 

33 
57 


232 


Total native-born of 

Total native-born. . . 
Total foreign-born. . 


48 
390 
616 


4 
29 
47 


5 
81 
94 


6 
52 
122 


1 

11 
35 


16 
173 
298 


1 
24 
52 


9 
37 
69 


2 
19 
29 


1 
3 
3 


13 

83 
153 


3 
31 

25 






3 
34 
33 


16 


2 
4 


1 

2 


""2 


100 

132 



65812°— vol 34—11- 



106 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 58. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with or 
without children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[Thistable includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, asshown in Table 51. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Total ■ 
number of 
cases. 


Per cent of cases consisting of— 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Husband 
and wife, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widow, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widower, 
with or 
without 

children. 


Others.^ 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


308 
34 

32 

119 
51 
23 

174 
97 
24 
20 


* 

44.8 
55.9 

31.3 

52.1 
47.1 
69.6 
43.1 
50.5 
75.0 
35.0 


20.5 
20.6 

28.1 

22.7 
23.5 
17.4 
33.3 
19.6 
8.3 
20.0 


9.7 
2.9 

.0 

5.9 
5.9 
.0 
3.4 
4.1 
4.2 
10.0 


25.0 




20.6 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 


40.6 


Foreign-born: 


19.3 




23.5 




13.0 




20.1 




25.8 




12.5 




35.0 








1,006 


46.8 


23.5 


6.7 


23.1 








48 
390 
616 


33.3 
44.4 
48.4 


27.1 
21.3 
24.8 


6.3 
8.7 
5.4 


33.3 




25.6 




21.4 







The tables show that 471 cases, or 46.8 per cent of the total num- 
ber, consist of husband and wife, with or without children. Of this 
number 175 cases consist of husband and wife with 1 or 2 children 
and 174 cases consist of husband and wife with from 3 to 5 children. 

The cases consisting of widow, with or without children, are 236, or 
23.5 per cent of the total number. Of this number, 106 cases consist 
of widow with 1 or 2 children. The term "widow," as used in this 
table, includes, besides the widowed, deserted, or divorced, those 
wives whose husbands are residing elsewhere and unmarried mothers 
living with their children. 

The cases consisting of widower, with or without children, are 67, or 
6.7 per cent of the total number, and of this number 56 cases consist 
of widower alone. 

Cases in which there are persons other than husband, wife, and 
children and cases in which there is neither husband nor wife have 
been classed as "others." Cases under this class numbered 232, or 
23.1 per cent of the total number, and of this number 142 cases con- 
sisted of but 1 person. 

The next table gives the proportion of cases consisting only of 
husband and wife. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Boston. 



107 



Table 59. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 10 or more cases, consisting only of husband and wile. The 

totals, however, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 


Total 

number of 

cases. 


Cases consisting only of 
husband and wife. 




Number. 


Percent. 




30S 
174 


20 
10 


6.5 




5.7 








1,006 


76 


7.6 








48 
390 
616 


4 

29 
47 


8.3 




7.4 




7.6 







The report for Boston contained 47 cases, or 7.6 per cent of the 
total number, consisting only of husband and wife. 



AGE OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The age of the persons involved in the cases assisted, by general 
nativity and race of head of case, is presented below. 

Table 60. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 51. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified 
age group. 


Per cent within each specified 
age group. 


of head of case. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 39. 


40 to 59. 


60 or 
over. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 39. 


40 to 59. 


60 or 
over. 


Native-born of native fa- 
ther: 
White 


889 
100 

134 

411 
146 
111 
619 
398 
108 
49 


3S8 
41 

72 

195 
59 
63 
317 
208 
60 
17 


344 
34 

44 

134 
53 
37 
182 
149 
37 
18 


113 
13 

13 

62 
24 

7 
89 
39 
10 

8 


44 
12 

5 

20 
10 
4 
31 
2 
1 
6 


43.6 
41.0 

53.7 

47.4 
40.4 
56.8 
51.2 
52.3 
55.6 
34.7 


38.7 
34.0 

32.8 

32.6 
36.3 
33.3 
29.4 
37.4 
34.3 
36.7 


12.7 
13.0 

9.7 

15.1 

16.4 
6.3 

14.4 
9.8 
9.3 

16.3 


4.9 




12.0 


Native-born of foreign fa- 
ther, by race of father, 


3.7 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


4.9 




6.8 




3.6 


Irish 


5.0 




.5 


Italian (not specified) . . 


.9 

12.2 






Grand total 


3,339 


1,598 


1,172 


424 


145 


47.9 


35.1 


12.7 


4.3 


Total native-born of for- 


175 
1,164 
2,175 


89 

518 

1,080 


61 
439 
733 


19 
145 
279 


6 
62 
83 


50.9 
44.5 
49.7 


34.9 
37.7 
33.7 


10.9 
12.5 
12.8 


3.4 




5.3 




3.8 







Of a total of 3,339 persons involved in the cases assisted reporting 
age, 1,598, or 47.9 per cent, were under 16 years of age; 1,172, or 
35.1 per cent, were from 16 to 39 years of age; 424, or 12.7 per cent, 
were from 40 to 59 years of age, and 145, or 4.3 per cent, were 60 



108 



The Immigration Commission. 



years of age or over. From General Table 12, Volume II, page 113, 
we also learn that 1,480, or 44.3 per cent of the total number report- 
ing age, were children 13 years or age or under, and that 754, or 22.6 
per cent, were children less than 6 years of age. 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

Statistics showing the conjugal condition of persons involved in 
the cases assisted who are 20 years of age or over follows: 



Table 61. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 



[This table Includes only races with J 



i or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.) 
MALE. 





Number 
report- 
ing com- 
plete 
data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Native-bom of native father, 
White 


235 

84 
95 
75 


63 

16 
10 
12 


150 

65 
80 
61 


22 

3 

5 
2 


26.8 

19.0 
10.5 
16.0 


63.8 

77.4 
84.2 
81.3 


9.4 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


3.6 




5.3 




2.7 








725 


163 


520 


42 


22.5 


71.7 


5.8 






Total native-born of foreign 


52 
312 
413 


27 
94 
69 


21 
191 
329 


4 
27 
15 


51.9 
30.1 
16.7 


40.4 
61.2 
79.7 


7.7 




8.7 




3.6 







FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father, 

White 

Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 

French) 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



104 

176 
91 



61 
308 
542 



122 



64 

101 
61 



26 
167 
332 



16 

ion 

164 



9.6 
10.2 



31.1 
13. 3 

8.5 



61.5 
57.4 

07.0 



58.7 



42.6 
54.2 
CI. 3 



28.8 
32.4 
24.2 



26.2 

32. 5 
30.3 



Native-born of native father, 
White 


452 

188 
271 
166 


84 

26 
28 
20 


272 

129 
181 
122 


96 

33 
62 
24 


18.6 

13.8 
10.3 
12.0 


60.2 

68.6 
66.8 
73.5 


21.2 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 
French) 


17.6 
22.9 




14.5 








' 1, 575 


250 


1,019 


306 


15.9 


64.7 


19.4 






Total native-born of foreign 


113 
620 
955 


46 
135 

115 


47 
358 
661 


20 
127 
179 


40.7 
21.8 
12.0 


41.6 
57.7 
69.2 


17.7 




20.5 




18.7 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Boston. 



109 



Of the 1,575 persons 20 years of age or over reporting conjugal 
condition, 1,019, or 64.7 per cent, were married; 306, or 19.4 per cent, 
were deserted, separated, or widowed; and 250, or 15.9 per cent, were 
single. The foreign-born have the larger proportion of persons 
married, and the native-born the largerproportion of persons deserted, 
separated or widowed, and single. The large proportion of single 
persons among the native-born of foreign father is undoubtedly due 
to the fact that over one-half of such persons are between the ages 
of 20 and 29. 

The South Italian show the largest proportion, or 73.5 per cent, 
married, and the white, native-born of native father, the smallest, 
or 60.2 per cent. 

Comparing the males and females, the table shows 71.7 per cent of 
the males and 58.7 per cent of the females married, 5.8 per cent of 
the males and 31.1 per cent of the females deserted, separated, or 
widowed, and 22.5 per cent of the males and 10.2 per cent of the 
females single. 

The following tables give the number and per cent of cases in which 
the wife was the head of the case and reported widowed, deserted, 
or separated. 

Table 62. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 51. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


64 
8 

12 

29 
12 
6 
56 
22 
3 
5 


43 
6 

6 

18 
9 
1 
47 
16 
3 
3 


21 
2 

6 

11 
3 
5 
9 
6 


67.2 
C> 

(»> 

62.1 

n 

83.9 
72.7 

n 


32.8 




(°) 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 


(") 


Foreign-born: 


37.9 


English 


S? 




Irish... 


16.1 




27. S 




ffl 




2 








250 


171 


79 


68.4 


31.6 








16 
88 
162 


7 

56 
115 


9 

32 
47 


63.6 
71.0 


(°) 




36.4 




29.0 







a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 



110 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 63. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 51. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 

White , 


306 
34 

32 

119 
51 
23 

174 
97 
24 
20 


43 
6 

6 

18 
9 
1 
47 
16 
3 
3 


21 
2 

6 

11 
3 
5 
9 
6 


14.1 
17.6 

18.8 

15.1 
17.6 
4.3 
27.0 
16.5 
12.5 
15.0 


6 9 






Native-born of foreign father, by race of 




Foreign-born: 


9 2 












5 2 




6 2 




.0 




2 










1,006 


171 


79 


17.0 










50 
390 
616 


7 
56 
115 


9 
32 
47 


14.0 
14.4 
18.7 


18.0 




8 2 




7 6 







The total number of cases in which the wife is the head of the case 
and reported deserted, separated, or widowed is 250. Of this num- 
ber, 171, or 68.4 per cent, are widowed, and 79, or 31.6 per cent, are 
deserted or separated. The cases in which the head is a widow 
represent 17 per cent of the total number and those in which the 
head is reported deserted or separated represent 7.9 per cent of the 
total number. 

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF CHILDREN. 



The occupation of children involved in the cases assisted, 6 and 
under 16 years of age, is shown in the table following, by sex and 
race of individual. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Boston. 



Ill 



Table 64. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

This table includes in each section only races with 20 or more males or females reporting. The totals, 

however, are for all races.] 

MALE. 



General nativity and race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent — 


At home. 


At school. 


At work. 




123 

42 
81 
28 


9.8 

4.8 
3.7 
14.3 


86.2 

85.7 
95.1 
78.6 


4.1 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


9.5 


Irish 


1.2 




7.1 








388 


8.2 


87.1 


4.6 








194 
322 
66 


5.7 
7.1 
13.6 


90.2 
88.5 
80.3 


4.1 




4.3 




6.1 







FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father, "White 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

Canadian (other than French) 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Foreign-born, Italian, South 



Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father. , 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



135 


10.4 


88.1 


53 


7.5 


86.8 


88 


2.3 


95.5 


20 


10.0 


90.0 


30 


30.0 


70.0 


441 


9.5 


88.2 


234 


6.4 


90.2 


383 


8.1 


89.3 


58 


19.0 


81.0 



1.5 

5.7 

2.3 

.0 

.0 



2.3 



3.4 

2.6 

.0 



TOTAL. 





258 

95 
169 
35 

58 


10.1 

6.3 

3.0 

5.7 

22.4 


87.2 

86.3 
95.3 
94.3 
74.1 


2.7 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


7.4 




1.8 




.0 




3.4 








829 


8.9 


87.7 


3.4 








428 
705 
124 


6.1 

7.7 
16.1 


90.2 
88.9 
80.6 


3.7 




3.4 




3.2 







A total of 829 children, 6 and under 16 years of age, were involved 
in the cases assisted. Of this number 87.7 per cent were at school, 
8.9 per cent were at home, and 3.4 per cent were at work. 

The proportion of foreign-born children at school was 80.6 per 
cent, native-born of foreign father 90.2 per cent, total native-born 
88.9 per cent, and the white, native-born of native father 87.2 per 
cent. The proportion of foreign-born children at home was 16.1 
per cent, native-born of foreign father 6.1 per cent, total native-born 
7.7 per cent, and white, native-born of native father 10.1 per cent. 
The proportion of foreign-born children at work was 3.2 per cent, 
native-born of foreign father 3.7 per cent, total native-born 3.4 per 
cent, and white, native-born of native father 2.7 per cent. 



112 



The Immigration Commission. 



The Irish and South Italian, native-born of foreign father, show 
the largest proportion of children at school, 95.3 and 94.3 per cent, 
respectively. 

A comparison of the occupation of children involved in the cases 
assisted between the foreign-born, the native-born of foreign father, 
and the white, native-born of native father, is shown in the following 
table : 

Table 65. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age, at home, at school, 
and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more 
children born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.] 



General nativity and race 
of father. 


Birthplace 
of child- 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


At 

home. 


At 
school. 


At 
work. 


At 
home. 


At 
school. 


At 
work. 


Native-born, White 

Foreign-born, Italian, 


United States . 

United States. 
Abroad 


258 

35 
58 


26 

2 
13 


225 

33 
43 


7 
2 


10.1 

5.7 
22.4 


87.2 

94.3 
74.1 


2.7 
.0 




3.4 



Comparing the South Italian children born in the United States 
and abroad with the white, native-born of native father, we learn 
that 94.3 per cent of the South Italian children born in the United 
States, 74.1 per cent of those born abroad, and 87.2 per cent of the 
white, native-born of native father, are at school; 5.7 per cent of the 
South Italian children born in the United States, 22.4 per cent of 
those born abroad, and 10.1 per cent of the white, native-born of 
native father, are at home; and none of the South Italian children 
born in the United States, 3.4 per cent of those born abroad, and 2.7 
per cent of the white, native-born of native father, are at work. 

TEARS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The period of residence in this country for the heads of cases who 
were foreign-born may be seen in the following table: 

Table 66. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States 
each specified number of years, by race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown 

is for all foreign-born.] 


in Table 51. The total, however, 




Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United 
States each specified 
number of years. 




Under 
5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 


Canadian (other than French) 


88 
45 
21 
140 
96 
19 
16 


10 

7 
6 
7 
40 
3 
5 


21 
5 
8 
15 
31 
6 
2 


28 
14 
7 
53 
23 
7 
5 


29 
19 

65 
2 
3 
4 


11.4 
15.6 
28.6 
5.0 
41.7 
15.8 
31.3 


35.2 
26.7 
66.7 
15.7 
74.0 
47.4 
43.8 


67.0 
57.8 




100.0 




53.6 




97.9 




84.2 




75.0 






Total 


522 


108 


114 


159 


141 


20.7 


42.5 


73.0 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Boston. 



113 



From the foregoing table it may be seen that the foreign-born 
heads of cases reporting years in the United States numbered 522. 
Of this number, 20.7 per cent have lived in the United States less than 
five years, 42.5 per cent less than ten' years, and 73 per cent less than 
twenty years. Of the 96 South Italian heads of cases, 41 .7 per cent 
have hived here less than five years, 74 per cent less than ten years, 
and 97.9 per cent less than twenty years. Of the 21 Hebrew heads 
of cases, 28.6 per cent have lived here less than five years, 66.7 per 
cent less than ten years, and 100 per cent less than twenty years. Of 
the 16 Scotch heads of cases, 31.3 per cent have lived here less than 
five years, 43.8 per cent less than ten years, and 75 per cent less than 
twenty years. The Irish are the oldest inhabitants, with 5 per cent 
here less than five years, 15.7 per cent less than ten years, and 53.6 per 
cent less than twenty years. 

A similar table follows, showing the period of residence in this coun- 
try of the foreign-born persons, by race of individual. 

Table 67. — Number and per cent of 'foreign-born persons in the United States each specified 
number of years, by race of individual. 

[This table Includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign- 
born.] 



Race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent In United 
States each specified 
number of years. 




Under 
5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 


Canadian (other than French) 


ISO 

65 

55 

218 

257 


21 

12 

16 

8 

126 


39 
10 
20 
34 

84 


47 
18 
19 
83 
44 


43 
25 

93 
3 


14.0 
18.5 
29.1 
3.7 
49.0 


40.0 
33.8 
65.5 
19.3 
81.7 


71.3 








57.3 




98.8 






Total 


984 


271 


253 


265 


195 


27.5 


53.3 


80.2 







This table shows that of 984 foreign-born individuals, 27.5 per cent 
have resided in the United States less than five years, 53.3 per cent 
less than ten years, and 80.2 per cent less than twenty years. 

The proportion of individuals of each race in the United States 
each specified number of years is similar to that of the previous table, 
with the South Italian and Hebrew as the most recent comers and 
the Irish showing the largest proportion here twenty years or over. 



ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH. 



The percentage of persons foreign-born or native-born of foreign 
father, 6 years of age or over, belonging to the non-English-speaking 
races, is presented in the table on next page. 



114 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 68. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general 
nativity and race of individual. 



[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.] 


General nativity and race ol individual. 


Number reporting complete 
data. 


Per cent who speak English. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Foreign-born: 


25 
129 
28 


35 
143 
21 


60 

272 

49 


68.0 
89. 7 
75.0 


80.0 
49.7 
42.9 


75.0 




54 4 












354 


399 


753 


77.4 


72.7 










75 
279 


98 
301 


173 
580 


100.0 
71.3 


98.0 
. 63.8 













Of the total number reporting, 74.9 per cent speak the English 
language, with 77.4 per cent of the males and 72.7 per cent of the 
females. Of the foreign-born, 67.4 per cent speak English, with 71.3 

Eer cent of the males and 63.8 per cent of the females. Of the native- 
orn of foreign father, 98.8 per cent speak English, with 100 per cent 
of the males and 98 per cent of the females. The proportion speaking 
English of the Hebrews is 75 per cent, South Italians 54.4 per cent, 
and Italian (not specified) 61.2 per cent. 

CITIZENSHIP. 

Data relative to the citizenship of the foreign-born males who have 
been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of 
age or over at the time of coming is shown in the following table: 

Table 69. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United 
States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race 
of individual. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born. ] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Race of individual. 


Fully 
naturalized. 


Having first 
papers only. 


Fully 
naturalized. 


Having first 
papers only. 




20 
33 
28 


11 
23 
6 




55.0 
69.7 
21.4 












2 








Total 


127 


56 


7 


44.1 









Of the 127 reporting citizenship, 63, or 49.6 per cent, were either 
fully naturalized or had their first papers; 56, or 44.1 per cent, were 
fully naturalized, and 7, or 5.5 per cent, had first papers only. Of the 
three races included in this table, 69.7 per cent or the Irish were fully 
naturalized, 55 per cent of the Canadian (other than French) were 
fully naturalized, and 21.4 per cent of the South Italian were fully nat- 
uralized, and 7.1 per cent had first papers only. 



BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



115 



BROOKLYN. 



The report for Brooklyn, N. Y., covers the work done by the 
Bureau of Charities for a period of six months from December 1, 1908, 
to May 31, 1909. 

GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE. 

During the six months' period of this investigation, the Bureau of 
Charities assisted 1,663 cases in which the race of the head was 
reported, which involved 6,244 persons. The number and per cent 
of cases and the number and per cent of persons involved in such 
cases are shown by general nativity and race of head of case, in the 
following table : 

Table 70. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head of 

case. 

m 

[Not including 10 cases, involving 27 persons, race not reported.] 





Cases assisted. 


Persons involved. 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Native-born of native father: 

White .- 


605 

32 

1 

4 
1 

13 
4 

23 
1 
1 
1 
1 

3 
8 

18 
1 

58 

12 
7 

99 

1 

302 

254 

9 

42 

21 
1 
3 
5 

19 
8 

18 

34 
1 

41 
6 
1 
4 


36.4 
1.9 
.1 

.2 
.1 
.8 
.2 
1.4 
.1 
.1 
.1 
.1 

.2 
.5 

1.1 
.1 

3.5 
.7 
.4 

6.0 

.1 

18.2 

15.3 

.5 

2.5 

1.3 
.1 
.2 
.3 

1.1 
.5 

1.1 

2.0 
.1 

2.5 
.4 
.1 
.2 


2,109 
66 
3 

13 
2 
52 
11 
78 
5 
1 
3 
4 

11 

28 

46 

1 

172 

39 

27 

376 

2 

1,496 

827 

41 

204 

97 

1 

15 

10 

74 

38 

84 

107 

6 

142 

29 

5 

19 


33.8 




1.1 




w 


Native-born ol foreign father, by race of father: 


.2 




00 

.8 






.2 




1.2 




.1 




n , 






Foreign-born: 


.2 




.4 




.7 


Dutch 


(a) 

2.8 






.6 




.4 




6.0 




(") 




24.0 




13.2 




.7 




3.3 




1.6 




.2 






.2 




1.2 


Polish 


.6 




1.3 




1.7 




.1 




2.3 




.5 


Welsh 


.1 




.3 








1,663 


100.0 


6,244 


100.0 








49 
687 
976 


2.9 
41.3 
58.7 


169 
2,347 
3,897 


2.7 




37.6 




62.4 







a Less than 0.05 per cent. 



117 



118 



The Immigration Commission. 



It may be seen that the greater proportion of the work done by the 
society is for the cases in which the head is foreign-born. The 
number of such cases assisted is 976, or 58.7 per cent of the total 
number, involving 3,897 persons, or 62.4 per cent of the total number 
of persons. Of the native-born, but 49 cases, or 2.9 per cent of the 
total number, are the second-generation immigrants. 

Considering the races, the cases in which the head is white, native- 
born of native father, show the largest number assisted, having 605 
cases or 36.4 per cent of the total number, involving 2,109 persons, 
or 33.8 per cent of the total number of persons. The foreign-born 
Hebrew had the next largest number assisted, having 302 cases, or 
18.2 per cent, with 1,496 persons, or 24 per cent, involved. The 
foreign-born Irish had 254 cases assisted, or 15.3 per cent, involving 
827 persons, or 13.2 per cent of the total number of persons. Each 
of the remaining races represented had less than 10 per cent of the 
total number of cases. 

Races represented by 20 or more cases have been selected for a 
more detailed study. 



APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED. 

The apparent causes for seeking assistance of the society were 
tabulated under fourteen headings, and again grouped under five 
classes. 6 The per cent of cases and persons involved, by race of 
head of case, under each class are given in the table below. Owing 
to the fact that more than one apparent cause often appears on a 
case, the per cent for each race will equal more than 100. 

Table 71. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, 
by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases , as shown in Table 70. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Number 
reports 

ing 

complete 

data. 



Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 



Death or 
disability 
of bread- 



Death or 
disability 
of another 
member 

of family. 



Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 



Neglect 
or bad 
habits 
of bread- 
winner. 



Old age. 



Other. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by 

race of father, Irish 

Foreign-born: 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Scotch 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



lid., 
32 



.SI III 
254 
42 
20 
34 
41 



22.6 
21.9 

34.8 

19.0 
29.3 
33. 3 
24.0 
21.4 
25.0 
2.9 
24.4 



7.4 
3.1 

17.4 

5.2 

S. 1 
11.0 
7.1 

4.8 
5.0 
5.9 
4.9 



82. S 

tie. 7 

65. 
70.9 
83.3 
70.0 
88.2 
73.2 



19.0 

21.9 

4.3 

13. S 
10.1 
11.7 
18.1 
4.8 
5.0 
14.7 
19.5 



2.0 
3.1 



3.4 

7.1 
.3 

3.1 
.0 

5.0 

5.9 
.0 



1.5 

.0 



1.7 
3.0 
3.0 
2.4 
.0 
5.0 



24.8 



70.3 



15.7 



■19 

i;,S7 

972 



24.5 
22. 7 
26. 3 



IS. 4 
8.0 
7.9 



63.3 
69.4 
70.9 



12.2 
18.6 
13.6 



.0 
1.9 
2.4 



.0 
1.3 
2.3 



a See General Tables 2 and 3, Vol. II, pp. 134 and 135. 
dSee General Tables 4 and 5, Vol. II. pp. 136 and 137, 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Brooklyn. 



119 



Table 72. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case: 

[Thia table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 70. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 
report- 
ing 
complete 
data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death <5r 
disability 
of another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 

insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or Dad 
habits 
of bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


2,109 
66 

78 

172 
376 
1,490 
827 
204 
91 
107 
142 


22.8 
33.3 

• 33.3 

26.7 
29.3 
33.6 
28.1 
15.7 
25.3 
2.8 
31.0 


10.1 
3.0 

26.9 

8.1 
10.6 
11.7 
10.0 
6.4 
3.3 
5.6 
8.5 


72.1 
65.2 

69.2 

80.8 
71.8 
70.5 
69.4 
84. 8 
67.0 
85.0 
68.3 


17.5 
22.7 

5.1 

17.4 

10.6 

8.4 

18.5 

7.8 

7.7 

14.0 

22.5 


1.0 

1.5 

.0 

1.7 

2.4 
.1 

1.6 
.0 

2.2 

1.9 
.0 


1 6 






Native-born of foreign father, by 


.0 


Foreign-born: 


1.2 




2 1 




2.1 




2.3 




.0 




7.7 




2.1 








6,230 


26.6 


10.3 


71.7 


14.4 


.9 


L8 






Total native-born of foreign 
father 


169 
2,347 
3,883 


24.9 
23.2 
28.7 


22.5 
10.7 
10.0 


63.3 
71.3 
71.9 


9.5 
17.1 
12.8 


.0 

.9 
.8 


.0 




1.4 




2 







The different classes of apparent causes of need in the order of 
importance, together with the per cent of cases and persons involved, 
are given below. 



Persons 
involved. 




Lack of employment or insufficient earnings 

Death or disability of breadwinner 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner 

Death or disability of another member of family. 

Old age 

Other 



Lack of employment or insufficient earnings, alone or along with 
other causes, is the chief cause of need. The proportion of cases 
reporting this cause was 70.3 and of the persons involved 71.7. 
With but two exceptions, the German and Hebrew, the cases in which 
the head is foreign-born show a much higher proportion reporting 
lack of employment or insufficient earnings than the native-born. 

Death or disability of breadwinner, alone or along with other 
causes, is given as a cause of need in 24.8 per cent of the number of 
cases reporting, involving 26.6 per cent of the total number of per- 
sons. Death or disability of another member of family, alone or 
along with other causes, is given in 8 per cent of the number of cases 
reporting, involving 10.3 per cent of the persons. Sickness or death 
was reported in but 8.8 per cent of the total number of foreign-born 
Scotch cases. 



120 



The Immigration Commission. 



Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner, alone or along with other 
causes, was given as a cause of need in 15.7 per cent of the number 
of cases reporting, involving 14.4 per cent of the total number of 

fersons. Among the cases m which the head was foreign-born the 
talian had the lowest per cent of cases so reporting the cause of need. 
Old age is shown in but 2.2 per cent of the total number of cases 
reported as a cause of need. 

AID GIVEN. 

The assistance furnished by the society was grouped under nine 
headings, and the six most important have been selected for study in 
detail. 

The aid given to the several races, by cases and persons involved, 
is shown in the following tables. More than one kind of assistance 
was often given to a case. Consequently the per cents will total 
more than 100. 

Table 73. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 70. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 
report- 
ing 
complete 
data. 


Per cent of cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


. Food or 
meals. 


Lodging. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical as- 
sistance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


605 
31 

23 

58 
98 
299 
253 
42 
20 
34 
41 


11.7 
6.5 

4.3 

15.5 
26.5 
20.7 
11.1 
11.9 
25.0 
.0 
17.1 


14.9 
3.2 

13.0 

20.7 
10.2 
7.4 
13.4 
33.3 
5.0 
8.8 
7.3 


49.8 
74.2 

47.8 

56.9 
51.0 
16.4 
60.1 
31.0 
30.0 
61.8 
53.7 


27.9 
19.4 

21.7 

24.1 
28.6 
40.5 
29.2 
35.7 
30.0 
35.3 
26.8 


7.1 
16.1 

17.4 

15.5 
7.1 
2.0 

13.0 
48 
.0 

14.7 
7.3 


1&3 




3.2 


Native-born of foreign father, 

by race of father, Irish 

Foreign-born: 


34 8 
20.7 




27.6 




52.5 




17.8 




21.4 


Italian (not specified) 


30.0 

20.6 




17.1 








1,654 


14.5 


12.5 


45.3 


30.5 


8.0 


25.9 






Total native-born of foreign 


49 
686 
968 


12.2 
11.5 
16.6 


12.2 
14.1 
11.4 


42.9 
50.4 
41.6 


24.5 
27.4 
32.7 


10.2 
8.3 
7.7 


28.6 




18.4 




31.3 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Brooklyn. 



121 



Table 74. — Per cent of persons involved in. cases given aid specified, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 70. 

are for all races.] 


The totals, however, 




Number 
report- 
ing 
complete 
data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Lodging. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical as- 
sistance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


2,109 
64 

78 

172 
375 
1,490 
826 
204 
91 
107 
142 


12.9 

4.7 

3.8 

11.6 
32.0 
21.4 
13.7 
13.7 
26.4 
.0 
21.8 


19.5 
3.1 

10.3 

20.3 
11.5 

7.7 
18.6 
33.3 

3.3 
15.9 
10.6 


47.0 
76.6 

51.3 

4S. 3 
51.7 
14,5 
61.4 
29.4 
24.2 
54.2 
50.0 


30.2 
32.8 

26.9 

22.7 
33.3 
39.1 
35.4 
36.8 
39.6 
50.5 
33.8 


42 
9.4 

9.0 

8.1 
2.9 
1.4 
5.4 
2.5 
.0 
12.1 
2.1 


21.9 




6.3 


Native-born of foreign father, 

by race of father, Irish 

Foreign-born: 


42.3 
26.2 




34.4 




54.2 




23.7 




21.6 


Italian (not specified) 


30.8 
18.7 




17.6 








6,225 


16.6 


14,9 


40.7 


33.9 


3.6 


31.6 






Total native-born of foreign 


169 
2,345 
3,880 


17.8 
13.0 
18.7 


13.0 
18.6 
12.8 


43.8 
47.7 
36.5 


27.8 
30.1 
36.2 


47 
4.4 
3.1 


33.7 




22.3 




37.2 







The assistance furnished, in the order of importance, together 
with the per cent of cases and persons involved, was as follows: 




Persons 
involved. 



Employment secured 

Food or meals 

Medicine or medical assistance 

Cash 

Clothing 

Lodging 



Per cent. 
45.3 
30.5 
25.9 
14 5 
12.5 
8.0 



Per cent. 
40.7 
33.9 
31.6 
16.6 
14.9 
3.6 



As noted above, employment secured received the greatest atten- 
tion of the society, having 45.3 per cent of the cases reporting so 
assisted, involving 40.7 per cent or the number of persons. The pro- 
portion of cases of the different races aided by securing employment 
varies from 74.2 per cent of the cases in which the head was a negro, 
native-born of native father, to 16.4 per cent of the cases in which the 
head was Hebrew foreign-born. 

Food or meals were given to 30.5 per cent of the number of cases 
reporting and to 33.9 per cent of the number of persons involved. 

Medicine or medical assistance was given to 25.9 per cent of the 
number of cases reporting, involving 31.6 per cent of the number of 
persons. Of the cases in which the head was foreign-born 31.3 per 
cent were given this assistance and of the native-born 18.4 per cent. 
Of the cases in which the head was Hebrew foreign-born 52.5 per 
cent were assisted in this manner. 

Cash was given to 14.5 per cent of the number of cases reporting, 
clothing to 12.5 per cent, and lodging to 8 per cent. 

65812°— vol 34—11 9 



122 



The Immigration Commission. 



PERSONS PER CASE. 

From Table 70 we find that the average number of persons per case 
is 3.75. The average number of persons per case of the cases in 
which the head is native-born is 3.42 and foreign-born 3.99. 

A table showing the number and per cent of cases consisting of each 
specified number of persons follows: 

Table 75. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 70. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases consisting of 
each specified number of 
persons. 


Per cent of cases consisting of 
each specified number of 
persons. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


Native - born of native 
father: 
White 


605 
32 

23 

58 
99 
302 
254 
42 
21 
34 
41 


124 
12 

9 

17 
17 
25 
70 
2 
2 
7 
12 


314 
19 

8 

28 
47 

no 

117 
17 
8 
20 
16 


155 

1 

5 

13 
33 
147 
60 
21 
11 
6 
13 


12 

1 

2 
20 
7 
2 

1 


20.5 
37.5 

39.1 

29.3 

17.2 

8.1 

27.6 

4.8 

9.5 

20.6 

■2Q a 


51.9 
59.4 

34.8 

48.3 
47.5 
36.4 
46.1 
40.5 
38.1 
58.8 
39.0 


25.6 
3.1 

21.7 

22.4 
33.3 
48.7 
23.6 
50.0 
52.4 
17.6 
31.7 








Native - born of foreign 
father, by race of father, 




Foreign-born: 


















4 8 


Italian (notspecifiedj.. 


.0 














1.0C3 


330 


7C6 


519 


48 


19.8 


4J. 1 


31.2 








Total native-born of for- 


49 
C87 
970 


14 
150 
ISO 


21 
355 
411 


13 
1C9 
350 


1 
13 
35 


28.6 
21.8 
18.4 


42.9 
51.7 
42.1 


2c. 5 
24.6 
35.9 

















Of the 1,663 cases, 766, or 46.1 per cent, consisted of from 2 to 4 
persons; 519, or 31.2 per cent, consisted of from 5 to 8 persons; 48, or 
2.9 per cent, consisted of 9 or more persons; and 330, or 19.8 per cent, 
consisted of but 1 person. 

More than one-half of the cases in which the head was foreign-born 
Italian consisted of 5 or more persons, and 20 out of the 302 foreign- 
born Hebrew cases consisted of 9 or more persons 

"type" of case. 



The cases were divided for further study into three divisions — cases 
consisting of husband and wife, with or without children; cases con- 
sisting of widow, with or without children; and cases consisting of 
widower, with or without children. Under "widow" is included, 
besides the widowed, deserted, or divorced, the wives whose husbands 
were residing elsewhere and unmarried mothers living with their 
children. Cases consisting of persons other than husband, wife, or 
children, or cases in which there was neither husband nor wife, have 
been classed under "others." 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Brooklyn. 



123 



Tables showing this classification follow: 

Table 76. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with 
each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 70. The totals, however, 

are Jor all races.] 





a 


Number of cases consisting of— 




Husband and wife 
and— 


Widow and — 


Widower and — 


Others. 


General nativity and 








% 










a 










d 






s 




race of head of case. 


° 








r> 










-a 






a 




-n 













J2 


a 


T3 




a 




d 

CP 


t5 


■5 


3 




i 


-a 


<p 

-a 


1 






ft 






3 


T3 


xs 


? 


Q) 




T3 


rl 


■? 


© 




tj 


■a 


'Fl 


<r> 






1- 










a 




o 






o 


o 


o 








U 

















A 


cq 


w 


a 




ft 


w 


10 


a 


in 


fl 


CN 


"5 


a 




CO 


c 














































o 




o 






o 




o 












■W 















Ei 


'A 


** 


m 


CO 


H 


'A 


- 1 


eo 


CD 


H 


k; 


rt 


M 


to 


H 


rt 


CN 


H 


Native-born of native 








































father: 








































White 


605 
32 


37 
1 


122 
4 


91 
1 


33 


■JiSi 
6 


41 
4 


95 
12 


40 


10 


18b 
16 


18 
4 


9 
1 


4 


1 


32 
5 


65 
4 


39 
1 


1114 




5 


Native-born of foreign 












father, by race of 










































23 


1 


fi 


4 


•> 


1? 


1 








1 




1 






1 


H 




8 


Foreign-bom: 










































58 
99 
302 
254 
42 


6 
6 
11 

17 
3 


7 
20 
52 
26 

q 


7 
20 
99 
33 
IS 


4 
4 
39 
10 
4 


24 
50 

201 
89 
V 


b 
8 
5 
27 
1 


12 
14 
31 
46 
1 


2 
13 

23 

27 

5 


'"3 

13 
6 
1 


19 
3S 
72 
10b 
8 


5 
3 
10 

7 


1 

1 
2 
5 
1 






6 
4 
14 

12 
1 


7 
6 
10 

36 
1 


•I 
1 
5 
11 
1 


9 








7 




1 


1 


15 




47 








? 


Italian (not speci- 








































fied) 


21 
34 
41 


2 
4 


5 
6 
9 


9 
5 
9 


1 
"~2 


17 

15 
20 


1 
2 
4 


1 

9 
5 


1 
1 
2 


"i 


3 

13 

11 












1 
3 
4 


.... 


1 




2 
4 


1 






3 
5 


3 




1 




5 






Grand total 


1,6(3 


98 


295 


334 


107 


834 


104 


238 


122 


38 


502 


59 


25 


6 


2 


92 


167 


68 


235 


Total native-born of 








































foreign father 

Total native-born 


4E 


4 


II 


II 


'J 


''7 


'. 


1 


1 




1 


1 


f 






^ 


11 


;- 


14 


687 


42 


137 


102 


3( 


317 


47 


108 


41 


i0206 


23 


13 


4 


1 


41 


80 


43 


123 


Total foreign-born 


971 


56 


158 


232 


71 


517 


57 


130 


81 


28 296 

1 


36 


12 


U 


1 


51 


87 


26 


112 



124 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 77. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with or 
without children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown In Table 70. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Total 

number of 

cases. 



Per cent of cases consisting of- 



Husband 
and wife, 
with or 
without 
children. 



Widow, 
with or 
without 
children. 



Widower, 
with or 
without 
children. 



Others. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of 

father, Irish 

Foreign-born: 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Scotch 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-bom of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



605 
32 



302 

254 
42 
21 
34 
41 



46.8 

18.8 

56.5 

41.4 
50.5 
66.6 
35.0 
73.8 
81.0 
44.1 



30.7 
50.0 

4.3 

32.8 

38.4 
23.8 
41.7 
19.0 
14.3 
38.2 
26.8 



5.3 
15.6 

4.3 

10.3 
4.0 
4.6 
4.7 
2.4 
.0 
8.8 

12.2 



50.2 



5.5 



49 
GST 
976 



55.1 
46.1 
53.0 



8.2 
30.0 
30.3 



8.2 
6.0 
5.2 



17.2 
15.6 

34.8 

15.5 

7.1 
5.0 

18.5 
4.3 
4.8 
8.8 

12.2 



14.1 



28.6 
17.9 
11.5 



Of the 1,663 cases, 834, or 50.2 per cent, consisted of husband and 
wife, with or without children; 502, or 30.2 per cent, consisted of 
widow, with or without children; 92, or 5.5 per cent, consisted of 
widower, with or without children; and 236, or 14.1 per cent, were 
classified under "others." 

Among the cases in which the head was foreign-born, the Italians 
show the largest percentage of cases consisting of husband and wife, 
with or without children, and the Irish the largest percentage con- 
sisting of widow, with or without children. Fifty per cent of the 
cases m which the head was a negro, native-born of native father, con-* 
sisted of widow, with or without children. 

The following table gives the number and per cent of cases con- 
sisting only of husband and wife: 

Table 78.- — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 



[This table Includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife, 
totals, however, are for all races.] 



The 



General nativity and race of head of case. 


Total 

number of 

cases. 


Cases consisting only of 
husband and wife. 




Number. 


Per cent. 




605 

302 
254 


37 

11 
17 


6.1 


Foreign-born: 


3.6 




6.7 








1,663 


98 


5.9 








49 
687 
976 


4 

42 
66 


8.2 




6.1 




5.7 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Brooklyn. 



125 



A very small proportion (5.9 per cent of the total number of cases 
assisted) consisted only of husband and wife. 

AGE OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The number and per cent of persons reporting age involved in the 
cases assisted in each age group, by general nativity and race of head 
of case, is presented in the following table: 

Table 79. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table includes onlyraces represented by 20 ormore cases, as shown in Table 70. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


Num- 
ber re- 
ports 
ing 
com- 
plete 
data. 


Number within each specified 
age group. 


Per cent within each specified 
age group. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


2,073 
65 

76 

172 
374 
1,457 
813 
204 
87 
107 
139 


932 
24 

41 

74 
184 
875 
336 
113 
58 
50 
69 


718 
26 

22 

43 

103 
419 
247 
64 
23 
29 
39 


366 
8 

13 

40 
61 
152 
187 
23 
5 
26 
29 


57 
7 

15 

26 
11 
43 
4 
1 
2 
2 


45.0 
36.9 

53.9 

43.0 
49.2 
60.1 
41.3 
55.4 
66.7 
46.7 
49.6 


34.6 
40.0 

28.9 

25.0 
27.5 
28.8 
30.4 
31.4 
26.4 
27.1 
28.1 


17.7 
12.3 

17.1 

23.3 
16.3 
10.4 
23.0 
11.3 
5.7 
24.3 
20.9 


2.7 


Native-born of foreign father, 
Foreign-born: 


.0 












5.3 




2.0 


Italian (not specified) 


1.1 

1 9 




1.4 








6,129 


3,062 


1,895 


990 


182 


50.0 


30.9 


16.2 


3.0 






Total native-born of foreign 


165 
2,306 
3,823 


87 
1,044 
2,018 


47 

791 

1,104 


29 
405 
585 


2 
66 
116 


52.7 
45.3 
52.8 


28.5 
34.3 
28.9 


17.6 
17.6 
15.3 


1.2 




2.9 




3.0 







It may be seen by the foregoing table that of the total number of 
persons involved in the cases reporting age, 50 per cent were under 16 
years of age, 30.9 per cent were between the ages of 16 and 39, 16.2 
per cent were between the ages of 40 and 59, and 3 per cent were 60 
years of age or over. From General Table 12, Volume II, page 149, 
we learn that 44.6 per cent were 13 years of age or under, and 18.8 
per cent were under 6 years of age. 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The conjugal condition of the persons involved in the cases assisted 
20 years of age or over is shown in the table following, by sex and 
general nativity and race of individual. 



126 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 80. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only races with SO or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.] 

MALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Native-horn of native father, 
White 


442 

42 

35 
64 
220 
121 


118 

24 

5 
10 
25 

22 


300 

17 

25 
50 
198 
90 


24 

1 

5 
4 
3 
9 


26.7 

57.1 

14.3 
15.6 
11.1 
18.2 


67.9 

40.5 

71.4 
78.1 
87.6 
74.4 


5.4 


Native-born of foreign father, by 


2.4 


Foreign-born: 


14.3 




6.3 




1.3 




7.4 








1,181 


263 


861 


57 


22.3 


72.9 


4.8 






Total native-born of foreign 


80 
543 

638 


50 
171 
92 


35 
342 
519 


1 
30 
27 


58.1 
31.5 
14.4 


40.7 
63.0 
81.3 


1.2 




5.5 




4.2 







FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father, 
White 


569 

39 

54 
85 
259 
246 


65 

17 

3 
2 

7 
24 


309 

20 

30 
46 
194 
111 


195 

2 

21 
37 
58 

111 


11.4 

43.6 

5.6 
2.4 
2.7 
9.8 


54.3 

51.3 

55.6 
54.1 
74.9 
45.1 


34.3 


Native-born of foreign father, by 


5.1 


Foreign-born: 

English 


38.9 




43.5 




22.4 




45.1 








1.594 


141 


864 


499 


9.4 


57.4 


33.2 






Total native - born of foreign 


73 
606 
838 


32 
98 
43 


38 
353 
511 


3 

215 
284 


43.8 

14.7 

5.1 


52.1 
53.0 
01.0 


4.1 




32.3 




33.9 







Native-born of native father, 
White 


1,011 

81 

89 
149 
485 
367 


183 

41 

8 
12 
32 
46 


609 

37 

55 

96 

392 

201 


219 

3 

26 
41 
01 
120 


18.1 

50.6 

9.0 
8.1 
6.6 
12.5 


60.2 

45.7 

61.8 
64.4 
80.8 
54.8 


21.7 


Native-born of foreign father, by 


3.7 


Foreign-born: 

English 


29.2 




27.5 




12.6 




32.7 








2,6S5 


404 


1,725 


556 


15.0 


64.2 


20.7 






Total native-born of foreign 


159 
1,209 
1,470 


82 
209 
135 


73 

695 

1,030 


4 
245 
311 


51.6 
22.2 
9.1 


45.9 
57.5 
69.8 


2.5 




20.3 




21.1 







On examining the table it is found that of the 2,685 persons 20 
years of age or over reporting conjugal condition, 404, or 15 per cent, 
were single; 1,725, or 64.2 per cent, were married; and 556, or 20.7 
per cent, were deserted, separated, or widowed. The foreign-born 
had a larger per cent of persons married and deserted, separated, or 
widowed, than the native-born. 



The native-born of foreign father 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Brooklyn. 



127 



had 51.6 per cent single persons. Comparing the sexes, we find 22.3 
per cent of the males and 9.4 per cent of the females single; 72.9 per 
cent of the males and 57.4 per cent of the females married; and 4.8 
per cent of the males and 33.2 per cent of the females deserted, sep- 
arated, or widowed. 

A study has been made of the cases where the wife was the head 
of the case and reported deserted, separated, or widowed. This infor- 
mation is found in the following tables: 

Table 81. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head, and reported widowed, 
deserted, cr separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

(This table Includes only races represented by 21 or more cas=s, as shown in Table 70. The totals, however, 

are for all races.) 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Number- 



Widowed. 



Deserted or 
separated. 



Per cent — 



Widowed. 



Deserted or 
separated. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of 

father, Irish 

Foreign-bom: 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Scotch 

Swedish 



193 
17 



21 

37 
65 
111 
8 
3 

12 
11 



132 
9 



(<■) 



(») 
(<■) 



31.6 



81. 
83.8 
55.4 
70.0 



(«) 

n 



m 
(<■) 

(a) 



19.0 
16.2 
44.6 
23.4 



Grand total. 



70.6 



29.- 



Total native-born of foreign father. 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



3 
213 
293 



2 
143 
214 



07.1 

73.0 



(<0 



32.9 
27.0 



a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

Table 82. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wifeis head, and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 70. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Total 

number of 

cases. 


Number — 


Per cent- 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


005 
32 

23 

58 
99 
302 
254 
42 
21 
34 
41 


132 
9 

1 

17 
31 
30 
85 
7 
3 
10 
8 


01 
8 


21.8 
28.1 

4.3 

29.3 
31.3 
11.9 
33.5 
16.7 
14.3 
29.4 
19.5 


10.1 




25.0 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 


.0 


Foreign-born: 


4 



29 

20 

1 


6.9 




6.1 




9.6 


Irish 


10.2 




2.4 




.0 




2 
3 


5.9 




7.3 








1,003 


357 


149 


21.5 


9.0 








49 
087 
970 


2 
143 
214 


1 
70 
79 


4.1 
20.8 
21.9 


2.0 




10.2 




8.1 







128 



The Immigration Commission. 



The number of cases in which the wife was the head, and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated was 506, or 30.5 per cent of the total 
number of cases. Of this number, 357, or 70.6 per cent, were widowed, 
and 149, or 29.4 per cent, were deserted or separated. 

The cases in which the wife was the head and reported widowed 
represented 21.5 per cent of the total number of cases, and those 
reported deserted or separated 9 per cent. The negroes, native-born 
of native father, report 25 per cent where the head was a wife de- 
serted or separated. 



GENERAL OCCUPATION OF CHILDREN. 

Information relative to the occupation of children is shown in the 
following tables: 

Table 83. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes in each section only races with 20 or more males or females reporting. The totals, 

however, are for all races.] 

MALE. 



General nativity and race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent — 




At home. 


At school. 


At work. 




315 

50 
177 
112 
20 
96 


10.2 

2.0 
8.5 

10.7 
5.0 

12.5 


87.0 

88.0 
89.8 
83.0 
90.0 
85.4 




Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


























922 


9.4 


87.1 










468 
784 
138 


8.5 
9.2 
10.9 


87.6 
87.4 
85.5 

















FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father, White 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father; 

English 

German .". 

Hebrew 

Irish 

. Italian, South 

Swedish 

Foreign-born, Hebrew 



Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father.. 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



311 


10.6 


83.9 


21 


9.5 


85.7 


68 


1.7 


91.4 


162 


11.1 


85.2 


112 


10.7 


83.9 


24 


4.2 


91.7 


23 


8.7 


91.3 


112 


5.4 


91.1 


954 


8.4 


87.0 


472 


8.7 


87.3 


790 


9.4 


86.1 


164 


3.7 


91.5 



5.5 

4.8 
0.9 
3.7 
5.4 
4.2 
.0 
3.6 



4.0 
4.6 
4.9 



TOTAL. 





626 

39 
108 
339 
224 
44 
42 
208 


10.4 

15.4 
1.9 
9.7 

10.7 
4.5 
4.8 
8.7 


85.5 

82.1 
89.8 
87.6 
83.5 
90.9 
95.2 
88.5 




Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


2 6 
















4.5 








2 9 








1,876 


8.9 


87.0 


4 1 








940 

1,574 

302 


8.6 
9.3 
7.0 


87.4 
86.7 
88.7 










4.3 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Brooklyn. 



129 



The foregoing table shows that out of 1,876 children 6 and under 
16 years of age involved in the cases assisted 8.9 per cent were at 
home, 87 per cent were at school, and 4.1 per cent were at work. 

The non-English-speaking races have a larger proportion of chil- 
dren at school than the English-speaking races, the Swedish, native- 
born of foreign father, having the highest per cent (95.2), and the 
English, native-born of foreign father, the lowest (82.1). The 
highest per cent of children at home was shown by the English, 
native-born of foreign father, and the lowest by the German, native- 
born of foreign father. The Germans, native-born of foreign father, 
have the greatest per cent of their number at work, and the Swedish, 
native-born of foreign father had none out of a total of 42 children. 

Among the children, either foreign-born or native-born of foreign 
father, 6 and under 16 years of age, a larger proportion of females 
than males are at school and at work, while of the white, native-born 
of native father, the females show a smaller per cent at school and a 
greater per cent at home and at work. 

The following table compares the children 6 and under 16 years of 
age of foreign parentage born in the United States and abroad and 
the white, native-born of native father. 

The foreign-born make a far better showing than the native-born 
of native father, with but one exception, where the South Italians 
born in the United States had a larger proportion of their number 
at work. 

Table 84. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, 
and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States, and also 20 or more 
children born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.] 



General nativity and race 
of father. 


Birthplace of 
child. 


Number 
report- 
ing 
complete 
data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


At 
home. 


At 
school. 


At 
work. 


At 
home. 


At 
school. 


At 
work. 


Nati v*-born, White 

Foreign-born: 


United States - 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States. 


626 

339 

208 

44 

21 


65 

33 
18 
2 
1 


535 

297 
184 
40 
20 


26 

9 
6 
2 


10.4 

9.7 
8.7 
4.5 
4.8' 


S5.5 

87.6 
88.5 
90.9 
95.2 


4.2 

2.7 




2.9 
4.5 




.0 



TEARS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



The foreign-born cases assisted by the society in Brooklyn num- 
bered 976. Of this number the period of residence in the United 
States of the head of the case was reported in 920 cases. 



130 



The Immigration Commission. 



The table submitted below shows, by race, the years in the United 
States for the foreign-born heads of cases. 

Table 85. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each 
specified number of years, by race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 70. The total, however, 

is for all foreign-born.] 



Race of head of case. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 



Under 



20 or 
over. 



Per cent in United 
States each specified 
number of years. 



Under 
5. 



Under 
10. 



Under 
20. 



English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, Louth 

Italian (not specified) 

Scotch 

Swedish 

Total 



56 
97 
292 
230 
42 
13 



30 
57 
45 
156 
11 
1 
17 
17 



12.5 
11.3 
22.3 

4.8 
21.4 
22.2 
15.2 

5.4 



15.9 



14.3 
17.5 
51.4 
10.9 

38.1 
50.0 
24.2 
21.6 



31.3 



35.7 
41.2 

84.6 
32.2 
73.8 
94.4 
48.5 
54.1 



59.9 



The tabic shows thr.t 15.9 per cent of the foreign-born heads of 
cases have resided in the United States less than fire years, 31.3 per 
cent less than ten years, and 59.9 per cent less than twenty years. 
The Italians and Hebrews are the most recent comers, while the 
English and Irish are the oldest residents. 

The period of residence in the United States for the persons in- 
volved in the cases who were foreign-born is shown in the following 
table. 



Table 86. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each speci- 
fied number of years, by race of individual. 

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign- 
born.] 



Race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United 
States each specified 
number of years. 




Under 


5 to 9. 


10 to 19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 




97 
158 
769 
345 
103 
51 
48 
57 


16 

19 

252 

24 

30 

20 

7 

4 


6 
13 
234 
17 
20 
12 
5 
11 


22 
41 
205 
79 
38 
17 
13 
23 


53 
85 
78 
225 
15 
2 
23 
19 


16.5 
12.0 
32.8 

7.0 
29.1 
39.2 
14.6 

7.0 


22 7 
2(X3 
63.2 
11.9 
48.5 
62.7 
25.0 
26.3 


45.4 




46.2 




89.9 




34.8 




85.4 




96.1 




52.1 




66.7 






Total 


1,841 


441 


358 


503 


539 


24.0 


43.4 


70.7 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Brooklyn. 



131 



ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH. 

The ability to speak English for the non-English-speaking immi- 
grant is given in the table following. 

Table 87 . — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and 
general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all non-English-spealcing races.] 



General nativity and race of individual. 


Number 


reporting complete 
data. 


Per cent who speak English. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


78 

211 

24 

23 

72 
356 
46 
26 
32 


87 
191 
23 
29 

90 
411 
52 
28 
35 


105 
402 
53 
52 

162 
76/ 
98 
54 
67 


100.0 
9J.5 
100.0 
100.0 

95.8 
94.4 
83.1 
80.8 
96.9 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

95.6 
91.0 
75.0 
78.6 
100.0 


100.0 




99.8 




100.0 




100.0 


Foreign-born: 


95.7 




92.6 




81.6 




79.6 




98. 5 








1.03D 


1,124 


2,163 


96.2 


D3. 3 | 94.7 






Total native-born of foreign father 


400 
639 


402 
722 


802 
1, 361 


99.8 
94.1 


100.0 
89.6 


99.9 
91.7 







The non-English-speaking races, both native-born of foreign father 
and foreign-born, 6 years of age or over, involved in the cases assisted 
report 94.7 per cent speak the English language. Of the foreign-born 
91.7 per cent speak English. When considering the proportion of 
these people who are recent immigrants, this is a good showing. The 
males exceed the females in their ability to speak English. 

The following table gives the per cent, by race, of the foreign-born 
and native-born of foreign father, 6 years of age or over, who speak 
English. 





Foreign- 
born. 


Native- 
bora of 
foreign 
father. 




Per cent. 
81.6 
92.6 
95.7 
98.5 


Per cent. 
100.0 




99.8 




100.0 




100.0 







It must be remembered that the South Italians and Hebrews 
assisted in Brooklyn are the most recent comers to the United States. 



132 



The Immigration Commission. 



CITIZENSHIP. 



The number and per cent of foreign-born males 21 years of age or 
over at the time of coming to the United States with a residence of % 
five years or over having first and second naturalization papers is 
given in the following table : 

Table 88. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United 
States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race 
of individual. 

[This table Includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


Race-of individual. 


Fully nat- 
uralized. 


Having 

first papers 

only. 


Fully nat- 
uralized. 


Having 

first papers 

only. 




22 
83 
46 
20 


11 

35 

31 

7 


3 

7 
6 
2 


60.0' 
42.2 
67.4 
35.0 


13.6 




8.4 




13.0 




10.0 






Total 


223 


113 


23 


50.7 


iO. 3 







Of the 223 foreign-born males, 113, or 50.7 per cent, were citizens 
of the United States, and 23, or 10.3 per cent, had declared their 
intention to become citizens. Of the races represented in this tabic, 
the South Italian had the greatest proportion of aliens. 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 



133 



BUFFALO. 



The report for Buffalo, N. Y., covers all cases assisted by the Charity 
Organization Society from December 1, 1908, to May 31, 1909. The 
several races found in Buffalo are assisted by this society, with the 
exception of the Hebrews, who are taken care of by the Hebrew 
Society. 



GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE. 



The following table shows in detail, by general nativity and race of 
head of case, the number and per cent of the cases of each race assisted 
and the number and per cent of the persons involved in such cases : 

Table 89. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity andrace of head of case. 





Cases assisted. 


Persons involved. 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Number. 


Per cent of 
total. 


Number. 


Per cent of 
total. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


318 
13 

9 

71 

6 

149 

100 

2 

29 

6 

1 

1 

5 
73 
1 
1 
1 
61 
2 

236 
1 

119 

194 
2 
1 
4 

680 
1 
2 
1 
14 
1 
4 
9 


15.0 
.6 

.4 
3.3 

.3 
7.0 
5.0 

.1 
1.4 

.3 
(°> 
(») 

.2 
3.4 

(<■> 
(a) 

(°) 

2.9 

.1 

11.1 

(») 

5.6 

9.1 

.1 

(«) 

.2 
32.0 
(°) 

.1 
(°) 

.7 

.2 
.4 


1,252 
37 

33 

236 

22 

717 

409 

7 

107 

23 

2 

5 

13 

259 

2 

2 

2 

231 

4 

910 

7 

434 

892 

13 

2 

6 

3,303 

4 

5 

5 

54 

3 

11 

33 








Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


4 




2.6 




2 














Polish 


1.2 




.3 


Turkish 


(<■) 


Welsh '. 


Foreign-born: 


.1 




2.9 




(») 

2.6 




Dutch 






10.1 






.1 




4.8 




9.9 




.1 




.1 




Polish 


36.5 




.1 






.1 




.6 




<<■) 

.1 






.4 








2,124 


100.0 


9,045 


100.0 








380 

711 

1,413 


17.9 
33.5 
66.5 


1,561 
2,850 
6,195 


17.3 




31.5 




68.5 







f Less than 0.05 per cent. 



135 



136 The Immigration Commission. 

The total number of cases assisted was 2,124, and the total number 
of persons represented in these cases was 9,045. The head of the case 
was native-born in 711 cases, or 33.5 per cent of the total number, 
and was foreign-born in 1,413 cases, or 66.5 per cent. There were 
practically twice as many foreign-born cases assisted as native-born, 
and included in the 711 native-born cases were 380 cases, or 12.9 per 
cent of the total number, in which the father of the head of the case 
was foreign-born. 

The general nativity of heads of cases was as follows : 

Native-born of foreign father 380 

Native-born 711 

Foreign-born 1, 413 

Total 2, 124 

It will be noted that the largest proportion for any one race is 32, 
represented by cases in which the head was foreign-born Polish. A 
much smaller per cent is shown for the other races, the white native- 
born of native father having 15 per cent, German foreign-born 11.1 per 
cent, South Italian foreign-born 9.1 per cent, German native-born of 
foreign father 7 per cent, Irish foreign-born 5.6 per cent, and Irish 
native-born of foreign father 5 per cent. 

The persons involved in these cases show practically the same distri- 
bution among the different races. 

Taking Table 1 as a basis, a selection of the races represented by 20 
or more cases was made for a more detailed study. 

APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED. 

The following tables present the proportion of cases and persons 
involved, by race of head of case, for each class of apparent causes of 
need. These causes are given in more detail in General Tables 2-5, 
Volume II, pages 170-173. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Buffalo. 



137 



Table 90. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, by 
general nativity and race of head of case. 



[Tills table Includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table £ 

are for all races.] 



The totals, however, 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 



Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 



Death or 
disability 
of another 
member 
of family. 



Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 

insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 



Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 



Old age. 



Other. 



Native-born of native father, 

\hite 

Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 

English 

German 

Irish 

Polish 

Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 
French) 

English 

German 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Polish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



318 



71 
149 
IOC 



73 
61 
236 
119 
194 
680 



35.2 



36.6 

38.3 
27.4 
13.8 



34.2 
24.6 
41.5 
30.3 
37.1 
33.8 



16.9 

20.8 
22.6 
10.3 



27.4 
26.2 
20.3 
23.5 
25.3 
12.5 



70.1 



83.1 
65.1 
72.6 
69.0 



64.4 
73.8 
49.6 
78.2 
78.4 
67.6 



21.4 



19.7 

12.1 
24.5 
34.5 



23.3 
13.1 
11.4 

15.1 
6.2 
15.6 



2,124 



34.3 



19.1 



16.1 



380 

711 

1,413 



31.6 
32.9 
35.0 



21.1 
21.1 
18.0 



71.8 
70.7 
67.2 



19.2 
20.4 
13.9 



4.1 



9.9 
.7 

8.5 
.0 



14.8 

20.3 

21.8 

7.2 

7.9 



9.2 



5.0 
4.8 
11.5 



5.3 



2.8 
6.0 
2.8 
3.4 



4.1 
3.3 
6.8 
2.5 
2.6 
2.6 



3.9 



4.2 

4.8 
3.4 



Table 91. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in 

are for all races.] 


Table 89. 


The totals, however, 




Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each speci- 
fied class of apparent causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
of another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father, 
White 


1,252 

236 
717 
409 
107 

259 
231 
910 
434 
892 
3,303 


30.8 

35.6 
35.7 
25.7 
12.1 

32.4 
25.1 
43.8 
31.3 
35.4 
34.3 


22.0 

16.9 
21.2 
30.1 
15.0 

27.0 
23.4 
24.2 
28.6 
25.3 
13.1 


75.1 

88.1 
68.2 
79.0 
70.1 

'68.7 
77.1 
54.0 
86.4 
81.6 
71.6 


23.6 

19.8 
12.3 
27.4 
34.6 

23.9 
13.4 
12.6 
18.9 
4.6 
14.2 


1.8 

4.7 
.1 

2.9 
.0 

3.1 
8.2 
9.7 
8.8 
3.1 
3.2 


5.1 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


3.4 




6.1 




4.2 


Polish 


2.8 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


4.6 




1.3 




7.0 




1.6 




2.1 


Polish 


2.5 








9,045 


33.8 


20.0 


72.7 


15.7 


3.9 


3.6 






Total native-born of foreign 


1,561 
2,850 
6,195 


30.4 
30.4 
35.4 


23.8 
23.1 
18.6 


74.8 
74.7 
71.8 


19.2 

• 21.2 

13.2 


1.7 
1.9 
4.8 


4.7 




4.9 




3.1 







65S12 — vol 34—11- 



-10 



138 



The Immigration Commission. 



The per cent of the total number of cases and the per cent of the 
total number of persons involved reporting the different classes of 
apparent causes of need in the order of importance are as follows. 
It will be noted that the total of the per cents for each cause is 
more than 100, due to the fact that more than one cause is often 
reported to a case. 




Persons 
involved.' 



Lack of emplovment or insufficient earnings. . . . 

Death or disability of bread winner 

Death or disability of another member of family 

Neglect or bad habits of bread winner 

Old age 

Other 



Per cent. 
68.4 
34.3 
19.1 
16.1 
9.2 
3.9 



Per cent. 
72.7 
33.8 
20.0 
15.7 
3.9 



The cause showing the largest proportion of cases and persons 
involved is lack of employment or insufficient earnings, alone or 
combined with other causes. Such a cause of need was reported 
in 68.4 per cent of the total number of cases assisted. Sixty-seven 
and two-tenths per cent of the foreign-born reported lack of employ- 
ment or insufficient earnings, as compared with 70.7 per cent of 
the native-born and 71.8 per cent of the native-born of foreign 
father. The greater per cent of the cases of each race included in 
these tables report lack of employment or insufficient earnings, 
alone or combined with other causes, as the apparent cause of 
need. 

The per cent for races reporting lack of employment or insufficient 
earnings, alone or combined with other causes, as an apparent cause 
of need, is as follows : 



Persons 
involved. 




English, native-born of foreign father 

Italian, South, foreign-born 

Irish, foreign-born 

English, foreign-born 

Irish, native-born of foreign father 

White, native-born of native father 

Polish, native-born of foreign father 

Polish, foreign-born 

German, native-born of foreign father 

Canadian (other than French), foreign-born 
German, foreign-born 



The cases in which the head is English native-born of foreign 
father show the largest proportion, 83.1, reporting lack of employ- 
ment or insufficient earnings as the apparent cause of need, and 
the foreign-born German the smallest proportion, 49.6. These two 
races present not only the largest and smallest proportion, but 
there is a considerable difference between the per cent shown by 
these races and the next in order. Of the first six races reporting 
lack of employment or insufficient earnings, as shown in the outline, 
one race, the foreign-born South Italian, is a non-English-speaking 
race; of the last five races, four are non-English-speaking races. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Buffalo. 139 

The second most important apparent cause of need was death or 
disability of breadwinner. Under this general heading was included 
accident to breadwinner, death of breadwinner, and illness of 
breadwinner. The per cent of the total number of cases so reported, 
alone or combined with other causes, was 34.3, and of the total 
number of persons involved was 33.8. Thirty-five per cent of the 
cases where the head was foreign-born reported death or disability 
of breadwinner as an apparent cause of need, 32.9 per cent of the 
native-born, and 31.6 per cent of the native-born of foreign father. 

The cases in which the head was foreign-born German assisted 
on account of death or disability of breadwinner show the greatest 
proportion, or a per cent of 41.5. This is closely followed by the 
German native-born of foreign father, reporting 38.3 per cent. 
The Polish native-born of foreign father show the smallest proportion 
reporting this cause, a per cent of 13.8. 

The third most important apparent cause was death or disability of 
another member of family, which includes accident to another member 
of family, death of another member of family, and illness of another 
member of family. Twenty-one and one-tenth per cent of the 
cases in which heads were native-born and 18 per cent of the foreign- 
born gave death or disability of another member of family, alone 
or combined with other causes, as the apparent cause of need. The 
cases in which the head was foreign-born Canadian, other than 
French, had the greater per cent of cases, 27.4, classified under 
this cause of need, and the Polish native-born of foreign father the 
smaller per cent, 10.3 per cent. 

Under neglect or bad habits of breadwinner are classed desertion 
of husband, incarceration of breadwinner, and neglect by bread- 
winner. Of the 2,124 cases assisted, 16.1 per cent gave neglect or 
bad habits of breadwinner, alone or combined with other causes, 
as the apparent cause of need. Of the total number of cases where 
the head was foreign-born, 13.9 per cent reported neglect or bad 
habits of breadwinner as compared with 20.4 per cent of the cases 
where the head was native-born, and 19.2 per cent where the head 
was native-born of foreign father. 

The cases in which the head was Polish native-born of foreign 
father head this list, having 34.5 per cent of their total number 
reporting neglect or bad habits of bread-winner, while the foreign- 
born South Italian show that only 6.2 per cent were assisted on 
this account. Four of the other races reported under this class 
have about the same proportion of cases — the Irish native-born of 
foreign father 24.5 per cent; Canadian, other than French foreign- 
born, 23.3 per cent; white native-born of native father 21.4 per cent; 
and English native-born of foreign father 19.7 per cent. 

Old age, alone, or combined with other causes, was reported as an 
apparent cause of need in 9.2 per cent of the total number of cases. 
This cause was given in 4.8 per cent of the cases where the head was 
native-born, 5 per cent of those native-born of foreign father, and 11.5 
per cent of those of the foreign-born. The foreign-born Irish and 
German show the largest proportion of cases reporting old age as an 
apparent cause of need, the former having a per cent of 21.8 and the 
latter 20.3. The other races report a small proportion of cases in this 
class of causes. The table showing the percentage of persons in- 



140 



The Immigration Commission. 



volved in the cases reporting old age as an apparent cause of need 
shows a much smaller number of persons involved under this class, 
due to the fact that the cases in which this cause is given consist, 
with but few exceptions, of from one to three individuals. 

AID GIVEN. 



Classification of the aid given was made under ten headings," and 
the six containing the greater number of cases were chosen for more 
detailed showings. 

The aid furnished by the society is shown in the following table: 

Table 92. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head 

of case. 

[Tills table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 89. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or medi- 
cal assist- 
ance. 


Rent. 


Native-born of native father, 
White 


318 

71 
149 
106 

29 

73 
61 
236 
119 
194 
680 


6.6 

2.8 
10.1 

7/5 
13.8 

6.8 
9.8 
7.6 
6.7 
8.2 
6.9 


36.8 

67.7 
28.2 
51.9 
20.7 

39.7 
32.8 
22.5 
58.8 
51.0 
20.1 


79.9 

80.3 
77.9 
78.3 
79.3 

75.3 
80.3 
80.5 
77.3 
87.1 
90.1 


52.8 

47.9 
66.4 
55.7 
55.2 

49.3 
63.9 
67.8 
55.5 
68.0 
76.8 


6.0 

5.6 
8.7 
8.5 
6.9 

8.2 
8.2 
9.3 
9.2 
3.1 
5.9 


11.3 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


26.8 




11.4 




24.5 


Polish 


10.3 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


13.7 




14.8 




11.9 




23.5 




25.8 




7.9 








2,124 


7.3 


33.5 


83.1 


64.8 


6.8 


13.8 






Total native-born of foreign 


380 

711 

1,413 


7.9 
7.2 
7.4 


41.6 
38.8 
30.8 


78.2 
79.0 
85.2 


55.5 
55.6 
69.4 


8.2 
7.2 
6.6 


17.9 




14.9 




13.2 







See General Tables 6 and 7, Vol. II, pp. 174 and 175. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Buffalo. 



141 



Table 93. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 89. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or medi- 
cal assist- 
ance. 


Rent. 


Native-born of native father, 
White 


1,252 

236 
717 
409 
107 

259 
231 
910 
434 
892 
3,303 


9.1 

5.1 
11.2 

8.8 
10.3 

9.7 
12.6 
10.7 

8.5 
10.0 

8.8 


38.0 

60.6 
28.6 
54.0 
18.7 

39.8 
32.9 
24.7 
73.7 
51.5 
21.3 


80.0 

78.4 
78.1 
84.6 
79.4 

71.0 
82.3 
77.8 
79.0 
86.3 
89.9 


55.6 

49.2 
69.0 
62.1 
57.9 

49.8 
69.7 
64.3 
58.8 
67.2 
76.7 


6.0 

4.7 
8.5 
10.3 
6.5 

6.6 
7.8 
12.2 
8.8 
4.1 
6.2 


11.5 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


22.0 




10.6 




25.2 


Polish 


11.2 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


11.2 




13.4 




11.8 




25.3 




23.3 


Polish 


9.0 








9,045 


9.4 


34.3 


83.7 


66.7 


7.2 


13.3 






Total native-born of foreign 


1,561 
2,850 
6,195 


9.4 
9.1 
9.5 


40.8 
39.1 
32.0 


79.8 
80.1 
85.4 


62.7 
59.4 
70.1 


8.5 
7.4 
7.1 


16.1 




14.0 




13.0 







Noted in the order of their importance, with the per cent of cases 
and per cent of persons involved, the aid given was as follows. A case 
may have received more than one kind of assistance and will, there- 
fore, appear under more than one heading. 





Persons 




involved. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


83.1 


83.7 


64.8 


66.7 


33.5 


34.3 


13.8 


13.3 


7.3 


9.4 


6.8 


7.2 



Food or meals 

Fuel 

Employment secured 

Rent 

Clothing 

Medicine or medical attendance 



As seen by referring to the foregoing tables, food or meals, alone, 
or with other assistance, were provided in 83.1 per cent of the total 
number of cases and for 83.7 per cent of the total number of persons 
involved in the cases assisted. Of the cases in which the head was 
foreign-born, 85.2 per cent were furnished this assistance, of the 
native-born 79 per cent, and of the native-born of foreign father 78.2 
per cent. Considering the races, 90.1 per cent of the cases in which 
the head was foreign-born Polish were found in need of food or 
meals. The per cent of cases for the other races varies little, from 
87.1 to 75.3 per cent. Similar proportions are shown for the persons 
involved. 

Fuel, alone, or with other aid, was furnished to 64.8 per cent of the 
total number of cases and to 66.7 per cent of the total number of 
persons involved. The cases in wnich the head was foreign-born 



142 



The Immigration Commission. 



received this assistance in 69.4 per cent, the native-born in 55.6 per 
cent, and the native-born of foreign father in 55.5 per cent. The per 
cent for the races given fuel range from 76.8 of the cases in which the 
head was foreign-born Polish to 47.9 of the native-born of foreign 
father English. 

Employment was secured in 33.5 per cent of the total number of 
cases, involving 34.3 per cent of the total number of persons. Of the 
total number of cases in which the head was foreign-born, 30.8 per 
cent were aided by having employment secured, of the native-born 
cases 38.8 per cent, and of the native-born of foreign father 41.6 per 
cent. Out of the 2,124 cases assisted, 68.4 per cent reported lack of 
employment or insufficient earnings and 33.5 per cent were given 
employment. 

Kent was given to 13.8 per cent of the total number of cases, cloth- 
ing to 7.3 per cent, and medicine or medical assistance to 6.8 per cent. 

PERSONS PEE CASE. 



The total number of persons involved in the cases assisted was 
9,045. Of this number 4,366 were males and 4,679 were females. 

Taking figures from Table 1, we find the average number of persons 
per case was 4.26. The cases where the head was foreign-born aver- 
aged 4.38 persons to a case, the native-born of foreign father 4.11 
persons, and the native-born 4.01 persons. 

The number and per cent of cases consisting of each specified num- 
ber of persons is presented in the following table : 

Table 94. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 89. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases con- 
sisting of each speci- 
fied number of per- 
sons. 


Per cent of cases con- 
sisting of each speci- 
fied number of per- 
sons. 




t 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


L 


2 to4 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


318 

71 
149 
106 

29 

73 
61 
236 
119 
194 
680 


23 

13 
5 
11 

7 
6 
27 
26 
8 
19 


185 

36 
66 
58 
23 

48 
35 

126 
51 
90 

296 


105 

22 
73 
34 
6 

18 
IS 
73 
39 
92 
326 


5 

5 
3 

2 
10 
3 
4 
39 


7.2 

18.3 

3.4 

10.4 

.0 

9.6 
9.8 
11.4 
21.8 
4.1 
2.8 


58.2 

50.7 
44.3 
54.7 
79.3 

65.8 
57.4 
53.4 
42.9 
46.4 
43.5 


33.0 

31.0 
49.0 
32.1 
20.7 

24.7 
29.5 
30.9 
32.8 
47.4 
47.9 


1.6 
.0 




3.4 




2.8 


Polish 


.0 


Foreign-born: 


.0 


English 


3.3 




4.2 




2.5 




2 1 


Polish 


5.7 








2,124 


156 


1,069 


827 


72 


7.3 


50.3 


38.9 


3.4 






Total native-born of foreign father 


380 

711 

1,413 


31 
56 
100 


197 
392 
£77 


144 
250 
577 


8 
13 
59 


8.2 
7.9 
7.1 


51.8 
55.1 
47.9 


37.9 
35.2 
40.8 


2.1 




4 2 







o See General Table 12, Vol. II, pp. 183-185. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Buffalo. 



143 



Of the 2,124 cases, 1,069, or 50.3 per cent, consisted of 2 to 4 persons; 
827, or 38.9 per cent, consisted of 5 to 8 persons; 72, or 3.4 r er cent, 
consisted of 9 or more persons, and 156, or 7.3 per cent, consisted of 
but 1 person. More than 50 per cent of the cases in which the head 
was German native-born of foreign father, and Polish foreign-born, 
contained 5 or more persons. 

"type" of case. 



In order to further study the cases, they were divided into three 
groups: First, cases consisting of husband and wife, with or without 
children; second, cases consisting of widow, with or without children; 
and third, cases consisting of widower, with or without children. 
Cases that could not be classified under one of these three groupings 
were tabulated as "others." For example, a case where the head 
was single; a case consisting of husband, wife, children, and husband's 
mother; a case consisting of widow, daughter, and grandchildren; a 
case consisting of brother and sister, etc. Stepchildren and adopted 
children were tabulated as children. 

This grouping is presented in the tables which follow: 

Table 95. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with 
each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, 


is shown 


in Table 89 


. The totals, however. 






are for all races.] 










3 

a 


Number of cases consisting of — 




Husband and 
and — 


wife 


Widow and — 


Widower and — 


Others. 


General nativity and 


































1 




race of head of case. 


o 








f, 










•a 










<D 


















T) 


















-a 






m 






3 


. d 


■a 




3 




a 




Ji 


A 




a 


£ 

T1 


£ 


3 






1 






T3 


a 


•a 


© 




T3 


■a 


■■A 


<a 




^3 


a 


3 


k 






£ 








a 






O 




2 

o 
o 




u 


o 






CJ 


o 


o 












3 

o 


a 
o 
o 


IN 
U 

O 


S 




3 

o 


o 


LC3 

© 


a 


13 
o 


o 
o 


CM 
O 


s 


H 


3 

o 


c- 

CJ 
ft 


k 

c- 
O 


3 




& 


'A 


.H 


CO 


CD 


E-i 


'A 


1—1 


m 


CO 


fcH 


'A 


- 


CO 


CO 


H 


rt 


CM 


H 


Native-born of native 








































father, White 


318 


40 


71 


78 


18 


207 


16 


53 


20 


7 


96 


2 


2 






4 


5 


6 


11 


Native-born of foreign 








































father, by race of 








































father: 










































71 
149 
106 

29 


13 

6 

20 


15 
28 
20 
16 


17 

47 

22 

5 


"17 
6 


45 
98 
68 
21 


11 
3 
9 


7 
24 
14 

6 


4 

15 

8 

1 


1 
3 
3 


23 

45 

34 

7 


2 








2 


"i 
l 


1 

4 
2 
1 


1 










fi 




1 








1 


3 


Polish 








1 


Foreign-born: 
















Canadian (other 








































than French) . . . 


73 


■i 


11 


11 




31 


7 


17 


14 




38 














4 


A 


61 
236 
119 
194 


11 
40 
12 
12 


13 
31 
14 
38 


15 
51 


2 
13 


41 
135 

58 
129 


6 

24 


9 

35 


3 
23 

7 
24 


1 

3 

4 
3 


19 
85 
58 
59 














1 

10 
2 
4 


1 




2 


i 


2 


1 


5 
1 
2 


l 


11 


Irish 


23 9 


26; 21 
8 24 


2 


Italian, South 


61 


IS 


4 


Polish 


680 


59 


130 


189 


74 


452 


17 71 


98 


7S 


214 


2 


4 


3 


1 


10 




4 


4 








Grand total 


2,124 


234 


408 


538 


159 


1,339 


138 1 293 


223 


54 


708 


9 


9 


5 


2 


25 


9 


43 


52 


Total native-born of 








1 






























foreign father 

Total native-born 


38C 


46 


m 


97 24 


252 


Vl 


51 


311 


^ 


114 


3 








'1 


•1 


f 


11 


711 


89 


159 


175 42 


465 


43 


lOfi 


51 


15 


215 


5 


2 






7 


8 


16 


V 


Total foreign-born 


1,413 


145 


2<9 


363 117 


874 


95 


187 


172 


39 


493 


4 


7 


5 


2 


18 


1 


27 


28 



144 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 96. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with or 
without children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[Tills table Includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown In Table 89. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Per cent of cases consisting of— 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Husband 
and wife, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widow, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widower, 

with cr 

without 

children. 


Others. 


Native-born of native father, White 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


318 

71 
149 
106 

29 

73 
61 
236 
119 
194 
680 


65.1 

63.4 
65.8 
64.2 
72.4 

42.5 
67.2 
57.2 
48.7 
66.5 
66.5 


30.2 

32.4 
30.2 
32.1 
24.1 

52.1 
31.1 
36.0 
48.7 
30.4 
31.5 


1.3 

2.8 
.0 
.9 
.0 

.0 
.0 
2.1 
.8 
1.0 
1.5 


3.5 
1.4 




4.0 




2.8 


Polish 


3.4 


Foreign-born: 


5.5 




1.6 




4.7 




1.7 




2.1 


Polish 


.6 








2,124 


63.0 


33.3 


1.2 


2.4 








380 

711 

1,413 


66.3 
65.4 
61.9 


30.0 
30.2 
34.9 


.8 
1.0 
1.3 


2.9 




3.4 




2.0 







The cases assisted by the society consisted of husband and wife, 
with or without children, in 1,339 cases, or 63 per cent of the total 
number; of widow with or without children, in 708 cases, or 33.3 
per cent, and of widower, with or without children, in 25 cases, or 1.2 

f>er cent. The cases in which the head was native-born have the 
arger per cent (65.4) consisting of husband and wife, with or without 
children, and the foreign-born the larger per cent (34.9) of cases con- 
sisting of widow, •with or without children." 

Owing to the fact that 234 cases, or 11 per cent of the total number, 
consisted only of husband and wife, a special study was made of these 
cases, tabulating by age of head of case and cause of need. 

A table showing the cases consisting only of husband and wife by 
race of head of case follows : 

Table 97 . — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 

totals, however, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 


Total 

number of 

cases. 


Cases consisting only of 
husband and wife. 




Number. 


Per cent. 




318 

71 
106 

61 
236 
119 
194 
680 


40 

13 

20 

11 
40 
12 
12 
59 


12.6 


Native born of foreign fother, by race of father: 


18.3 




18.9 


Foreign-born: 


18.0 




16.9 




10.1 




6.2 


Polish 


8.7 








2,124 


234 


11.0 








380 

711 

1,413 


46 
89 
145 


12.1 




12.5 




10.3 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Buffalo. 



145 



Of the cases in which the head was native-born 12.5 per cent con- 
sisted only of husband and wife, and of the foreign-born 10.3 per 
cent. The cases in which the head was Irish native-born of foreign 
father had 18.9 per cent consisting only of husband and wife, the 
English native-born of foreign father 18.3 per cent, the English 
foreign-born 18 per cent, and the German foreign-born 16.9 per 
cent. 

The apparent cause of need reported for the cases consisting of 
husband and wife follows : 

Table 98.- — Per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for each speci- 
fied class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 

totals, however, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Disabil- 
ity of 
husband. 


Death or 
disability 
of an- 
other 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 

or bad 

habits of 

husband. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father, 
White 


40 

13 
20 

11 
40 
12 
12 
59 


47.5 

38.5 
35.0 

18.2 
40.0 
16.7 
25.0 
20.3 


25.0 

15.4 
15.0 

36.4 
7.5 
16.7 
25.0 
5.1 


57.5 

92.3 
65.0 

81.8 
37.5 
83.3 
75.0 
59.3 


7.5 

15.4 
15.0 

.0 
47.5 

.0 
8.3 
5.1 


7.5 

15.4 
5.0 

27.3 
47.5 
41.7 
50.0 
54.3 


10.0 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


.0 




.0 


Foreign-bom: 


9.1 




5.0 




.0 




8.3 


Polish 


.0 








234 


31.6 


15.0 


63.7 


7.7 


32.1 


3.8 






Total native-born of foreign 


46 
89 
145 


37.0 
40.4 
26.2 


17.4 
21.3 
11.0 


78.3 
69.7 
60.0 


15.2 
11.2 
5.5 


8.7 
7.9 
46.9 


2.2 




5.6 




2.8 







Lack of employment or insufficient earnings, alone or combined 
with other causes, was the chief cause of need reported by the cases 
consisting only of husband and wife, having 63.7 per cent so reported. 
Old age comes next in importance, with 32.1 per cent. As shown by 
Table 99, in 44.4 per cent of these cases the head of the case was 60 
years of age or over. 

Disability of husband was reported in 31.6 per cent of the cases, 
death or disability of another member of the family in 15 per cent, 
and neglect or bad habits of husband in 7.7 per cent. 

Old age was reported a cause of need in 46.9 per cent of the cases 
in Which the husband was foreign-born, and only 7.9 per cent of the 
native-born. No such marked difference appears in the other causes. 



146 



The Immigration Commission. 



. The age of the husband is shown in the following table: 

Tabls 9d.^Age of head of case where case consists only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race oj head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 16 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 
totals, however, are for all races.] 



Genera] nativity and race 
of head of ease. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number where head is — 


Per cent where head is — 


Under 
50 years. 


50 to 59 
years. 


60 to 69 
years. 


70 years 
or over. 


Under 
50 years. 


50 to 59 
years. 


60 to 69 
years. 


70 years 
or over. 


Native-born of native 
father, White 

Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of father: 


40 

13 
20 

11 
40 
12 
12 
59 


28 

6 
17 

8 
3 
3 
3 
11 


5 
3 

10 
2 
2 
9 


5 

2 
2 

2 
15 
4 
3 
IS 


2 

2 
1 

1 
12 
3 
4 
21 


70.0 

46.2 
85.0 

72.7 
7.5 
25.0 
25.0 
18.6 


12.p 

23.1 
.0 

.0 
25.0 
16.7 
16.7 
15.3 


12.5 

15.4 
10.0 

18.2 
37.5 
33.3 
25.0 
30.5 


5.0 
15.4 




5.0 


Foreign-born: 


9.1 




30.0 




25.0 




33.3 


Polish 


35.6 








234 


97 


33 


55 


49 


41.5 


14.1 


23.5 


20.9 






Total native-born of foreign 


46 
89 
145 


33 
64 
33 


5 
10 
23 


4 
9 
46 


4 
6 
43 


71.7 
71.9 
22.8 


10.9 
11.2 
15.9 


8.7 
10.1 
31.7 


8.7 




6.7 




29.7 







The table shows that 58.5 per cent of the husbands in the cases 
consisting of only husband and wife were 50 years of age or over, 
71.9 per cent of the husbands who were native-born were under 50 
years of age, while 77.3 per cent of the husbands who were foreign- 
born were 50 j^ears of age or over. Of the husbands who were Irish 
native-born of foreign father 85 per cent were under 50 years of age, 
and of those white native-born of native father 70 per cent were 
under 40 years of age. a Over 65 per cent of the husbands Polish 
foreign-born and German foreign-born were 60 years of age or over, 
and 35.6 per cent of the Polish foreign-born were 70 years of age or 
over. 



AGE OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The table following shows the number and per cent of persons 
involved in the cases assisted within each age group, by general na- 
tivity and race of head of case. 

* See General Table 12, Vol. II, p. 185. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Buffalo. 



147 



Table 100. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 20 or more eases, as shown In Table 89. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified 
age group. 


Per cent within each specified 
age group. 


of head of case. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Native-born of native 
father, White 


1,252 

236 
717 
409 
107 

259 
231 
910 
434 
892 
3,303 


650 

102 

410 

205 

56 

130 
116 
430 
210 
528 
1,854 


419 

69 
225 
138 

48 

79 
54 
214 
116 
211 
846 


154 

53 
74 
50 
3 

40 
46 
153 
70 
120 
470 


29 

12 
8 
16 

10 
15 

113 
38 
33 

133 


51.9 

43.2 
57.2 
50.1 
52.3 

50.2 
50.2 
47.3 
48.4 
59.2 
56.1 


33.5 

29.2 
31.4 
33.7 
44.9 

30.5 
23.4 
23.5 
26.7 
23.7 
25.6 


12.3 

22.5 
10.3 
12.2 
2.8 

15.4 
19.9 
10.8 
16.1 
13.5 
14.2 


2.3 


Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of father: 


5.1 




1.1 




3.9 


Polish 


.0 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


3.9 




6.5 




12.4 




8.8 




3.7 


Polish 


4.0 








9,045 


4,820 


2,519 


1,278 


428 


53.3 


27.8 


14.1 


4.7 






Total native-born of foreign 


1,561 
2,850 
6,195 


814 
1,476 
3,344 


513 

945 

1,574 


195 
358 
920 


39 

71 

357 


52.1 
51.8 
54.0 


32.9 
33.2 
25.4 


12.5 
12.6 
14.9 


2.5 




2.5 




5.8 







Over one-half the total number of persons involved in the cases 
assisted were children under 16 years of age, and practically one-fifth 
were children under 6 years of age. Of the cases in which the head 
was native-born 85 per cent were less than 40 years of age and 15 
per cent were 40 years or over; of the foreign-born 79.4 per cent were 
less than 40 years and 20.7 per cent were 40 years or more. 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. . 

The conjugal condition of persons involved in the cases assisted, 
20 years of age or over, is shown in the following table: 

Table 101. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.) 

MALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Native-born of native father, 
White 


236 

54 
121 
79' 
44 


23 

6 
17 
11 
21 


208 

46 
99 
67 
23 


5 

2 

5 
1 


9.7 

11.1 
14.0 
13.9 
47.7 


88.1 

85.2 
81.8 
84.8 
52.3 


2.1 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


3.7 




4.1 




1.3 


Polish 


.0 



148 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 101. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual — Continued. 

MALE — Continued. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


32 
41 
150 
59 
141 
495 


1 


31 
41 
139 
58 
136 
453 




3.1 
.0 

4.0 
.0 

2.1 

6.7 


96.9 
100.0 
92.7 
98.3 
96.5 
91.5 









.0 




6 


5 
1 

2 
9 


3.3 




1.7 




3 

33 


1.4 


Polish 


1.8 








1,513 


126 


1,357 


30 


8.3 


89.7 


2.0 






Total native-born of foreign 


320 
564 
949 


57 
82 
44 


255 
469 
888 


8 
13 
17 


17.8 
14.5 
4.6 


79.7 
83.2 
93.6 


2.5 




2.3 




1.8 







FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father, 
White 


347 

63 
155 
96 
50 

105 
58 
233 
121 
193 
682 


22 

2 
16 
13 
10 

6 


233 

37 
98 
48 
35 

59 
39 
133 

61 
133 

458 


92 

24 

41 

35 

5 

40 
19 
92 
59 
56 
203 


6.3 

3.2 
10.3 
13.5 
20.0 

5.7 
.0 

3.4 
.8 

2.1 

3.1 


67.1 

58.7 
63.2 
50.0 
70.0 

56.2 
67.2 
57.1 
50.4 
68.9 
67.2 


26.5 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


38.1 




26.5 




36.5 


Polish 


10.0 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


38.1 




32.8 




8 
1 

4 

21 


39.5 




48.8 




29.0 


Polish 


29.8 








2,186 


109 


1,379 


700 


5.0 


63.1 


32.0 






Total native-born of foreign 


385 

749 

1,437 


42 
66 
43 


234 
474 
905 


109 
211 
489 


10.9 
8.8 
3.0 


60.8 
63.3 
63.0 


28.3 




28.2 




34.0 







TOTAL. 



Native-born of native father, 
White 


583 

117 
276 
175 
94 

137 
99 
383 
180 
334 
1,177 


45 

8 
33 
24 
31 

7 


441 

83 
197 
115 

58 

90 
80 
272 
119 
269 
911 


97 

26 
46 
36 
5 

40 
19 
97 
60 
58 
212 


7.7 

6.8 
12.0 
13.7 
33.0 

5.1 
.0 

3.7 
.6 

2.1 

4.6 


75.6 

70.9 
71.4 
65.7 
61.7 

65.7 
80.8 
71.0 
66.1 
80.5 
77.4 


16.6 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


22.2 




16.7 


Irish 


20.6 


Polish 


5.3 


Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 


29.2 




19.2 




14 
1 
7 

54 


25.3 




33.3 




17.4 


Polish 


18.0 








3,699 


235 


2,735 


729 


6.4 


73.9 


19.7 






Total native-born of foreign 


705 
1,313 
2,386 


99 
148 

87 


489 

942 

1,793 


117 
223 
506 


14.0 
11.3 
3.6 


69.4 
71.7 
75.1 


16.6 




17.0 




21.2 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Buffalo. 



149 



The total number of persons 20 years of age and over involved 
in the cases assisted was 3,699. Of this number 235, or 6.4 per cent, 
were single; 2,735, or 73.9 per cent, were married; 729, or 19.7 per 
cent, were deserted, separated, or widowed. Dividing them by sex, 
8.3 per cent of the total number of males and 5 per cent of the total 
number of females were single; 89.7 per cent of the total number of 
males and 63.1 per cent of the total number of females were married: 
2 per cent of the total number of males and 32 per cent of the total 
number of females were deserted, separated, or widowed. 

The foreign-born show the largest per cent of both married and 
deserted, separated, or widowed, and the smallest per cent of single 

Jiersons. The large per cent (47.7) of males, Polish, native-born of 
oreign father, who were single is due to the fact that practically all 
were between the ages of 20 and 29. 

Taking the cases where the wife was the head of the case reported 
as deserted, separated, or widowed, the following tables show the 
number and per cent widowed, and deserted, or separated: 

Table 102. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 



[Tills table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table £ 

are for all races.] 



The totals, however, 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father, White 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


91 

22 
41 
33 
5 

38 
19 
89 
68 
63 
199 


60 

16 

36 

23 

1 

24 
16 
78 
61 
47 
155 


31 

6 
5 
10 
4 

14 
3 

11 
7 
6 

44 


65.9 

72.7 
87.8 
69.7 
(a) 

63.2 
(«) 

87.6 
87.9 
88.7 
77.9 


34.1 
27.3 




12.2 


Irish 


30.3 


Polish 


(°) 


Foreign-born: 


36.8 




(°) 




12.4 




12.1 




11.3 


Polish 


22.1 








678 


528 


150 


77.9 


22.1 










105 
202 
476 


78 
140 
388 


27 
62 
88 


74.3 
69.3 
81.5 


25.7 




30.7 




18.5 







a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 



150 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 103. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 89. The totals, however, 

are for all races.} 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Total 
number 
of cases. 



Number. 



Widowed. 



Deserted or 
separated. 



Per cent. 



Widowed. 



Deserted or 



Native-born of native father, White 

Native-bom of foreign father, by race of 
father: 

English 

German 

Irish 

Polish 

Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than French) 

English 

German 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Polish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



318 



71 
149 
106 

29 

73 
61 
236 
119 
194 
680 



60 



16 

36 
23 

1 

24 
16 
78 
51 
47 
155 



711 
1,413 



78 
140 

388 



22.5 
24.2 
21.7 
3.4 



26.2 

33.0 
42.9 
24.2 
22.8 



24.9 



20.5 
19.7 
27.5 



9.7- 



8.5 

3.4 

9.4 

13.8 

19.2 
4.9 
4.7 
5.9 
3.1 
6.5 



7.1 



7.1 
8.7 
6.2 



There are practically no divorces among the people seeking aid 
from the societies, and the terms deserted and separated are almost 
synonymous, and have been combined. 

Of the 678 cases where the wife was reported deserted, separated, 
or widowed, 528 cases, or 77.9 per cent, were reported widowed, and 
150 cases, or 22.1 per cent, deserted or separated. There were 7.1 per 
cent of the total number of cases reported deserted or separated. 
The per cent of such cases is smaller among the foreign-born than the 
native-born. The foreign-born Canadian, other than French, have 
the largest per cent so reported, and the foreign-born South Italian 
the smallest. 

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF CHILDREN. 



A study was made of the occupation of children 6 and under 16 
years of age, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 
The table following gives the proportion of children in this age group 
at home, at school, and at work. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Buffalo. 



151 



Table 104.— P«r cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes in each section only races with 20 or more males or females reporting. The totals, 

however, are for all races.] 

MALE. 



General nativity and race of individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent — 



At home. At school. At work. 



Native-born of native father, White 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father. 

Canadian (other than French) 

English- 

German 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Polish 

Foreign-born: 

Italian, South 

Polish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



428 
32 



146 
78 



1,626 



1,431 
195 



4.4 

3.1 
2.6 
3.4 
1.3 

5.7 
16.2 

5.4 
12.2 



11.0 
9.0 
7.2 



94.7 
88.4 
93.6 
92.0 

79.0 

90.5 
84.1 



84.1 
86.4 
88.7 



.0 

2.6 
8.2 
5.1 
2.3 
4.7 

4.1 

3.7 



4.9 
4.6 
4.1 



FEMALE. 





431 

22 
32 

148 
60 
80 

467 

75 
64 


7.0 

4.5 
3.1 
6.8 
6.7 
6.3 
17.8 

6.7 
25.0 


91.4 

95.5 
96.9 
88.5 
86.7 
91.3 
76.9 

89.3 
71.9 


1.6 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


.0 




.0 




4.7 




6.7 




2.5 


Polish 


5.4 


Foreign-born: 


4.0 


Polish 


3.1 








1,423 


11.0 


85.2 


3.7 








824 

1,259 

164 


12.7 
10.7 
13.4 


82.5 
85.6 
82.3 


4.7 




3.7 




4.3 









859 

54 
70 
294 
138 
168 
1,058 

149 
146 


5.7 

3.7 
2.9 
5.1 
3.6 
6.0 
16.9 

6.0 
17.8 


91.5 

96.3 
95.7 
88.4 
90.6 
91.7 
78.1 

89.9 
78.8 


2.8 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


.0 




1.4 




6.5 




5.8 




2.4 




5.0 


Foreign-born: 


4.0 




3.4 








3,049 


9.8 


86.0 


4.2 








1,823 

2,690 

359 


11.8 
9.8 
10.0 


83.4 
86.0 
85.8 


4.8 




4.2 




4.2 







Of the 3,049 children reported 6 and under 16 years of age, 86 per 
cent were at school, 9.8 per cent were at home, and 4.2 per cent were 
at work. The Polish, both foreign-born and native-born of foreign 
father, show the smallest per cent of children at school; the Ger- 
man native-born of foreign father show the largest per cent of children 



152 



The Immigration Commission. 



at home. There was but slight difference between the males and 
females. 

The same data are shown in the following table grouping the races 
according to birthplace of child. 

Table 105. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at 
school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more children 
born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.] 



General nativity and race 
of father. 


Birthplace of 
child. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


At 
home. 


At 
school. 


At 
work. 


At 
home. 


At 
school. 


At 
work. 


Native-born, White 

Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than 
French). 


United States . 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States . 

Abroad 

United States . 
Abroad 


859 
54 

22 
294 

29 
168 
149 
1,058 
146 


49 
2 

1 

15 

10 

9 

179 

26 


786 
52 

20 
260 

26 
154 
134 
826 
115 


24 

1 

19 
3 

4 

6 

53 

5 


5.7 

3.7 

4.5 
5.1 
.0 
6.0 
6.0 
16.9 
17.8 


91.5 

96.3 

90.9 
88.4 
89.7 
91.7 
89.9 
78.1 
78.8 


2.8 

.0 

4.5 
6.5 




10.3 
2.4 


Polish 


4.0 
5.0 




3.4 



TEARS IN THE TJXITED STATES. 

The total number of cases where the head was foreign-born was 
1,412. A table showing the years the foreign-born heads of cases 
have been in the United States follows. 



Table 106. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States 
each specified number of years, by race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table I 

is for all foreign-born.] 



The total, however, 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United 
States each specified 
number of years. 




Under 
5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 


Canadian (other than French) 


73 
61 
236 
119 
194 
679 


4 
5 
10 

28 

58 


8 
10 
15 

5 
73 
101 


37 
15 
58 
21 
76 
250 


24 
31 

153 
93 
17 

264 


5.5 
8.2 
4.2 
.0 
14.4 
8.5 


16.4 
24.6 
10.6 
4.2 
52.1 
23.4 


67.1 
49.2 




35.2 




21.8 




91.2 




61.1 








1,412 


112 


224 


473 


603 


7.9 


23.8 


57.3 







The foregoing table indicates that a large per cent of the foreign- 
born assisted by the society (42.7) have been in the United States 
twenty years or over, 7.9 per cent under five years, 23.8 per cent under 
ten years, and 57.3 per cent under twenty years. The South Italian 
was the most recent comer; 14.4 per cent of the cases where the race 
of the head of the case was South Italian were in the United States 
less than five years, while only 8.8 per cent were here twenty years or 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Buffalo. 



153 



over. The Irish show only 4.2 per cent in the United States less than 
ten years and 78.2 per cent in the United States twenty years or over. 
Tabulating years in the United States by race of individual brings 
out practically the same results as shown in the table by race of head 
of case. 

Table 107. — Number and per cent of foreign-bom persons in the United States each 
specified number of years, by race of individual. 

[This table Includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign- 
born.] 



Race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United 
States each specified 
number of years. 




Under 
5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 


Canadian (other than French) 

English. 


170 
103 
422 
185 
512 
1,398 


27 
10 
34 

105 
201 


18 
20 
33 
11 
233 
264 


85 
25 
113 
40 
149 
501 


40 
48 
242 
134 
25 
432 


15.9 

9.7 

8.1 

.0 

20.5 

14.4 


26.5 
29.1 
15.9 
5.9 
66.0 
33.3 


76.5 
53.4 




42.7 


Irish 


27.6 




95.1 


Polish 


69.1 






Total 


2,874 


392 


599 


928 


955 


13.6 


34.5 


66.8 







ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH. 



The table showing the ability to speak English for the non-English- 
speaking races, by general nativity and race of individual, follows. 

Table 108. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general 
nativity ana race of individual. 

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, 
however, are for all non-English-speaking races.] 



General nativity and race of individual. 


Number reporting complete 
data. 


Per cent who speak English. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: > 


304 
93 
737 

172 
226 
600 


330 
87 
609 

245 
280 
769 


634 

180 

1,346 

417 

506 

1,369 


100.0 
98.9 
92.5 

91.9 
79.6 
65.7 


100.0 
98.9 
90.3 

87.8 
72.9 
55.0 


100.0 




98.9 


Polish . ., 


91.5 


Foreign-born: 


89.4 




75.9 


Polish 


59.7 




2,178 


2,375 


4,553 


85.0 


78.3 


81.5 








1,153 
1,025 


1,045 
1,330 


2,198 
2,355 


95.1 
73.7 


94.3 
65.8 


94.7 




69.2 







The non-English-speaking races, both native-born of foreign father 
and foreign-born, 6 years of age or over, involved in the cases assisted 
by the Charity Association Society, report 81.5 per cent able to speak 
the English language, and of the foreign-born alone 69.2 per cent. 
When considering that the greater per cent of the foreign-born are 



65812°— vol 34—11- 



-11 



154 



The Immigration Commission. 



not recent comers, this is a rather poor showing. The males exceed 
the females in their ability to speak English. The following table 
gives the per cent, by race, of the foreign-born and native-born of 
foreign father, 6 years of age or over, who speak English: 





Foreign- 
bom. 


Native- 
born of 
foreign 
father. 


Polish 


Per cent. 
59.7 
75.9 
89.4 


Percent. 
91.5 




98.9 




100.0 







A marked improvement is shown in the second generation of these 
races. It must be remembered that in Buffalo the South Italians 
are the most recent comers to the United States. 

CITIZENSHIP. 

The following table shows the number and per cent of foreign-born 
males, 21 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United 
States, who have their first and second naturalization papers: 

Table 109. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United 
States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of 
individual. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however,[is for all foreign-bom.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Kace of individual. 


Fully nat- 
uralized. 


Having first 
papers only. 


Fully nat- 
uralized. 


Having first 
papers only. 




23 
90 
24 
91 
311 


18 
71 
24 
31 
132 


2 
3 


78.3 
78.9 
100.0 
34.1 
42.4 


8.7 




3.3 




.0 




25 
42 


27.5 


Polish 


13.5 








565 


293 


73 


51.9 









Among the foreign-born males, 565 had been in the United States 
five or more years and were 21 years of age or over at the time of 
coming. Of this number 51.9 per cent were fully naturalized, 12.9 
per cent had first papers only, and 35.2 per cent were aliens. The 
Polish show the largest per cent of aliens. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



155 



CHICAGO. 

The report for the city of Chicago covers the assistance given by 
the Bureau of Charities for the period from December 1, 1908, to May 
31, 1909. On April 1, 1909, the Relief and Aid Society was consoli- 
dated with the Bureau of Charities to form the United Charities of 
Chicago, and from that date the aid furnished by the two societies 
was recorded. 

GENERAL NATIVITY AND EAOE. 



A summary of the work done by the society in Chicago during the 
period of this investigation is shown, by general nativity and race of 
head of case, in the following table: 



Table 110 — 



assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head 
of case. 





Cases assisted. 


Persons involved. 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Number. 


Per cent of 
total. 


Number. 


Per cent of 
total. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


557 
155 

19 

1 

3 

5 

1 

20 

16 

150 

161 

1 

4 

28 

16 

1 

8 

1 

1 

183 

17 

28 

15 

14 

26 

60 

2 

1 

12 

257 

2 

22 

310 

15 

55 

1 

47 

34 


17.8 
5.0 

.6 

W .l 

.2 

00 

.6 

.5 

4.8 

5.2 

00 
.1 
.9 
.5 

00 

.3 

00 

5.9 
.5 
.9 
.5 

.4 

.8 
1.9 

.1 
00 

.4 
8.2 

.1 

.7 
9.9 

.5 
1.8 

CO 

1.5 
1.1 


2,267 
527 

91 

4 

22 

22 

4 

88 

73 

683 

686 

2 

15 

123 

86 

4 

31 

4 

1 

934 

85 

116 

62 

60 

168 

249 

6 

4 

53 

1,172 

3 

92 

1,368 

83 

295 

8 

210 

165 


16.1 




3.7 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


.6 




00 




.2 




.2 


Dutch 


00 




.6 




.5 




4.8 




4.9 




00 




' .1 


Polish ... 


.9 




.6 




00 




.2 


Welsh 


00 


Foreign-born: 


00 




6.6 




.6 




.8 




.4 




.4 




1.2 




1.8 




ft 






.4 




8.3 




00 




.7 




9.7 




■6 




2-1 




.1 




1-5 




■ 1-2 



a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 



157 



158 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 110. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head 

of case — Continued. 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent of 
total. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent of 
total. 



Foreign-born — Continued. 

Mexican. 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Scotch 

Servian 

Slovak 

Slovenian 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Turkish 

Welsh 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



1 
2 

44 

624 

2 

2 

23 
1 

43 

14 
1 
112 
1 
6 



00 



0.1 

1.4 

20.0 

.1 

.1 

.7 



(«) 



00. 

00 ' 



1.4 

.4 



.2 



151 
3,189 



92 

7 
172 
60 
3 
531 
3 
16 



00 



00 
00 



0.1 

.1 
1.1 

22.6 

.1 

.1 

.7 

1.2 
.4 

3.8 



3,125 



14,123 



100.0 



435 
1,147 
1,978 



13.9 

36.7 
03. 3 



1,938 
4.732 
9,391 



13.7 
33.5 

66.5 



a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

The total number of cases assisted was 3,125, involving 14,123 
persons. The number of cases in which the head was foreign-born 
was 1,978, or 63.3 per cent of the total number, involving 9,391 
persons, or 66.5 per cent of the total number of persons. The cases 
m which the head was native-born numbered 1,147, or 36.7 per cent 
of the total number, involving 4,732 persons, or 33.5 per cent of the 
total number of persons. Included with the total native-born were 
435 cases, or 13.9 per cent of the total number of cases, in which the 
head was native-born of foreign father, involving 1 ,938 persons, or 13.7 
per cent of the total number of persons. 

The races represented by 20 or more cases, in the order of their 
number, follows: 



Race. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent. 



Polish, foreign-born 

White, native-born of native father 

Irish, foreign-born 

German, foreign-born 

Bohemian and Moravian, foreign-born 

Irish, native-born of foreign father 

Negro, native-born of native father 

German, native-born of foreign father 

Swedish, foreign-born 

English, foreign-born 

Italian, South, foreign-born 

Lithuanian, foreign-born 

Norwegian, foreign-born 

Slovak, foreign-born 

Magyar, foreign-born 

Canadian, other than French, foreign-bom 

Polish, native-born of foreign father 

Dutch, foreign-born 

Scotch, foreign-born ,„ 

Hebrew, foreign-born 

English, native-born of foreign father 



624 
557 
310 
257 
183 
161 
155 
150 
112 
60 
55 
47 
44 
43 
34 
28 
28 
26 
23 
22 
20 



20.0 
17.8 
9. it 
S.2 
5.9 
5.2 
5.0 
4.S 
3.6 
1.9 
1.8 
1.5 
1.4 
1.4 
1.1 



3,189 

2,267 

1,368 

1,172 

934 

r,S0 

527 

683 

531 

249 

295 

210 

151 

172 

165 

116 

123 

168 

92 

92 



22.6 

16.1 

9.7 

8.3 

6.6 

4.9 

3.7 

4.8 

3.8 

1.8 

2.1 

1.5 

1.1 

1.2 

1.2 

.8 

.9 

1.2 

.7 

.7 

.6 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Chicago. 



159 



The greatest proportion of the work done was for the cases in which 
the head was Polish foreign-born, having 624 cases assisted, or 20 per 
cent of the total number, involving 3,189 persons, or 22.6 per cent of 
the total number of persons. The cases in which the head was white 
native-born of native father, follows with 557 cases, or 17.8 per cent, 
involving 2,267 persons, or 16.1 per cent. By referring to the fore- 
going table the races assisted, together with the number and per cent 
of cases and persons involved, may be noted. Avery small propor- 
tion of the Hebrews are assisted by the United Charities, owing to 
there being an active Hebrew society in Chicago which cares for 
members of that race. 

The races represented by 20 or more cases have been selected for 
further study. 

APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED. 

The cause of seeking assistance from the society has been classified 
under 14 separate headings ° and further grouped under five classes of 
apparent causes of need. The per cent of cases and persons involved 
reporting each specified class of apparent cause of need is shown in 
the tables which follow, by general nativity and race of head of case. 
It will be noted that the percentage for each race totals more than 
100, due to the fact that more than one cause is often reported to 
a case. 

Table 111. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, 
by general nativity and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as 

are for all races.] 


shown in Table 110. 


The totals, however, 




Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of 
causes of need. 


apparent 


General nativity and race of 
bead of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
of an- 
other 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- , 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits 
of bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


557 
155 

20 
150 
161 

28 

183 

28 
26 
60 

257 
22 

310 
55 
47 
34 
44 

624 


28.5 
32.9 

35.0 
35.3 
37.9 
32.1 

32.8 

25.0 
26.9 
41.7 
35.8 
22.7 
39.4 
40.0 
31.9 
38.2 
36.4 
33.5 


25.7 
28.4 

35.0 
37.3 
27.3 
32.1 

29.5 

35.7 
30.8 
36.7 
26.5 
22.7 
31.6 
27.3 
27.7 
32.4 
31.8 
28.2 


59.6 
53.5 

55.0 
54.0 
52.2 
53.6 

65.6 

57.1 
53.8 
58.3 
53.7 
77.3 
44.5 
80.0 
63.8 
70.6 
52.3 
68.8 


30.7 
20.6 

25.0 
30.0 
37.3 
35.7 

13.1 

25.0 
26.9 
26.7 
31.5 
9.1 
30.6 
10.9 
23.4 
14.7 
29.5 
18.6 


3.4 
6.5 

.0 

.0 

2.5 

.0 

2.7 

3.6 

11.5 

6.7 

6.2 

.0 

8.4 

1.8 

.0 

.0 

15.9 

1.3 


14.9 




9.7 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


10.0 




5.3 




6.2 


Polish 


21.4 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . . 
Canadian (other than 


16.9 
39.3 


Dutch 


38.5 




6.7 




13.2 




9.1 




11.9 




5.5 




6.4 




5.9 




2.3 


Polish 


5.1 



a See General Table 2, Vol. U, p. 202. 



160 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 111, — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, 
by general nativity and race of head of case. 



■■ 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
of an- 
other 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits 
of bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Foreign-born— Continued. 


23 
43 
112 


34.8 
14.0 
39.3 


30.4 
25.6 
31.3 


56.5 
60.5 
44.6 


34.8 
32.6 
28.6 


4.3 
.0 

5.4 


13.0 


Slovak 


4.7 




10.7 








3,125 


33.5 


29.0 


58.3 


26.2 


3.9 


10.5 






Total native-born of foreign fa- 


435 
1,146 
1,978 


34.3 
31.3 
34.8 


31.7 
28.4 
29.3 


52.9 
56.3 
59.5 


35.2 
31.1 
23.5 


1.6 
3.1 
4.4 


7.4 




11.3 




10.0 







Table 112. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class of 
apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 110. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each speci- 
fied class of apparent causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
of an- 
other 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits 
of bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


2,267 
527 

88 
683 
686 
123 

934 

116 
168 
249 

1,172 
92 

1,368 
295 
210 
165 
151 

3,189 
92 
172 
531 


28.0 
28.3 

36.4 
38.5 
38.6 
30.9 

31.9 

23.3 
25.6 
37.3 
34.2 
21.7 
36.8 
34.9 
26.7 
31.5 
39.1 
34.1 
34.8 
15.7 
36.7 


28.1 
33.2 

46.6 
38.1 
33.1 
39.0 

31.6 

43.1 
33.9 
41.8 
28.8 
31.5 
35.7 
26.8 
27.1 
35.8 
28.5 
29.1 
46.7 
27.3 
34.7 


60.5 
56.2 

62.5 
54.5 
54.4 
57.7 

69.1 

63.8 
55.4 
57.4 
56.9 
76.1 
46.2 
82.0 
64.3 
71.5 
04.2 
69.7 
51.1 
59.6 
48.6 


35.4 
22.0 

22.7 
32.1 
42.1 
39.8 

13.0 

40.5 
27.4 
36.1 
33.6 
13.0 
34.6 
9.8 
28.6 
16.4 
33.1 
19.4 
40.2 
32.6 
30.1 


1.3 
3.0 

.0 
.0 
.6 
.0 

.7 

.9 
4.8 
3.2 
2.8 

.0 
2.8 
3.1 

.0 

.0 
6.0 

.8 
1.1 

.0 
1.9 


14.5 




13.3 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


11.4 




4.5 




8.2 


Polish 


21.1 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian . . . 
Canadian (other than 


16.8 
28.4 


Dutch 


39.3 




9.2 




14.7 




14.1 




14.0 




6.4 




7.6 




5.5 




1.3 


Polish 


4.9 




16.3 




3.5 




9.8 








14, 123 


32.6 


31.8 


60.6 


28.4 


1.6 


10.8 






Total native-born of foreign fa- 
ther 


1,938 
4,732 
9,391 


34.9 
30.9 
33.5 


35.7 
31.8 
31.9 


55.5 
57.9 
62.0 


37.8 
34.9 
25.1 


.5 
1.2 
1.8 


7.7 




11.6 




10.5 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Chicago. 



161 



The per cent of cases and persons involved for each class of apparent 
causes of need were as follows: 



Persona 
involved. 



Lack of employment or insufficient earnings 

Death or disability of breadwinner 

Death or disability of another member of family 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner 

Old age 

Other 



Per cent. 
58.3 
33.5 
29.0 
26.2 
3.9 
10.5 



Per cent. 
60.6 
32.6 
31.8 
28.4 
1.6 
10.8 



Lack of employment or insufficient earnings alone or along with 
other causes was found to be the chief cause of need, having 58.3 per 
cent of the cases, involving 60.6 per cent of the total number of per- 
sons, so reported. The proportion of cases for each race reporting 
lack of employment or insufficient earnings as a cause of need varies 
from 80 per cent of the cases in which the head was South Italian 
foreign-born, to 44.5 per cent of the cases in which the head was Irish 
foreign-born. The white native-born of native father reported this 
class of causes in 59.6 per cent of such cases. 

Death or disability of breadwinner includes accident, illness, or 
death of breadwinner, and was reported, either alone or along with 
other causes, in 33.5 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 
32.6 per cent of the total number of persons. The race reporting the 
largest per cent (41.7) of cases seeking assistance on account of death 
or disability of breadwinner is the English foreign-born, and the 
smallest per cent (14) is the Slovak foreign-born. 

Death or disability of another member of family includes accident, 
illness, or death of another member of family. This apparent cause 
of need, alone or along with other causes, was found in 29 per cent 
of the total number of cases, involving 31.8 per cent of the total 
number of persons. 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner, alone or along with other 
causes, was reported the apparent cause of need in 26.2 per cent of 
the total number of cases, involving 28.4 per cent of the total number 
of persons. Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner includes desertion 
by husband, incarceration of breadwinner, intemperance of bread- 
winner, and neglect by breadwinner. This cause was reported in 23.5 
per cent of the cases where the head was foreign-born, in 31.1 per cent 
of the cases where the head was native-born, and in 35.2 per cent of 
the cases where the head was native-born of foreign father. 

Old age was the cause of need in 3.9 per cent of the total number 
of cases, involving 1.6 per cent of the total number of persons. 



162 



The Immigration Commission. 



AID GIVEN. 

The assistance furnished by the society is shown in the following 
tables. The six most important headings were selected for presen- 
tation in these tables: 

Table 113. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head of 

case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 110. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent of cases given aid specified. 



Cash. 



Clothing. 



Employ- 
ment se- 
cured. 



Food or 
meals. 



Fuel. 



Medicine 
or medi- 
cal as- 
sistance. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 

English 

German 

Irish 

Polish 

Foreign-bom: 

Bohemian and Moravian.. 

Canadian (other than 
French) 

Dutch 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign fa- 
ther 

Total native-bom 

Total foreign-born 



557 
155 



20 
150 
161 

28 

183 

28 
20 
00 

257 
22 

310 
55 
47 
34 
44 

624 
23 
43 

112 



435 
1,147 
1,978 



15.1 
23.2 



15.0 
16.0 
14.3 
17.9 

11.5 

7.1 

7.7 

8.3 
11.7 

4.5 
11.0 

7.3 
10.6 

8.8 
38. 6 
15.4 

8.7 
16.3 
11.6 



14.1 



15.2 
1(1. 2 
12.9 



18.7 
18.7 



20.0 
16.7 
19.9 
25.0 

30.1 

28.6 

26.9 
20.0 
22.6 
13.6 
22.3 
12.7 
23.4 
32.4 
22.7 
25.2 
8.7 
4.7 
19.6 



27.3 
20.6 



30.0 
26.7 
23.0 
25.0 

15.3 

35.7 
11.5 
26.7 
26.8 
36.4 
24.8 
25.5 
31.9 
29.4 
27.3 
39.4 
30.4 
39.5 
22.3 



42.2 
43.2 



45.0 
49.3 
41.6 
53.6 

46.4 

42.9 
3S.5 
43.3 
44.0 
45.5 
50.3 
41.8 
55.3 
58.8 
45.5 
51.8 
47.8 
37.2 
43.8 



21.8 



28.3 



19.3 
18.9 
23.4 



25. 5 
25.7 
29.7 



45.7 

43.7 
48.3 



23.7 

29.7 



35.0 
28.0 
25.5 
39.3 

31.7 

35.7 
11.5 
26.0 
26.5 

50.0 
30.3 
14.5 
46.8 
52.9 
'29.5 
34.5 
26.1 
20.9 
30.4 



29.2 



26.7 
25.6 
31.3 



28.5 
31.6 



30.0 

38.0 
39.1 
46.4 

37.2 

28.6 

30.8 
46.7 
31.1 
31.8 
38.4 
25.5 
31.9 
44.1 
43.2 
38.1 
34.8 
32.6 
33.9 



34.7 



35.6 
31.6 
36.5 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Chicago. 



163 



Table 114. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 
and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 ormore cases, as shown in Table 110. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involvec 


in cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or medi- 
cal assist- 
ance. , 


Native-bom of native father: 
White ". 


2,267 
527 

88 
683 
686 
123 

934 

116 
168 
249 

1,172 
92 

1,368 
295 
210 
165 
151 

3,189 

92 

172 

531 


17.2 
20.7 

19.3 
15.2 
16.2 
20.3 

11.3 

12.1 

7.1 

8.4 

10.4 

7.6 

10.5 

5.8 

11.4 

11.5 

33.1 

16.7 

6.5 

19.8 

10.7 


23.1 
26.6 

29.5 
19.8 
27.4 
39.8 

33.3 

43.1 
26.8 
24.5 
26.3 
19.6 
27.3 
13.6 
32.4 
40.0 
31.8 
29.2 
16.3 
7.6 
25.2 


26.3 
23.9 

29.5 
27.1 
21.3 

24.4 

14.6 

43.1 
8.9 
24.1 
28.5 
26.1 
24.6 
24.1 
27.1 
33.9 
36.4 
39.0 
31.5 
39.0 
22.6 


46.6 
45.0 

47.7 
63.6 
48.8 
56.1 

47.6 

56.0 
35.1 
44.6 
44.8 
50.0 
50.8 
44.1 
57.1 
66.1 
43.0 
52.9 
53.3 
39.0 
48.0 


26.7 
30.7 

44.3 
31.6 
29.3 

47.2 

34.0 

35.3 
14.3 
24.1 
24.6 
59.8 
30.8 
12.2 
50.0 
58.8 
27.8 
35.4 
33.7 
23.3 
32.8 


32.3 




30.9 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


35.2 




37.6 




41.7 


Polish 


56.1 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian . . . 
Canadian (other than 


37.8 
27.6 


Dutch 


29.8 




50.6 




32.0 




39.1 




42.6 




30.2 




32.4 




44.2 




43.0 


Polish 


39.9 




39.1 




34.3 




38.4 








14,123 


14.5 


26.9 


28.3 


49.4 


31.1 


37.0 






Total native-born of foreign 


1,938 
4,732 
9,391 


16.5 
17.3 
13.1 


25.4 
24.5 
28.2 


25.1 
25.5 
29.8 


52.0 
48.6 
49.7 


30.3 
28.6 
32.3 


37.1 




34.1 


Total foreign-born 


38.4 



The per cent of cases and persons involved furnished the aid 
specified is shown in the following table: 




Persons 
involved. 



Food or meals 

Medicine or medical assistance 

Fuel 

Employment secured 

Clothing 

Cash 



Per cent. 
49.4 
37.0 
31.1 

28.3 
26.9 

14.5 



The assistance furnished the greatest number of cases was food 
or meals, which was given to 46.6 per cent of the total number of 
cases, involving 49.4 per cent of the total number of persons. Medi- 
cine or medical assistance was furnished to 34.7 per cent of the cases, 
fuel to 29.2 per cent of the cases, employment was secured for 28.3 
per cent of the cases, clothing was furnished to 21.8 per cent of the 
cases, and cash to 14.1 per cent. 



164 



The Immigration Commission. 



PERSONS PEE CASE. 

The average number of persons to a case, as obtained from Table 
1, is 4.52. The average number of persons per case for the cases in 
which the head was foreign-born is 4.75, and native-born 4.13. 

The number and per cent of cases consisting of each specified 
number of persons, by race of head of case, are shown in the following 
table: 

Table 115. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown In Table 110. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases consisting of each 
specified number of persons. 


Percent of cases consisting of each 
specified number of persons. 


of head of case. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


557 
155 

20 
150 
101 

28 

183 

28 
26 
60 

257 
22 

310 
55 
47 
34 
44 

624 
23 
43 

112 


72 
27 

4 
12 
24 

4 

10 

8 

6 
19 
5 
51 
2 
5 
2 
12 
28 
8 
4 
10 


272 
87 

7 
07 
65 
11 

61 

8 

8 

28 

121 

5 

115 

20 

17 

13 

18 

219 

4 

21 

42 


189 
37 

8 
06 
04 
12 

102 

11 
11 
25 
97 
12 

124 
25 
25 
17 
13 

336 
10 
18 
54 


24 
4 

1 

5 
8 
1 

10 

1 

7 

1 

20 

20 
8 

2 

1 

41 

1 

6 


12.9 
17.4 

20.0 
8.0 
14.9 
14.3 

5.5 

28.6 

.0 

10.0 

7.4 
22.7 
16.5 

3.6 
10.6 

5.9 
27.3 

4.5 
34.8 

9.3 

8.9 


48.8 
56.1 

35.0 
44.7 
40.4 
39.3 

33.3 

28.6 
30.8 
46.7 
47.1 
22.7 
37.1 
36.4 
36.2 
38.2 
40.9 
35.1 
17.4 
48.8 
37.5 


33.9 
23.9 

40.0 
44.0 
39.8 
42.9 

55.7 

39.3 
42.3 
41.7 
37.7 
545 
40.0 
45.5 
53.2 
50.0 
29.5 
53.8 
43.5 
41.9 
48.2 


4.3 




2.6 


Native-bom of foreign 
father, by race of father: 


5.0 




3.3 




5.0 


Polish 


3.6 


Foreign-bom: 

Bohemian and Mora- 


5.5 


Canadian (other than 


3.6 


Dutch 


26.9 




1.7 




7.8 




.0 




6.5 




14.5 




.0 




5.9 




2.3 


Polish 


6.6 




4.3 


Slovak 


.0 




5.4 








3,125 


331 


1,294 


1,326 


174 


10.6 


41.4 


42.4 


5.6 






Total native-born of for- 


435 
1,147 
1,978 


48 
147 
184 


186 
545 
749 


182 
408 
918 


19 
47 
127 


11.0 
12.8 
9.3 


42.8 
47.5 
37.9 


41.8 
35.6 
46.4 


4.4 




4.1 




6.4 







The largest number is found to be cases consisting of from 5 to 8 
persons, with 1,326 cases, or 42.4 per cent of the total number. 
Cases consisting of from 2 to 4 persons numbered 1,294, or 41.4 per 
cent of the total number, those consisting of 9 or more persons num- 
bered 174, or 5.6 per cent of the total number, and 331 cases, or 10.6 
Eer cent of the total number, consisted of but 1 person. Over one- 
alf the cases whose heads were foreign-born consisted of 5 or more 
persons, while the cases whose heads were native-born show a greater 
proportion of cases consisting of less than 5 persons. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Chicago. 



165 



'TYPE OF CASE. 



Separating the cases according to husband and wife, widower, and 
widow, with specified number of children, we have the following 
tables: 

Table 116. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with 
each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 110. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races. | 





Total 
num- 
ber of 
cases. 


Number of cases consisting of — 




Husband and wife 
and— 


Widow and— 


Widower 












General nativity and 
race of head of case. 


a 

Oi 

■s 

% 

o 


i 
1 

U 

O 


a 
3 

i 

s 

co 


a 
1 
3 

V 

<u 
t-t 


a 






3 



a 

0) 
13 

3 

w 



•a 


s 

3 
1 

<N 

O 

1— 1 


8 

1 

S 

CO 


s 

«- 

•a 

3 

<u 


8 


CD 


3 


a 

2 

55 


a 
-a 

1 



a 

3 
3 

u 
»o 


+^ 
CO 


a 

1 

03 
M 

O 

B 


CD 


s 




g 
B 

ft 


s 


E 

O 

a 

u 



N 


3 



Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


557 
155 

20 
150 
161 

28 

183 

28 
26 
60 

257 
22 

310 
55 
47 
34 
44 

624 
23 
43 

112 


40 
14 

"~i 
11 

2 

""3 
7 

21 
1 

15 
2 

'"i 

1 

17 

" "2 

7 


95 
15 

4 
30 
21 

5 

20 

2 

2 

12 

35 

2 

26 

7 

9 

7 

1 

112 

1 

12 

11 


103 
17 

7 
37 
34 

5 

46 

5 

3 
15 
52 

6 
62 
17 
18 
15 

4 
185 

7 
15 
27 


41 

7 

2 
8 
14 
2 

18 

4 
8 
3 

29 
1 

34 
9 
2 
2 
2 

64 
2 
1 

12 


279 
53 

13 
79 
80 
12 

86 

11 
16 
37 

137 
10 

137 
35 
29 
25 
8 

378 
10 
30 
57 


33 

15 

2 
4 
4 

3 
6 

"3 

7 

""23 
.... 

1 

11 
3 
7 
1 
5 


81 
35 

"ii 

17 

4 

17 

3 
1 
5 

40 
1 

42 
6 
4 
4 

10 

45 

~"i 

12 


65 
17 

1 

25 
25 
3 

49 

2 
4 
4 

40 
3 

42 
4 
6 
3 
7 

93 
3 
3 

19 


13 

2 

"is 

3 

8 

1 
1 
3 

9 
2 
12 

"i 

32 

"i 

6 


192 
69 

3 

54 

49 

7 

77 

12 
6 
15 
96 
6 
119 
10 
11 
8 
29 
173 
10 
10 
42 


8 
1 


2 
2 


3 
2 




13 
5 


31 
11 

2 

8 

17 
4 

6 

2 

""2 
9 
3 
22 
1 
2 


42 

17 

2 
6 
9 

5 

8 

3 
3 
5 
9 
1 
21 
6 
2 


73 




98 


Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of 
father: 


4 




"3 


1 
3 


2 




3 
6 


14 




% 


Polish 


q 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Mo- 


1 


4 


1 




6 


l-l 


Canadian (other 


■; 


Dutch 








1 


1 
1 
6 
2 
11 
3 
3 
1 


s 




1 
3 
2 
6 
1 
2 
1 






7 




1 


1 


1 


18 




4 


Irish 

Italian, South 

Lithuanian 


1 
1 

1 


3 
1 


1 


43 

7 
4 


Polish 








1 
15 


6 
34 


7 


10 
1 
1 
1 


5 


6 
1 


3 
1 


24 
3 
1 
2 


49 






Slovak 


2 
4 


""*7 


? 




1 






11 






Grand total. . 


3,125 


162 


466 


722 


289 


1,639 


139 


370 


435 


106 


1.050 


43 


23 


20 


8 


94 


149 


193 


342 


Total native-born of 

foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 


435 
1,147 
1,978 


20 
74 
88 


76 
186 
280 


99 
219 
503 


36 

84 
205 


231 

563 

1,076 


"13 
61 
78 


48 
164 
206 


62 
144 
291 


13 

28 
78 


136 
397 
653 


3 

12 
31 


4 
8 
15 


2 

7 
13 


"s 


9 
27 
67 


32 

74 
75 


27 
86 
107 


59 
160 
182 



166 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 117. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with 
or without children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table Included only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown In Table 110. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 

English 

German 

Irish 

Polish 

Foreign-bom: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian (other than French) 

Dutch 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-bom 

Total foreign-born 



Total 

number of 

cases. 



557 
155 



20 
150 
161 

28 

183 
28 
26 
60 

257 
22 

310 
55 
47 
34 
44 

624 
23 
43 

112 



435 
1,147 
1,978 



Per cent of cases consisting of- 



Husband 
and wife, 
with or 
without 
children. 



50.1 

34.2 



65. 
52.7 
49.7 
42.9 

47.0 
39.3 
61.5 
61.7 
53.3 
45.5 
44.2 
63.6 
61.7 
73.5 
18.2 
60.6 
43.5 
69.8 
50.9 



53.1 
49.1 
54.4 



Widow, 
with or 
without 
children. 



34.5 
44.5 



15.0 
30.0 
30. 4 
25.0 

42.1 
42.9 
23.1 
25.0 
37.4 
27.3 
38.4 
18.2 
23.4 
23.5 
65.9 
27.7 
43.5 
23.3 
37.5 



33.1 



31.3 
34.6 

33.0 



Widower, 
with or 
without 

children. 



2.3 

3.2 



.0 
2.0 
3.7 

.0 

3.3 
.0 

3.S 
1.7 
2.3 
9.1 
3.5 
5.5 
6.4 
2.9 
.0 
3.8 
13.0 
2.3 
1.8 



3.0 



2.1 
2.4 

3.4 



13.1 
18.1 



20.0 
9.3 
16.1 
32.1 

7.7 
17.9 
11.5 
11.7 

7.0 
18.2 
13.9 
12.7 

8.5 

.0 

15.9 

7.9 
.0 

4.7 



13.6 
13.9 
9.2 



The term "widow," as used in these tables, includes, besides the 
widowed, deserted, or divorced, those wives whose husbands are 
residing elsewhere and unmarried mothers living with their children. 

The above tables show that 1,639 cases, or 52.4 per cent of the total 
number, consisted of husband and wife, with or without children. 
The greatest proportion of these cases consisted of husband and wife 
with from 3 to 5 children. The cases consisting of widow, with or 
without children, numbered 1,050, or 33.6 per cent of the total num- 
ber. Like the cases consisting of husband and wife, the greatest 
proportion of the cases consisted' of widow with from 3 to 5 children. 
The cases consisting of widower, with or without children, numbered 
94, or 3 per cent of the total number of cases. Out of the 94 cases, 
43 consisted of widower alone. 

The cases in which the head was Norwegian foreign-born, show the 
highest per cent (65.9 per cent) consisting of widow with. or without 
children. 

Owing to the proportion of cases consisting only of husband and 
wife reported by some cities, a table showing the number and per cent 
of these cases as compared with the total number is given on the 
next page. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Chicago. 



167 



Table 118. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 
totals, however, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Cases consisting only 
of husband and wife. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Native-bom of native father: 

White 


557 
155 
161 

257 
310 
624 


40 
14 
11 

21 
15 
17 


7.2 




9.0 




6.8 


Foreign-born: 


8.2 




4.8 


Polish 


2.7 








3,125 


162 


5.2 








435 
1,147 
1,978 


20 
74 
88 


4.6 




6.5 




4.4 







AGE OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 



The age of the persons involved in the cases assisted is shown in 
the following table: 

Table 119. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 110. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head 


Number 
reporting 


Number within each 
fled age group. 


speci- 


Per cent within each 
tied age group. 


speci- 


of case. 


complete 
data. 


Under 

16. \ 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


2,259 
526 

86 
682 
686 
123 

932 
114 
■165 
249 

1,167 
92 

1,367 
295 
210 
165 
151 

3,187 
92 
172 
530 


1,188 
258 

49 
408 
371 

74 

582 

65 

93 

123 

654 

57 

744 

187 

124 

99 

72 

1,926 

48 

94 

285 


714 
168 

28 
215 
217 

44 

246 
25 
40 
69 

292 
30 

340 
72 
65 
52 
39 

905 
25 
66 

132 


304 

71 

9 
50 
82 

4 

96 
21 
26 
36 

176 
5 

228 
34 
19 
14 
25 

313 
15 
12 
94 


53 
29 

9 
16 
1 

8 
3 
6 
21 
45 

55 
2 
2 

15 
43 
4 

19 


52.6 
49.0 

57.0 
59.8 
54.1 
60.2 

62.4 
57.0 
56.4 
49.4 
56.0 
62.0 
54.4 
63.4 
59.0 
60.0 
47.7 
60.4 
52.2 
54.7 
53.8 


31.6 
31.9 

32.6 
31.5 
31.6 
35.8 

26.4 
21.9 
24.2 
27.7 
25.0 
32.6 
24.9 
24.4 
31.0 
31.5 
25.8 
28.4 
27.2 
38.4 
24.9 


13.5 
13.5 

10.5 
7.3 

12.0 
3.3 

10.3 
18.4 
15.8 
14.5 
15.1 

5.4 
16.7 
11.5 

9.0 

8.5 
16.6 

9.8 
16.3 

7.0 
17.7 


2.3 
5.5 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


.0 




1.3 




2.3 


Polish 


.8 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian (other than French) . 


.9 
2.6 
3.6 




8.4 




3.9 




.0 




4.0 




.7 




1.0 




.0 




9.9 


Polish 


1.3 




4.3 




.0 




3.6 








14,093 


7,986 


4,030 


1,720 


357 


56.7 


28.6 


12.2 


2.5 






Total native-born of foreign father. . 


1,935 
4,720 
9,373 


1,115 
2,561 
5,425 


612 
1,494 
2,536 


173 

548 

1,172 


35 
117 
240 


57.6 
54.3 
57.9 


31.6 
31.7 
27.1 


8.9 
11.6 

12.5 


1.8 
2.5 




2.6 







168 



The Immigration Commission. 



Of the 14,093 persons involved in the cases assisted who reported 
age, 7,986, or 56.7 per cent, were under 16 years of age. From Gen- 
eral Table 12, Volume II, page 218, it will be noted that 7,253 persons, 
or 51.5 per cent, were under 14 years of age, and that 3,087, or 21.9 
per cent, were under 6 years of age. Only 14.7 per cent of the total 
number of persons reporting age were 40 years of age or over, and 
but 2.5 per cent were 60 years of age or over. 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The conjugal condition of the persons 20 years of age or over 
involved in the cases assisted is shown by race of individual and sex 
in the following table: 

Table 120. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.] 

MALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


381 
80 

113 
129 

104 
48 

152 

181 
47 
36 

469 
66 


63 
15 

29 
39 

9 

4 

8 

25 

26 

4 

39 

4 


308 
60 

81 
87 

89 
42 
140 
146 
21 
31 
412 
61 


10 
5 

3 
3 

6 
2 
4 
10 


16.5 
18.8 

25.7 
30.2 

8.7 
8.3 
5.3 
13.8 
55.3 
11.1 
8.3 
6.1 


80.8 
75.0 

71.7 
67.4 

85.6 
87.5 
92.1 
80.7 
44.7 
86.1 
87.8 
92.4 


2.6 
6.3 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


2.7 




2.3 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . . 


5.8 
4.2 




2.6 




5.5 




.0 




1 

18 

1 


2.8 


Polish 


3.8 




1.5 








2,147 


330 


1,749 


68 


15.4 


81.5 


3.2 






Total native-born of foreign 


367 

828 

1,319 


115 
193 
137 


245 

613 

1,136 


22 
46 


31.3 
23.3 
10.4 


66.8 
74.0 
86.1 


1.9 




2.7 




3.5 







Native-born of native father: 
White 


575 
158 

155 
169 

185 
58 


55 
10 

15 
26 

8 
2 


314 
59 

85 
92 

98 
37 


206 
89 

55. 
51 

79 
19 


9.6 
6.3 

9.7 
15.4 

4.3 
3.4 


54.6 
37.3 

54.8 
54.4 

53.0 
63.8 


35.8 
56.3 


Native-bom of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


35.5 


Irish 


:, 30.2 


Foreign-bom: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . . 
English 


42.7 
32.8 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Chicago. 



169 



Table 120. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual — Continued. 

FEMALE— Continued. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are- 


Per cent who are- 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Foreign-born — Continued. 


235 
310 

47 
48 
592 
120 


8 
14 


124 
160 
36 
34 
399 
69 


103 
136 
11 
12 
180 
47 


3.4 
4.5 
.0 
4.2 
2.2 
3.3 


52.8 
51.6 
76.6 
70.8 
67.4 
57.5 


43.9 


Irish. . . ... 


43.9 




.23.4 




2 
13 

4 


25.0 


Polish 


30.4 




39.2 








3,117 


199 


1,779 


1,139 


6.4 


57.1 


36.5 






Total native-bom of foreign 


478 
1,212 
1,905 


75 
140 
59 


265 

639 

1,140 


138 
433 
706 


15.7 
11.6 
3.1 


55.4 
52.7 
59.8 


28.9 




35.7 




37.1 







TOTAL. 



Native-born of native father: 
White 


956 
238 

268 
298 

289 

106 

387 

491 

94 

84 

1,061 

186 


118 
25 

44 
65 

17 
6 
16 
39 
26 
6 
52 
8 


622 
119 

166 
179 

187 

79 

264 

306 

57 

65 

811 

130 


216 
94 

58 
54 

85 
21 
107 
146 
11 
13 
198 
48 


12.3 
10.5 

16.4 
21.8 

5.9 
5.7 
4.1 
7.9 
27.7 
7.1 
4.9 
4.3 


65.1 
50.0 

61.9 
60.1 

64.7 
74.5 
68.2 
62.3 
60.6 
77.4 
76.4 
69.9 


22.6 




39.5 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


21.6 




18.1 


Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian. . . 


29.4 
19.8 




27.6 




29.7 




11.7 




15.5 


Polish 


18.7 




25.8 








5,264 


529 


3,528 


1,207 


10.0 


67.0 


22.9 






Total native-bom of foreign 


845 
2,040 
3,224 


190 
333 
196 


510 

1,252 
2,276 


145 
455 
752 


22.5 
16.3 
6.1 


60.4 
61.4 
70.6 


17.2 




22.3 




23.3 







It appears that out of the 5,264 persons 20 years of age or over 
reporting conjugal condition, 3,528, or 67 per cent, are married; 
1,207, or 22.9 per cent, are deserted, separated, or widowed; and 
529, or 10 per cent, are single. The foreign-born had the largest per 
cent of persons married and also the largest per cent deserted, sepa- 
rated, or divorced. The South Italian foreign-born had 26 persons, 
or 27.7 per cent of their total number, reported single, all of whom are 
males. The negro native-born of native father report the largest 
per cent (39.5) deserted, separated, or widowed. The smallest per 
cent under this heading was for the South Italian foreign-born. 

Comparing the males and females, 81.5 per cent of the males and 
57.1 per cent of the females are married; 3.2 per cent of the males 
and 36.5 per cent of the females are deserted, separated, or widowed; 
and 15.4 per cent of the males and 6.4 per cent of the females are 
single. 



65812°— vol 34—11- 



-12 



170 



The Immigration Commission. 



The following table gives the number and per cent of cases in which 
the wife is the head and reported widowed and deserted or separated: 



Table 121. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 110. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Total 
reporting 
complete 

data. 



Number- 



Widowed. 



Deserted or 
separated. 



Widowed. 



Deserted or 
separated. 



Native-bom of native father: 

"White 

Negro 

Native-iorn of foreign father, by race of 
father: 

English 

German 

Irish 

Polish 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian (other than French) 

Dutch 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Swedish 



198 
79 



75 
12 
6 
17 
98 
6 

126 
11 
11 
8 
31 

171 
10 
10 
15 



22 

119 

7 

4 

30 



Grand total. 



1,081 



676 



Total native-bora of foreign father. 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-bom 



139 
416 
665 



202 
474 



105 

38 



71 
214 
191 



47.0 
51.9 



W 



50.9 
52.9 



00 



00 



71.0 

69.6 



00 
00 



66.7 



62.5 



48.9 

48.6 
71.3 



53.0 
48.1 



00 



00 



49.1 
47.1 



00 
00 
(<■)__ 

00* 

(«)" 

00 
00 



38.8 



00 
00 



29.0 
30.4 



37.5 



51.1 
51.4 

2S.7 



o Not computed, owing to small number involved. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Chicago. 



17X 



Table 122. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 110. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Total 
number of 



Widowed. 



Deserted or 
separated. 



Per cent — 



Widowed. 



Deserted or 
separated. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 

English 

German 

Irish 

Polish 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian (other than French) 

Dutch 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Scotch 

Slovak '. 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-bom 

Total foreign-born 



557 
155 



20 
150 
161 



183 
28 
26 
60 

257 
22 

310 
55 
47 
34 
44 

624 
23 
43 

112 



435 
1,147 
1,978 



6 

22 
119 

7 
4 
30 



676 



202 
474 



105 
38 



405 



71 
214 
191 



16.7 
26.5 



10.0 

18.7 
16.8 
14.3 

36.6 
28.6 
11.5 
21.7 
23.3 
13.6 
31.0 
16.4 
17.0 
17.6 
50.0 
19.1 
30.4 
9.3 
26.8 



15.6 
17.6 
24.0 



18.9 
24.5 



5.0 
18.0 
14.9 
14.3 

4.4 

14.3 

11.5 

6.7 

14.8 

13.6 

9.7 

3.6 

6.4 

5.9 

20.5 

8.3 

13.0 

14.0 

13.4 



13.0 



16.3 
18.7 
9.7 



The number of cases in which the wife is the head of the case and 
reported widowed, deserted, or separated was 1,081, or 34.6 per cent 
of the total number of cases. Of this number, 676, or 62.5 per cent, 
were widowed, and 405, or 37.5 per cent, were deserted or separated. 
In 21.6 per cent of the total number of cases the head of the case was 
a widow, and in 13 per cent the head of the case was a wife reported 
deserted or separated. The foreign-born show 24 per cent where the 
head was widowed, while the native-born show 17.6 per cent. The 
cases where the head was a wife reported deserted or separated num- 
ber 191, or 9.7 per cent for the foreign-born and 214, or 18.7 per cent, 
for the native-born. The Norwegians foreign-born, show the largest 
per cent (50) of cases in which the head is a widow, and the negro 
native-born of native father, the largest per cent (24.5) of cases in 
which the head is a wife reported deserted or separated. 



172 



The Immigration Commission. 



GENERAL OCCUPATION OF CHILDREN. 

Data relative to the occupation of children 6 and under 16 years of 
age involved in the cases receiving assistance of the society are shown 
in the following tables: 

Table 123. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table Includes in each section only races with 20 or more reporting. The totals, however, are for all 

races.] 

MALE. 



General nativity and race of individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent. 



At home. At school. 



At work. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian (other than French) 

Dutch 

English 

German 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Lithuanian 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Swedish 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Italian, South 

Polish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



636 
90 

169 
22 
31 
30 
217 
307 
36 
30 
24 
444 
102 

49 
20 
110 



1,542 

2,268 

259 



6.9 
4.4 

3.0 
27.3 
3.2 
6.7 
3.7 
3.9 
.0 
3.3 
4.2 
8.1 
5.9 

6.1 

5.0 
5.5 



6.0 
6.2 
7.3 



88.7 
91.1 

86.4 
72.7 
96.8 
86.7 
89.4 
91.5 
94.4 
93.3 
79.2 
85.4 
88.2 



95.0 
88.2 



87.5 

88.0 
88.4 



4.4 
4.4 

10.7 

.0 
.0 
6.7 
6.9 
4.6 
5.6 
3.3 
16.7 
6.5 
5.9 

.0 
.0 

6.4 



5.7 



6.5 
5.8 
4.2 



FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father: 


657 
64 

148 
25 
25 
36 

227 

236 
30 
22 

446 
92 

35 
111 


8.1 
10.9 

3.4 

12.0 
8.0 

13.9 
8.4 
7.6 
3.3 
4.5 

11.2 
9.8 

5.7 
6.3 


88.9 
89.1 

87.8 
80.0 
88.0 
83.3 
84.1 
89.8 
86.7 
95.5 
83.0 
85.9 

91.4 
84.7 


3.0 




.0 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


8.8 




8.0 




4.0 




2.8 




7.5 




2.5 




10.0 




.0 




5.8 




4.3 


Foreign-born: 


2.9 




9.0 








2,372 


8.6 


86.7 


4.6 




1,406 

2,127 

245 


8.5 
8.5 
10.2 


86.1 
87.1 
83.7 


5.3 




4.5 




6.1 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Chicago. 



173 



Table 123. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual — Continued. 

TOTAL. 



General nativity and race of individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent. 



At home. At school. At work, 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian (other than French) 

Dutch 

English 

German 

Irish 

Italian, South .' 

Lithuanian 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Swedish .• 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Italian, South 

Polish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



154 

317 

47 

56 

66 

444 

543 

66 

49 

46 

890 

194 

84 
37 

221 



2,948 

4,395 

504 



7.5 
7.1 

3.2 
19.1 
5.4 
10.6 
6.1 
5.5 
1.5 
6.1 
4.3 
9.7 
7.7 

6.0 
16.2 
5.9 



7.2 
7.3 
8.7 



88.8 
90.3 

87.1 
76.6 
92.9 
84.8 
86.7 
90.8 
90.9 
89.8 
87.0 
84.2 
87.1 

92.9 
81.1 
86.4 



87.4 



87.6 
86.1 



3.7 
2.6 

9.8 
4.3 
1.8 
4.5 
7.2 
3.7 
7.6 
4.1 
8.7 
6.2 
5.2 

1.2 
2.7 
7.7 



5.2 



5.9 
5.2 
5.2 



Table 124. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at 
school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more chil" 
dren born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.] 



General nativity and race 
of father. 


Birthplace of 
child. 


Number 
report- 
ing com- 
plete 
data. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


At 
home. 


At 
school. 


At 
work. 


At 
home. 


At 
school. 


At 
work. 


Native-born, White 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Mora- 
vian. 


United States. 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States. 

Abroad 

United States. 
Abroad 


1,293 

317 
84 

444 
28 
66 
37 
49 
24 

890 

221 


97 

10 
S 

27 
9 
1 
6 
3 
2 

86 

13 


1,148 

276 
78 

385 
16 
• 60 
30 
44 
22 

749 

191 


48 

31 
1 

32 
3 
5 
1 
2 

55 
17 


7.5 

3.2 
6.0 
6.1 

32.1 
1.5 

16.2 
6.1 
8.3 
9.7 
5.9 


88.8 

87.1 
92.9 
86.7 
57.1 
90.9 
81.1 
89.8 
91.7 
84.2 
86.4 


3.7 

9.8 
1.2 
7.2 




10.7 
7.6 




2.7 
4.1 


Polish 


.0 
6.2 




7.7 



Table 123 shows by sex and general nativity and race of individual 
the occupation of the children 6 and under 16 years of age. The per 
cent of the children at school was 87.4, at home 7.4, and at work 5.2. 
The Canadian, other than French, native-born of foreign father, had 
the largest per cent (19.1) at home, and the Bohemian and Moravian, 
native-born of foreign father, had the largest per cent (9.8) at work. 

Table 124 gives a comparison of the occupation of children 6 and 
under 16 years of age or the first and second generation immigrant 
and of the white native-born of native father, by general nativity 
and race of father. The greatest difference is shown by the Germans, 



174 



The Immigration Commission. 



with 86.7 per cent of the United States born and 57.1 per cent of the 
foreign-born at school, 6.1 per cent of the United States born and 32.1 
per cent of the foreign-born at home, and 7.2 per cent of the United 
States born and 10.7 per cent of the foreign-born at work. Of the 
children whose fathers were South Italian, 90.9 per cent of the United 
States born and 81.1 per cent of the foreign-born were at school, 1.5 

Eer cent of the United States born and 16.2 per cent of the foreign- 
orn were at home, and 7.6 per cent of the United States born and 2.7 
per cent of the foreign-born were at work; while on the other hand 
the children whose fathers were Bohemian and Moravian, Lithuanian, 
and Polish show on the whole a smaller proportion at school and a 
larger proportion at home and at work. 

A study of the cases in which the head was foreign-born and of the 
individuals who were foreign-born has been made according to length 
of residence in the United States, ability to speak the English lan- 
guage, and citizenship. 

YEARS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



The following table shows years in the United States for the heads 
of cases: 

Table 125. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each 
specified number of years, by race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 110. The total, however, 

is for all foreign-born. J 



Race of head of case. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United States 
each specified number 
of years. 




Under 
5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 




182 
28 
26 
60 

252 
21 

308 

55 

47 

, 34 

43 

620 
21 
43 

112 


23 
2 

5 
16 

7 

9 
16 
12 
12 

3 
113 

4 
13 

1 


39 
2 
1 
5 

18 
6 
17 
14 
14 
14 
3 
153 
1 
16 
10 


54 
6 
9 
12 
63 
6 
70 
14 
18 
6 
4 
216 
1 

12 
29 


66 
18 
16 
38 
155 

2 

212 

11 

3 

2 
33 
138 
15 

2 
72 


12.6 

7.1 

.0 

8.3 

6.3 

33.3 

2.9 

29.1 

25.5 

35.3 

7.0 

18.2 

19.0 

30.2 

.9 


34.1 
14.3 

3.8 
16.7 
13.5 
61.9 

8.4 
54.5 
55.3 
76.5 
14.0 
42.9 
23.8 
67.4 

9.8 


63.7 


Canadian (other than French) 

Dutch 


35.7 
38.5 




36.7 




38.5 




90.5 




31.2 




80.0 




93.6 




94.1 




23.3 


Polish 


77.7 




28.6 




95.3 




35.7 






Total 


1,960 


254 


333 


547 


826 


13.0 


29.9 


57.9 







It will be noted from this table that of the total number of heads 
of cases 57.9 per cent had been in the United States less than twenty 
years. Of this number 13 per cent had been here less than five years 
and 29.9 per cent had been here less than ten years. The Norwe- 
gians, Scotch, and Irish show the greatest per cent of heads of cases 
m the United States twenty years or over, having 76.7, 71.4, and 68.8 
per cents, respectively. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Chicago. 



175 



The races showing 25 or more per cent of the heads of cases in the 
United States less than five years are as follows: 

Per cent. 

Magyar 35. 3 

Hebrew : 33. 3 

Slovak 30. 2 

Italian, South 29. 1 

Lithuanian 25. 5 

The races showing 50 or more per cent of the heads of cases in the 
United States less than ten years are as follows: 

Per cent. 

Magyar 76. 5 

Slovak 67. 4 

Hebrew 61. 9 

Lithuanian 55. 3 

Italian, South 54. 5 

The races showing 90 or more per cent of the heads of cases in the 
United States less than twenty years are as follows: 

Per cent. 

Slovak 95.3 

Magyar 94. 1 

Lithuanian 93. 6 

Hebrew 90. 5 

The following table shows years in the United States of the indi- 
viduals, by race of individual: 

Table 126. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each 
specified number of years, by race of individual. 

[This table Includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign- 
born.] 



Race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United States 
each specified number 
of years. 




Under 
5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 




396 
45 
49 
114 
425 
45 
505 
145 
111 
100 
68 
1,368 
47 
93 
196 


107 
4 

12 

38 
21 
26 
61 
36 
46 

5 

325 

14 

37 

2 


99 
3 
3 

11 
42 
12 
34 
32 
35 
39 

7 
386 

1 
29 
27 


93 
11 
23 
25 

120 
9 

126 
34 
36 
11 
13 

431 
3 
25 
54 


97 

27 

23 

66 

225 

3 

319 

18 

4 

4 

43 

226 

29 

2 

113 


27.0 

8.9 

.0 

10.5 

8.9 
46.7 

5.1 
42.1 
32.4 
46. 

7.4 
23.8 
29.8 
39.8 

1.0 


52.0 
15.6 
6.1 
20.2 
18.8 
73.3 
11.9 
64.1 
64.0 
85.0 
17.6 
52.0 
31.9 
71.0 
14.8 


75.5 


Dutch 


40.0 
53.1 




42.1 




47.1 




93.3 




36.8 




87.6 




96.4 




96.0 




36.8 


Polish 


83.5 




38.3 




97.8 




42.3 








3,917 


782 


807 


1,064 


1,264 


20.0 


40.6 i 67.7 









Of the 3,917 foreign-born persons 782, or 20 per cent, had been in 
the United States less than five years; 1,589, or 40.6 per cent, had 
been in the United States less than ten years; 2,653, or 67.7 per cent, 
had been in the United States less than twenty years, and the remain- 
der, 1,264, had been in the United States twenty years or over. 



176 The Immigration Commission. 

The races showing 25 per cent or over of individuals in the United 
States less than five years are as follows: 

Per cent. 

Hebrew 46. 7 

Magyar i 46. 

Italian, South. 42. 1 

Slovak 39. 8 

Lithuanian 32. 4 

Scotch 29. 8 

Bohemian and Moravian 27. 

The races showing 50 per cent or over of individuals in the United 
States less than ten years are as follows: 

Per cent. 

Magyar 85. 

Hebrew 73. 3 

Slovak 71.0 

Italian, South 64. 1 

Lithuanian 64. 

Bohemian and Moravian 52. 

Polish 52 . 

The races showing 90 per cent or over of individuals in the United 
States less than twenty years are as follows: 

Per cent. 

Slovak 97. 8 

Lithuanian 96. 4 

Magyar 96. 

Hebrew 93.3 

The races showing the longest period of residence, by race of indi- 
vidual, are the Irish, Norwegian, and Scotch. 

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH. 

The per cent of the persons 6 years of age or over of the non- 
English-speaking races who speak the English language is shown by 
sex in the table next submitted. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Chicago. 



177 



Table 127. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and 
general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.] 



General nativity and race of 
individual. 



Number reporting complete 
data. 



Male. Female. Total. 



Per cent who speak English. 



Male. Female. Total 



Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Dutch 

French 

German 

Italian, South 

Lithuanian 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Swedish 

Foreign-born: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Dutch 

German 

Hebrew 

Italian, South 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Slovak 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total foreign-born 



303 
39 
32 
32 
529 
140 

100 
24 

171 
19 
09 
49 
45 
14 

609 
43 
72 



199 
42 
25 

420 
30 
19 
40 

557 

129 

227 
26 

261 
23 
65 
64 
50 
53 

730 
47 

126 



414 
85 
51 

789 
75 
51 
72 
1,086 

269 

387 
50 

432 
42 

134 

113 
95 
67 
1,339 
90 

198 



99.1 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

97.4 

96.9 
100.0 

94.9 
100.0 

75.0 
95.8 
94.2 

(a) 
76.8 
79.6 
75.6 

(a) 
66.0 
67.4 
97.2 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
99.8 
97.2 

C) 
100.0 
94.8 
100.0 

59.9 
96.2 
90.0 
69.6 
46.2 
35.9 
54.0 
96.2 
46.2 
36.2 
97.6 



99. 5 
100.0 
100.0 
99.9 
97.3 
94.1 
100.0 
94.8 
100.0 

66.1 
96.0 
91.7 
66.7 
61.9 
54.9 
64.2 
97. 
55.2 
51.1 
97.5 



2,903 



6,237 



87.1 



78.5 



82.5 



1,531 
1,372 



1,561 
1,773 



3,092 
3,145 



97.3 
75.7 



97.8 
61.5 



97.6 
67.7 



a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

It is found that of the 6,237 persons 6 years of age or over of the 
non-English-speaking races first and second generation immigrant, 
82.5 per cent speak English. Of the foreign-born, or first-generation 
immigrant, 67.7 per cent speak English, while of the native-born of 
foreign father, or second-generation immigrant, 97.6 per cent speak 
English. With the exception of the native-born of foreign father, 
the males exceed the females in the proportion speaking English. 

The races showing the lowest per cent of persons speaking the 
English language are Slovak 51.1 per cent, Lithuanian 54.9 per cent, 
Polish 55.2 per cent, South Italian 61.9 per cent, Magyar 64.2 per 
cent, Bohemian and Moravian 66.1 per cent, and Hebrew 66.7 per 
cent. The German second generation, Swedish foreign-born, Nor- 
wegian foreign-born, Dutch foreign-born, Polish second genera- 
tion, and German foreign-born show a very large per cent speaking 
English, the per cents ranging from 99.9 per cent for the German 
second generation to 91.7 per cent for the German foreign-born. 



178 



The Immigration Commission. 



The following statement compares the ability to speak English of 
the races foreign-born and native-born of foreign father shown in 
Table 127: 





Foreign- 
born. 


Native- 
born of 
foreign 
father. 




Per cent. 
64.9 
55.2 
61.9 
66.1 
91.7 
96.0 
97.0 
97.6 


Per cent. 
94.1 


Polish 


94.8 




97.3 




99.5 




99.9 


Dutch 


100.0 




100.0 




100.0 







The most recent comers to the United States assisted by the 
society were the Magyar, Hebrew, and Slovak. These races had 
not sufficient numbers, native-born of foreign father, to admit of 
comparison. The South Italian and Lithuanian also are recent 
comers to the United States. 



CITIZENSHIP. 

The number and per cent of the foreign-born males 21 years of age 
or over on arrival in the United States with a residence of five years 
or more who have first and second naturalization papers is shown 
in the following table: 

Table 128. — Present political condition of foreign-born mules who have been in the United 
States S years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of 
individual. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


Race of individual. 


Fully natu- 
ralized. 


Having first 
papers only. 


Fully natu- 
ralized. 


Having first 
papers only. 




52 
69 
83 
21 
239 
41 


24 
63 
76 
13 
93 
34 


4 
4 
3 
2 
29 
1 


46.2 
76.8 
91.6 
61.9 
38.9 
82.9 


7.7 




5.8 




&6 




9.5 




12.1 




2.4 








641 


373 


55 


58.2 


8.6 







The political condition of males 21 years of age or over at the time 
of coming to the United States who had been here five years or more. 
was reported for 641 individuals. Of this number, 373 males, or 58.2 
per cent, are fully naturalized, and 55, or 8.6 per cent, have first papers. 
The Irish show the greatest per cent (91.6) who have become citizens 
and the Polish the smallest per cent (38.9). The Bohemians and 
Moravians also show a large per cent of aliens. 



CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



179 



CINCINNATI. 



The report for Cincinnati, Ohio, was furnished by the Associated 
Charities and includes all the cases assisted by the society from 
December 1, 1908, to May 31, 1909. 



GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE. 

A general summary of the assistance given by the Associated 
Charities of Cincinnati, by general nativity and race of head of case, 
follows : 

Table 129. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head 

of case. 





Cases assisted. 


Persons involved. 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


1,164 
228 

1 
1 

17 

4 

198 

4 

85 
1 
3 
3 
4 
1 
4 

1 

1 
1 
6 
3 

54 
1 

21 
2 

12 
8 
6 
4 
1 
2 
1 


63.2 
12.4 

.1 
.1 
.9 
.2 
10.7 
.2 
4.6 
.1 
.2 
.2 
.2 
.1 
.2 

.1 
.1 
.1 

.3 
.2 

2.9 
.1 

1.1 
.1 
.7 
.4 
.3 
.2 
.1 
.1 
.1 


4,539 
798 

7 
2 

52 

19 
833 

14 

308 

8 

8 

12 
9 
5 
7 

5 

1 

7 

21 

15 

225 

9 
65 

6 
50 
34 
19 
21 

2 
10 

1 


63.8 




11.2 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


.1 


Dutch 


(<0 




.7 




.3 




11.7 




.2 




4.3 




.1 


Polish 


.1 




.2 




.1 




.1 


Welsh 


.1 


Foreign-born: 


.1 




00 




.1 




.3 




.2 




3.2 




.1 




.9 




.1 




.7 




.5 


Polish 


.3 




.3 


Slovak 


(a) 




.1 


Welsh 


00 








1,842 


100.0 


7,112 


100.0 








326 

1,718 

124 


17.7 

93.3 

6.7 


1,284 

6,621 

491 


18.1 




93.1 




6.9 







o Less than 0.05 per cent. 



181 



182 



The Immigration Commission. 



During the period of the investigation 1,842 cases were assisted, 
involving 7,112 persons. The cases in which the head was native- 
born comprise the larger proportion having 1,718 cases, or 93.3 per 
cent of the total number, consisting of 6,621 persons, or 93.1 per cent 
of the total number of persons. The number of cases in" which 
the head was foreign-born was 124, or 6.7 per cent of the total 
number of cases, consisting of 491 persons, or 6.9 per cent of the 
total number of persons. The cases in which the head was native- 
born of foreign father show a total of 326, or 17.7 per cent of the total 
number of cases, with 1,284 persons involved, or 18.1 per cent of the 
total number of persons. 

The white native-born of native father, received the largest share 
of the assistance given by the society; 1,164 cases, or 63.2 per cent 
of the total, were assisted. These cases involved 4,539 persons, or 
63.8 per cent of the total number of persons. In 12.4 per pent of the 
cases the heads were negro native-born of native father, in 10.7 per 
cent native-born of German father, in 4.6 per cent native-born of 
Irish father, in 2.9 per cent foreign-born German, and in 1.1 per cent 
foreign-born Irish. The remaining races noted in the table show but 
a small number of cases assisted. But few Hebrews were assisted, 
due to the fact that the Hebrew Charity Society is very active in 
assisting members of this race. 

The races represented by 20 or more cases have been selected for 
more detailed study. 

APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED. 

The apparent causes for seeking assistance from the society are 
shown in the following tables. These causes are given in more detail 
in General Tables 2-5, Volume II, pages 240-243. 

Table 130. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, 
'by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 129. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.) 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


. General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
of an- 
other 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


1,164 
228 

198 
85 

54 
21 


23.5 
20.2 

25.3 
21.2 

24.1 
38.1 


18.6 
12.7 

20.2 
12.9 

9.3 
14.3 


74.7 
81.6 

76.3 
74.1 

85.2 
57.1 


15.9 
9.6 

12.6 
20.0 

9.3 
14.3 


2.2 
3.1 

3.5 

8.2 

5.6 
14.3 


5.8 




2.2 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: - 


4.0 


Irish 


4.7 


Foreign-born: 


1.9 


Irish 


4.8 








1,842 


23.2 


17.4 


75.8 


14.2 


2.9 


5.0 






Total native-born of foreign 


326 

1,718 

124 


23.6 
23.1 
25.0 


19.0 
17.9 
10.5 


76.7 
76.0 
73.4 


13.8 
14.7 
8.1 


4.3 
2.7 
5.6 


4.0 




5.0 




4.8 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Cincinnati. 



183 



Table 131 . — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 110. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.) 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 

disability 
of an- 
other 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


4,539 
798 

833 
308 

225 
65 


21.9 
18.2 

23.5 
20.8 

28.4 
40.0 


21.2 
12.7 

22.1 
18.2 

9.8 
13.8 


78.1 
85.3 

80.8 
78.2 

88.0 
67.7 


16.5 
10.4 

12.1 
19.5 

10.2 
13.8 


1.1 
1.3 

1.8 
2.6 

2.7 
6.2 


5.5 


Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


2.9 
3.4 




7.1 


Foreign-born: 


.9 




6.2 








7,112 


21.9 


19.7 


79.4 


14.7 


1.3 


4.9 






Total native-born of foreign 


1,284 

6,621 

491 


22.2 
21.5 
27.1 


22.4 
20.4 
10.2 


81.2 

■ 79.6 

77.8 


13.7 
15.2 
7.1 


1.8 
1.2 
2.4 


4.1 




4.9 




4.5 







The per cent of cases and persons involved for each class of apparent 
causes, in the order of their importance, follows. It will be noted 
that the total of the per cents for each cause is more than 100, due to 
the fact that more than one cause is often reported to a case. 




Persons 
involved. 



Lack of employment or insu fficient earnings 

Death or disability of breadwinner 

Death or disability of another member of family. 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner 

Old age 

Other 



Per cent. 
75.8 

23.2 
17.4 
14.2 
2.9 
5.0 



Per cent. 
79.4 

21.9 

19.7 

14.7 

1.3 

4.9 



As shown in the outline above, lack of employment or insufficient 
earnings, alone or along with other causes, was reported as a cause 
of need m 75.8 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 79.4 
per cent of the total number of persons. 

Sickness or death is classified under two headings — death or dis- 
ability of breadwinner and death or disability of another member of 
family; the former is reported in 23.2 per cent and the latter in 17.4 
per cent of the total number of cases. 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner was given as the cause of 
need in 14.2 per cent and old age in 2.9 per cent of the total number 
of cases. 



184 



The Immigration Commission. 



AID GIVEN. 

The aid furnished by the society is presented in the following tables 
showing the per cent of cases and the per cent of persons involved 
for each specified aid given. More detailed information may be 
found in General Tables 6 and 7, Volume II, pages 244 and 245. A 
case may have been furnished more than one kind of assistance and 
will, therefore, appear under more than one heading. 

Table 132. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 129. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 




Per cent of cases given aid specified. 




General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical as- 
sistance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


1,164 
228 

198 
85 

54 
21 


17.0 
8.3 

16.7 
16.5 

11.1 
33.3 


41.8 
42.5 

41.4 
40.0 

31.5 
47.6 


36.9 
38.6 

38.4 
37.6 

53.7 
47.6 


28.6 
22.4 

29.8 
22.4 

25.9 
47.6 


22.9 
20.6 

21.7 
22.4 

24.1 
28.6 


5.9 




4.4 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


5.6 




5.9 


Foreign-born: 


1.9 


Irish 


4.8 








1,842 


15.6 


40.7 


38.3 


27.7 


22.6 


5.8 






Total native-born of foreign 


326 

1,718 

124 


16.0 
15.7 
15.3 


38.0 
41.2 
33.9 


39.6 
37.6 
48.4 


27.9 
27.6 
28.2 


23.6 
22.7 
21.8 


5.8 




5.7 











Table 133. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 129. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.) 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical as- 
sistance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


4,539 
798 

833 
308 

225 
65 


16.9 
7.0 

15.5 
17.9 

ID. 2 
26.2 


52.9 
52.3 

51.9 
47.4 

43.1 
53.8 


36.5 
34.1 

34.8 
37.3 

48.9 
55.4 


27.4 
20.6 

24.8 
20.5 

23.6 
30.8 


21.6 
17.0 

17.3 
27.3 

27.1 
23.1 


6.2 




5.1 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 






10.7 


Foreign-born: 


1.8 




6.2 








7,112 


15.2 


51.2 


37.0 


26.0 


21.1 


6.1 






Total native-born of foreign 


1,284 

6,621 

491 


15.1 
15.4 
12.2 


48.0 
51.9 
41.1 


37.0 
36.3 
46.0 


' 25.1 
26.1 
24.6 


21.2 
20.9 
22.6 


6.5 




6.1 




5.5 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Cincinnati. 



185 



Clothing, alone or along with other assistance, was furnished to 
40.7 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 51.2 per cent of 
the total number of persons. 

Employment was secured for 38.3 per cent of the total number of 
cases, involving 37 per cent of the total number of persons. Of the 
cases in which the head was foreign-born, 48.4 per cent were assisted 
by securing employment, as compared with 37.6 per cent of the 
native-born. A larger per cent of the cases in which the head was 
foreign-born German and Irish were furnished employment than the 
cases in which the head was native-born of German and Irish parent- 
age. _ ' ! 

Food or meals, alone or along with other assistance, was given to 
27.7 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 26 per cent of the 
total number of persons; fuel to 22.6 per cent of the cases, involving 
21.1 per cent of the persons; cash to 15.6 per cent of the cases, 
involving 15.2 per cent of the persons; and medicine or medical 
assistance to 5.8 per cent of the cases, involving 6.1 per cent of the 
persons. 

PERSONS PEE CASE. 



From Table 1 we find that the number of persons per case for the 
cases in which the head was native-born average 3.85 and for the 
cases in which the head was foreign-born 3.96. 

The total number of persons involved in the cases assisted was 
7,112. As shown by General Tables 12, Volume II, pages 252 and 
253, there were 3,334 males and 3,778 females involved in the cases 
assisted. 

The following table presents the number and per cent of cases, by 
race of head of case, consisting of each specified number of persons. 

Table 134. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, 

ever, are for all races. 


as shown in Table 129. 

] 


The totals, how- 


General nativity and race 
of bead of case. 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases consisting of 
each specified number of per- 
sons. 


Per cent of cases consisting of 
each specified number of per- 
sons. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


1,164 
228 

198 

85 

54 
21 


147 
20 

17 
18 

5 
3 


588 
152 

97 
41 

27 
13 


404 
52 

79 
24 

20 
5 


25 
4 

5 
2 

2 


12.6 
8.8 

8.6 
21.2 

9.3 
14.3 


50.5 
66.7 

49.0 
48.2 

50.0 
61.9 


34.7 
22.8 

39.9 
28.2 

37.0 
23.8 


2.1 




1.8 


Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of father: 


2.5 




2.4 


Foreign-born: 


3.7 












1,842 


222 


967 


613 


40 


12.1 


52.5 


33.3 


2.2 






Total native-born of foreign 


326 

1,718 

124 


42 

209 

13 


164 

904 

63 


113 
569 
44 


7 
36 
4 


12.9 
12.2 
10.5 


50.3 
52.6 
50.8 


34.7 
33.1 
35.5 


2.1 




2.1 




3.2 







65812°— vol 34— 11- 



-13 



186 



The Immigration Commission. 



Of the 1,842 cases, 967, or 52.5 per cent, consisted of from 2 to 4 
persons; 613, or 33.3 per cent, consisted of from 5 to 8 persons; 40, or 
2.2 per cent, consisted of 9 or more persons; and 222, or 12.1 per cent, 
consisted of but 1 person. 

The cases whose heads were German, both first and second genera- 
tion, had the larger per cent consisting of 5 or more persons. The 
cases whose heads were second generation Irish show 21.2 per cent 
consisting of but 1 person. 

"type" of case. 

Tables dividing the cases as to the number and per cent consisting 
of husband and wife, with or without children; widow, with or without 
children, and widower, with or without children, follows. Table 135 
also gives the specified number of children. 

Table 135. — Number of, cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower with 
each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 129. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





g 




Number of cases consisting of- 








Husband and wile 
and — 


• 1 


A r idc 






Widower and — 










General nativity and 
race of head of case. 


"o 






















d 

CD 


a 


d 

clj 


a 




d 

CD 


d 


d 


| 




a 


d 


d 

•n 


a 






u 
St 






a 

3 

o 


a 

o 


a 


3 

o 




3 

o 


a 

CJ 

O 


a 

o 


1 

o 


"g 

a -a 


3 

o 


a 

O 




a 

cj 
o 


*g 

2 2 

M 
O 


'3 

o 


a 
o 

CO 

o 

a 


° o 

P CD 
O 


3 
o 




frl 


A 


-> 


CO 


cO 


H 


'A 




CO 


o 


tH 


'A 




CO 


O 


H 


— 


CM 


H 


Native-born of na- 


































tive father: 








































White 


1,164 
228 


98 
36 


221 
53 


271 
33 


63 
10 


663 
132 


96 
14 


160 

42 


109 
15 


18 
2 


383 
73 


12 
4 


9 
5 


13 
2 


1 

3 


35 
14 


39 
2 


64 
7 


93 




9 


Native-born of for- 




eign father, by race 








































of father: 










































198 
85 


20 
10 


41 

14 


47 

18 


16 
7 


124 
49 


12 
12 


17 
9 


26 
1 


2 


67 

22 


1 
2 


2 


4 




7 
2 


4 

4 


b 

8 


10 




12 


Foreign-born: 












54 
21 


8 
5 


10 
2 


13 
3 


3 


34 
10 


4 
3 


3 

4 


5 
2 


2 


14 

9 




1 






1 


1 


4 
2 


h 








?. 


















Grand total 


1,842 


188 


365 


410 


102 


1,065 


149 


246 


163 


24 


582 


19 


17 


19 


4 


59 


54 


82 


136 


Total native-born of 






























foreign father 


326 


UK 


65 


TA 


24 


201 


29 


32 


30 


2 


93 


3 


2 


4 




9 


10 


14 


24 


Total native-born — 


1,718 


172 


339 


377 


97 


985 


139 


234 


154 


22 


649 


19 


16 


19 


4 


68 


61 


76 


12b 


Total foreign-born. . . 


124 


IB 


26 


33 


5 


80 


10 


12 


9 


2 


33 




1 






1 


i 


V 


II) 









Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Cincinnati. 



187 



Table 136. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow , or widower, with 
or without children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 129. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Total num- 
ber of cases. 


Per cent of cases consisting of— 


General nativity and race of head of ease. 


Husband 
and wife, 
■with or 
without 
children. 


Widow, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widower, 
with or 
without 
children 


Others. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


1,164 
228 

198 
85 

54 
21 


56.1 
57.9 

62.6 
57.6 

63.0 
47.6 


32.9 
32.0 

28.8 
25.9 

25.9 
42.9 


3.0 
6.1 

3.5 

2.4 

1.9 
.0 


8.0 




3.9 


Nativerborn of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


5.1 




14.1 


Foreign-born: 


9.3 




9.5 








1,842 


57.8 


31.6 


3.2 


7.4 








326 

1,718 

124 


61.3 
57.3 
64.5 


28.5 
32.0 
26.6 


2.8 

3.4 

.8 


7.4 




7.3 




8.1 







It is shown that of the 1,842 cases, 1,065, or 57.8 per cent, consisted 
of husband and wife, with or without children; 582, or 31.6 per cent, 
consisted of widow, with or without children; and 59, or 3.2 per cent, 
consisted of widower, with or without children. Two-thirds of the 
222 persons living alone were widows. 

Owing to the number of cases consisting only of husband and wife, 
the following tables are shown. 

The following table shows the number and per cent of cases consist- 
ing only of husband and wife : 

Table 137. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. Thd 
totals, however, are for all races.] 





Total num- 
ber of cases. 


Cases consisting only of 
husband and wife. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Native-born of native father: 

White.. 


1,164 
228 

198 
85 


98 
36 

20 
10 


8.4 




15. S 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


10.1 




11.8 








1,842 


188 


10.2 








326 

1,718 

124 


38 
172 
16 


11. 1 




10.0 




12.9 







188 



The Immigration Commission. 



It will be noted that 188 out of 1,842 cases, or 10.2 per cent, con- 
sisted only of husband and wife. The cases in which the head was 
negro native-born of native father show the largest per cent of such, 
or 15.8. 

The following table gives the causes of seeking assistance for the 
cases consisting only of husband and wife. 

Table 138. — Per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for each speci- 
fied class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

IThis table includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wile. The 

totals, however, are for all races.] 





Number. 

reporting' 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Disabil- 
ity of 
husband. 


Death or 
disability 
of an- 
other 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 

insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits 
of hus- 
band. 


Old age. 


Other. 


K ative-born of native father: 
White 


98 
36 

20 
10 


24.5 
33.3 

30.0 
30.0 


21.4 
19.4 

20.0 
10.0 


75.5 
72.2 

65.0 
80.0 


7.1 
8.3 

20.0 
20.0 


6.1 
5.6 

15.0 
10.0 


6.1 






Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


5.0 




10.0 








188 


25.5 


20.2 


75.0 


8.5 


8.0 


4.3 






Total native-born of foreign fa- 


38 
172 
16 


23.7 
26.2 
18.8 


21.1 
20.9 
12.5 


76.3 
75.0 
75.0 


15.8 

9.3 

.0 


10.5 
7.0 
18.8 


5.3 




4.7 




.0 







The per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife report- 
ing each specified class of apparent causes of need are: 

Per cent. 

Lack of employment or insufficient earnings 75. 

Disability of husband 1 25. 5 

Death or disability of another member of family 20. 2 

Neglect or bad habits of husband 8.5 

Old age 8.0 

Other 4.3 

Only 8 per cent of the cases consisting only of husband and wife 
report old age alone, or along with other causes, as the cause of need. 
The cases in which the husband was foreign-born show 18.8 per cent 
so reported, native-born of foreign father 10.5 per cent, and the 
native-born of both native and foreign father 7 per cent. 

Lack of employment alone, or along with other causes, was reported 
in 75 per cent of the total number of cases. The cases in which the 
head was German second generation have the smallest per cent (65) 
of cases reporting this as a cause of need. 

The other causes, according to their importance, are disability of 
husband, death or disability of another member of family, and neglect 
or bad habits of husband. 

The table next submitted gives the age of the husband in the cases 
consisting only of husband and wife. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Cincinnati. 



189 



Table 139. — Age of head of case where case consists only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 

totals, however, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number where head is — 


Per cent where head is— 


General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


Under 

SO 
years. 


/ 50to 

59 
years. 


60 to 

69 
years. 


70 
years 
or over. 


Under 

50 
years. 


50 to 

59 
years. 


60 to 

69 
years. 


70 

years 
or over. 


Native-born of native 
lather: 
White 


98 
36 

20 
10 


63 
32 

11 

5 


17 
2 

3 
4 


13 
1 

3 


5 
1 

3 
1 


64.3 
88.9 

55.0 
50.0 


17.3 
5.6 

15.0 
40.0 


13.3 
2.8 

15.0 


5.1 
2.S 




Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of father: 












188 


124 


31 


20 


13 


66.0 


16.5 


10.6 


6.9 






Total native-born of for- 
eign father 


38 

172 

16 


22 
117 

7 


9 
28 
3 


3 

17 
3 


4 
10 
3 


57.9 
68.0 
43.8 


23.7 
16.3 

18.8 


7.9 
9.9 

18.8 


10.5 




5.8 




is. a 







The largest per cent (66) of the cases show the age' of the husband 
less than 50 years. The foreign-born have a larger per cent (56.4) 
of husbands 50 years of age or over and the native-born a larger per 
cent (68) less than 50 years of age. Thirty-seven and sixth-tenths 
per cent of the total number of husbands foreign-born gave their age! 
as 60 years or over. 

The negro native-born of native father show 88.9 per cent under] 
50 years of age, and by referring to General Table 11, p. 251, it will be) 
seen that 27 out of the 36 husbands were less than 40 years of ageJ 

AGE OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The number of persons reporting age is shown in the following 
table, giving the number and per cent under each age group, by 
race of head of case: 

Table 140. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 

ever 


20 or more cases 
are for all races. 


as shown in Table 129. 


The totals, how* 




Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified 
age group. 


Per cent within each specified 
age group. 


of head of case. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 39. 


40 to 59. 


60 or 
over. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 39 


40 to 59. 


60 or 
over. 


Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


4,534 
797 

832 
308 

225 
65 


2,239 
377 

418 
140 

103 
22 


1,484 
291 

263 

88 

65 
18 


684 
107 

125 
64 

43 

17 


127 
22 

26 
16 

14 
8 


49.4 
47.3 

50.2 
45.5 

45.8 
33.8 


32.7 
36.5 

31.6 
28.6 

28.9 
27.7 


15.1 
13.4 

15.0 
20.8 

19.1 
26.2 


2.8 




2.8 


Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of father: 


i 

t 

3.1' 




5.2 


Foreign-born: 


6.2 




12. a 








7,105 


3,459 


2,321 


1,102 


223 


48.7 


32.7 


15.5 


3.1 






Total native-born of for- 


1,283 

6,614 

491 


618 

3,234 

225 


396 

2,171 

150 


219 

1,010 

92 


50 
199 
24 


48.2 
48.9 
45.8 


30.9 
32.8 
30.5 


17.1 
15.3 
18.7 


3.9 




3.0 




4.9 







190 



The Immigration Commission. 



It may be noted that 3,459 out of a total of 7,105 persons reporting 
were under 16 years of age, or 48.7 per cent. As shown in General 
Table 12, page 254, 3,093 persons, or 43.5 per cent, were under 14 years 
of age, and further that 1,097 persons, or 15.4 per cent, were under 
6 years of age . Practically three-fourths of the total number reporting 
age were under 40 years. The persons belonging to cases in which 
the head was foreign-born Irish have the largest per cent, 40 years of 
age or over. 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The conjugal condition of persons 20 years of age or over- involved 
in the cases assisted is shown in the following table, by sex and race 
of individual : 



Table 141. — Number and per cent of persons tO years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.] 

MALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


867 
155 


144 
6 


676 
135 


47 
14 


16.6 
3.9 


78.0 
87.1 


5.4 




9.0 






Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


143 
56 
39 


10 
4 
1 


125 
50 
36 


8 
2 
2 


7.0 
7.1 
2.6 


87.4 
89.3 
92.3 


5.6 




3.6 




5.1 








1,342 


172 


1,097 


73 


12.8 


81.7 


5.4 






Total native-born of foreign 


230 

1,252 

90 


17 

167 

5 


203 

1,014 

83 


10 
71 
2 


7.4 
13.3 
5.6 


88.3 
81.0 
92.2 


4.3 




5.7 




2.2 








FEMj 


ILE. 










Native-born of native father: 
White 


1,218 
218 


67 
10 


741 
132 


410 
76 


5.5 
4.6 


60.8 
60.6 


33.7 




34.9 






Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


168 
64 
45 


7 
2 


103 
33 
27 


58 
29 
18 


4.2 

3.1 

.0 


61.3 
51.6 
60.0 


34.5 




45.3 




40.0 










1,811 


89 


1,099 


623 


4.9 


60.7 


34.4 






Total native-born of foreign 


266 

1,702 

109 


11 

88 

1 


155 

1,028 

71 


100 
586 
37 


4.1 

5.2 

.9 


58.3 
60.4 
65.1 


37.6 




3"4.4 




33.9 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Cincinnati. 



191 



Table 141. 



-Number and per cent of persons to years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race — Continued. 



TOTAL. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


2,085 
373 


211 
16 


1,417 
267 


457 
90 


10.1 
4.3 


68.0 
71.6 


21.9 
24.1 






Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


311 
120 
84 


17 
6 
1 


228 
83 
63 


66 
31 
20 


5.5 
5.0 
1.2 


73.3 
69.2 
75.0 


21.2 
25.8 
23.8 










3,153 


261 


2,196 


696 


8.3 


69.6 


22.1 




Total native-born of foreign 


496 

2,954 

199 


28 

255 

6 


358 

2,042 

154 


110 
657 
39 


5.6 
8.6 
3.0 


72.2 
69.1 
77.4 






22.2 
19.6 







Of the 3,153 persons 20 years of age or over reporting conjugal 
condition, 261, or 8.3 per cent, were single; 2,196, or 69.9 per cent 
were married; and 696, or 22.1 per cent, were deserted, separated, or 
widowed. 

Separating by sex, it may be seen that 12.8 per cent of the males 
and 4.9 per cent of the females were single; 81.7 per cent of the males 
and 60.7 per cent of the females were married; and 5.4 per cent of the 
males, and 34.4 per cent of the females were deserted, separated, or 
widowed. 

Comparing the number of cases in which the wife is the head and 
reported widowed, deserted, or separated with the total number of 
cases and with the total number so reported, the following tables are 
presented : 

Table 142. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. . 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 129. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


400 
75 

57 
28 

14 
10 


252 
41 

36 
21 

12 
9 


148 
34 

21 
7 

2 
1 


63.0 
54.7 

63.2 
75.0 

85.7 
(a) 


37.0 




45.3 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


36.8 




25.0 


Foreign-born: 


14.3 




00 






608 


388 


220 


63.8 


36.2 








99 
574 
34 


68 
361 
27 


31 

213 

7 


68.7 
62.9 
79.4 


31.3 
37.1 




20.6 







» Not computed, owing to small number involved. 



192 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 143 . — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 129. The totals, how- 
^ ever, are for all races.] 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 


1,164 
228 

198 
85 

54 
21 


252 
41 

36 
21 

12 
9 


148 
34 

21 
7 

2 
1 


21.6 
18.0 

18.2 
24.7 

22.2 
42.9 


12.7 




14.9 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


10.6 




8.2 


Foreign-born: 


3 7 




4.8 








1,842 


388 


220 


21.1 


11.9 








326 

1,718 
124 


68 

361 

27 


31 

213 

7 


20.9 
21.0 
21.8 






12.4 




5.6 







The total number of cases in which the wife is the head of the case 
and reported deserted, separated, or widowed is 608. Of this num- 
ber, 388, or 63.8 per cent were widowed and 220, or 36.2 per cent, 
were deserted or separated. The negro native-born of native father, 
shows the largest per cent reported deserted or separated and the 
foreign-born German the smallest. The cases in which the head is 
a widow represent 21.1 per cent of the total number of cases, and 
and those in which the head is a wife reported deserted or separated 
represent 11.9 per cent. 

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF CHILDREN. 

The occupation of the children between the ages of 6 and 16 years 
involved in the cases assisted are presented in the following table: 

Table 144. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes in each section only races with 20 or more males or females reporting. The totals, 

however, are for all races.] 

MALE. 



General nativity and race of individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent— 



At home. At school. At work. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father, German. 

Grand total 



1,002 
139 
31 



4.0 
2.2 
6.5 



1,211 



Total native-born of foreign father. . 

Total native-bom 

Total foreign-born 



54 

1,195 

16 



C) 



5.6 
3.8 



89.0 
86.3 
90.3 



CO 



7.0 
11.5 
3.2 



7.3 



(«) 



3.7 

7.4 



a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Cincinnati. 



193 



Table 144. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual — Continued. 



FEMALE. 



General nativity and race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent: — 


At home. 


At school. 


At work. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


939 
132 
38 


7.6 
7.6 
7.9 


88.1 
90.9 
81.6 


4.4 




1.5 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father, German. . 


10.5 




1,151 


7.6 


88.2 


4.3 








66 

1,137 

14 


7.6 
7.6 
(■) 


83.3 
88.1 
(») 


9.1 




4.3 




(») 





TOTAL. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 


1,941 

271 

69 


5.7 
4.8 
7.2 


88.6 
88.6 
85.5 


5.7 




6.6 


Native-bom of foreign father, by race of father, German. 


7.2 




2,362 


5.8 


88.4 


5.8 








120 

2,332 

30 


6.7 
5.7 
16.7 


86.7 
88.5 
80.0 


6.7 




5.9 




3.3 







a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

The children 6 and under 16 years. of age involved in the cases 
assisted number 2,362. The per cent of these children at school was 
88.4, at home 5.8, and at work 5.8. The foreign-born show a greater 
tendency to remain at home. A larger proportion of the negro 
native-born of native father, and foreign-born German children are 
at work than the white native-born of native father. 



TEAKS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The number of cases assisted by the Cincinnati society whose heads 
were foreign-born was small. The data in detail are shown in the 
general tables. 

The years in the United States are given below for the heads of the 
cases who were foreign-born. 

Table 145. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States 
each specified number of years, by race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 129. The total, how- 
ever, is for all foreign-born.) 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years — 


Per cent in United States each 
specified number of years— 




Under 
5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 


20 or 
over. 




53 
21 


4 
1 


4 


10 
2 


35 
18 


7.5 
4.8 


15.1 
4.8 


34.0 
14.3 


66.0 




85.7 






Total 


122 


14 


18 


26 


64 


11.5 


26.2 


47.5 


52.8 







194 



The Immigration Commission. 



Of the 122 foreign-born heads of cases, 64, or 52.5 per cent, have 
been in the United States twenty years or over. Eleven and five- 
tenths per cent of the total number have been in the United States 
less than five years, and 26.2 per cent have been in the United States 
less than ten years. The German assisted in Cincinnati is a more 
recent comer to the United States than the Irish. 

Taking each individual who was foreign-born, the years in the 
United States, by race of individual, is shown in the following table: 

Table 146. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each 
specified number of years, by race of individual. 

[This table Includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign- 
born.] 



Race of Individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Under 
5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 


20 or 
over. 




89 


11 


9 


17 


52 


12.4 


22.5 


41.6 


58.4 






Total 


236 


50 


50 


45 


91 


21.2 


42.4 


61.4 


38.6 







Of the 236 persons who were foreign-born reporting years in the 
United States, 61.4 per cent were in the United States less than 
twenty years. The scattering races shown in the General Table 17, 
Volume II, page 264, are the more recent comers. Also it may be seen 
that the females included in the table have been in the United States 
for a longer period than the males. 

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH. 

The ability to speak the English language for the non-English- 
speaking races is shown in the following table: 

Table 147. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and 
general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only non-En°;lish-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.] 



General nativity and race of individual. 


Number reporting 
data. 


jomplete 


Per cent who speak English. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 


189 
41 


215 
49 


404 
90 


' 93.7 
70.7 


92.1 
73.5 


92.8 




72.2 








308 


346 


654 


' 85.4 


85.0 


85.2 








217 
91 


248 
98 


465 
189 


94.5 
63.7 


93.1 
64.3 


93.8 




64.0 







The number of non-English-speaking persons, both foreign-born 
and of the second generation 6 years of age or over, reporting ability 
to speak English is 654. Of this number, 85.2 per cent speak the 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Cincinnati. 195 

English language. The foreign-born show a total of 189 persons 
reporting and with but 64 per cent of that number able to speak 
English. Comparing the second-generation German with the foreign- 
born German, the foreign-born have 72.2 per cent speaking English, 
while the native-born of German father have 92.8 per cent speaking 
English. There is no marked difference in the ability to speak 
English between the males and females. 



MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 



197 



MINNEAPOLIS. 



The Minneapolis, Minn., reports compiled for the charity investi- 

gation of the Immigration Commission were made by the Associated 
harities of that city and include all cases assisted from December 1, 
1908, to May 31, 1909. 



GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE. 

The following table presents in detail, by general nativity and race 
of head of case, the cases assisted and the persons involved in such 
cases. 

Table 148. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head of 

case. 

[Not including 9 cases, involving 32 persons, race not reported.] 





Cases assisted. 


Persons involved. 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


286 

25 

1 

4 
3 
1 
1 

IS 
1 

12 

. 53 

5 

48 

28 
3 

11 
3 
2 

17 
1 
3 

5 

13 

14 

19 

2 

21 

8 

1 

53 

76 

39 

5 

2 

91 

33 

13 

14 

13 

137 

3 

4 


26.2 

2.3 

.1 

.4 
.3 
.1 
.1 

1.4 
.1 

1.1 

4.9 
.5 

4.4 

2.6 
.3 

1.0 
.3 
.2 

1.6 
.1 
.3 

.5 

1.2 

1.3 

1.7 

.2 

1.9 

.7 

.1 

4.9 

7.0 

3.6 

.5 

.2 

8.4 

3.0 

1.2 

1.3 

1.2 

12.6 

.3 

.4 


1,003 
72 
5 

21 

14 
1 
1 

44 
2 

44 
213 
■ 14 
151 

83 
7 

36 
3 
8 

69 
4 
7 

24 

60 

43 

72 

6 

55 

30 

11 

191 

370 

166 

17 

8 

376 

163 

71 

34 

77 

562 

14 

9 












Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 












Dutch 






(a) 










.3 








2.0 


Polish . . 


.2 




.9 




.1 


Slovak 


.2 




1.7 




.1 


Welsh 


.2 


Foreign-born: 


.6 




1.4 




1.0 




1.7 


Dutch 


.1 




1.3 




.7 




.3 




4.6 




8.9 




4.0 




.4 




.2 




9.0 


Polish 


3.9 




1.7 




.8 


Slovak 


1.9 




13.5 




.3 


Welsh 


.2 








1,088 


100.0 


4,161 


100.0 








211 
522 
566 


19.4 
48.0 
52.0 


722 
1,802 
2,359 


17.4 




* 43.3 




56.7 







a Less than 0.05 per cent. 



199 



200 



The Immigration Commission. 



The total number of cases reporting race of head assisted by the 
Associated Charities, Minneapolis, Minn., was 1,088, and the total 
number of persons involved in these cases was 4,161. 

Of the total number of cases, 566, or 52 per cent, were cases in 
which the head of the case was foreign-born, and 522, or 48 per cent, 
were cases in which the head of the case was native-born. Included 
with the native-born were 211 cases, or 19.4 per cent of the total 
number of cases, in which the head was native-born of foreign father, 
or second-generation immigrant. 

Of the total number of persons assisted, 2,359, or 56.7 per cent, 
were persons involved in cases in which the head was foreign-born, 
and 1,802, or 43.3 per cent, were persons involved in cases in which 
the head was native-born. Included with the native-born were 722 
persons, or 17.4 per cent of the total number of persons, involved in 
cases in which the head of the case was native-born of foreign father. 

The races represented by 20 or more cases, together with the 
number and per cent of cases and persons involved, are as follows: 



Bace. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent. 



White, native-born of native father 

Swedish, foreign-bom 

Norwegian, foreign-born 

Hebrew, foreign-bom .- 

German, native-born of foreign father. . . 

German, foreign-bom 

Irish, native-bom of foreign father 

Irish, foreign-born 

Polish, foreign-born 

Norwegian, native-born of foreign father 

Negro, native-born of native father 

English, foreign-born 



285 
137 
91 
76 
53 
53 
48 
39 
33 
28 
25 
21 



26.2 
12.6 
8.4 
7.0 
4.9 
4.9 
4.4 
3.6 
3.0 
2.6 
2.3 
1.9 



1,003 
562 

376 
370 
213 
191 
151 
166 
163 
83 
72 
55 



24.1 

13.5 
9.0 
8.9 
5.1 
4.6 
3.6 
4.0 
3.9 
2.0 
1.7 
1.3 



The greatest proportion of the assistance was given to the white 
native-born of native father, with 285 cases, or 26.2 per cent of the 
total number of cases, involving 1,003 persons, or 24.1 per cent of the 
total number of persons involved. Among the foreign-born the 
Swedish, Norwegian, Hebrew, German, Irish, Polish, and English 
were the races assisted by the society and represented by cases 
ranging in the order named from 137 to 21. 



APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED. 



The classes of apparent causes of need are shown, by general nativ- 
ity and race of head of case, for the cases and persons involved, in the 
tables which follow. It will be noted that the percentages for each 
race total more than 100, due to the fact that more than one cause 
is often reported to a case. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Minneapolis. 



201 



Table 149. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, by 
general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases , as shown in Table 148. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 



Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 



Death or 
disability 
of another 
member 
of family. 



Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 

insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 



Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 



Old age. 



Other. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 

German 

Irish 

Norwegian 

roreign-born: 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



285 
25 



21 
53 
76 
39 
91 
33 
137 



33.3 
40.0 



22.6 
43.8 
21.4 

38.1 
35.8 
21.1 
33.3 
40.7 
24.2 
43.8 



36.0 



24.5 
16.7 

25.0 

42.9 
.50.9 
67.1 
41.0 
41.8 
39.4 
39.4 



41.4 
40.0 



41.5 
39.6 
46.4 

23.8 
49.1 
15.8 
30.8 
41.8 
27.3 
38.0 



25.6 
28.0 



26.4 
31.3 

42.9 



26.4 
9.2 
23.1 
33.0 
27.3 
26.3 



37.1 



26.0 



211 
522 
566 



29.9 
32.2 
36.0 



22.3 
31.0 
42.8 



43.1 
42.0 
37.8 



30.8 
27.8 
24.4 



8.4 

16.0 



1.9 

4.2 
.0 

4.8 
7.5 
1.3 
20.5 
6.6 
3.0 
8.0 



7.2 



4.3 
7.1 

7.2 



20.0 
24.0 



28.3 

16.7 
39.3 

14.3 
7.5 
5.3 

15.4 

16.5 
6.1 

17.5 



17.5 



23.2 

21.5 
13.8 



Table 150. — Per cent of persons involvedin cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 148. 

ever, are for all races.) 



The totals, how- 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need. 



Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 



Death or 
disability 
of another 
member 
of family. 



Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 

insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 



Neglect 
or bad 

habits of 
bread- 



Old age. 



Other. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 

German 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Foreign-born: 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Swedish 

Grand total , 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



1,003 
72 



213 
151 



55 
191 
370 
166 
376 
163 
562 



31.5 
29.2 



22.1 
41.1 
19.3 

40.0 
32.5 
18.9 
24.1 
30.9 
25.8 
42.5 



44.1 
38.9 



35.7 
17.9 

24.1 

60.0 
58.6 
71.4 
56.6 
49.2 
44.8 
48.9 



44.1 
40.3 



37.1 
37.7 
54.2 

20.0 
50.8 
17.0 
24.1 
44.4 
28.2 
37.9 



27.5 
31.9 



26.8 
41.1 
47.0 

47.3 
23.0 
7.8 
20.5 
40.2 
25.8 
27.2 



4,161 



30.9 



45.6 



40.7 



28.0 



722 
1,802 
2,359 



26.3 
29.2 
32.2 



28.3 
37.7 
51.7 



42.8 
43.3 



36.6 

31.2 
25.4 



5.1 
11.1 



.5 
1.3 

.0 

1.8 
4.2 
1.1 
6.0 
2.9 
.6 
2.8 



3.2 



1.7 
3.9 

2.7 



20.1 
22.2 



27.2 
19.9 
27.7 

5.5 
3.7 
5.1 
9.0 

17.3 
6.1 

17.4 



16.0 



22.6 
21.1 
12.0 



65812°— vol 34—11- 



-14 



202 The Immigration Commission. 

The classes of apparent causes of need, together with the per cent 
of cases and persons involved, are as follows : 

Persons 
involved. 




Lack of employment or insufficient earnings r 

Death or disability of another member of family 

Death or disability of breadwinner 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner 

Old age ; 

Other 

Lack of employment or insufficient earnings, alone, or along with 
other causes, was the apparent cause of need in 39.8 per cent of the 
total number of cases, involving 40.7 per cent of the total number of 
persons. The foreign cases reported this cause of need in 37.8 per 
cent of their cases and the native-born in 42 per cent. The cases in 
which the head was German foreign-born had the greatest per cent 
(49.1) of cases and the Hebrew foreign-born, the smallest per cent 

(15.8) of cases reporting lack of employment or insufficient earnings 
as an apparent cause of need. 

Death or disability of another member of family, alone, or along 
with other causes, was reported in 37.1 per cent of the total number 
of cases, involving 45.6 per cent of the total number of persons. 
Included in this class are accident, illness, or death of another member 
of family. The foreign-born reported this cause of need in 42.8 
per cent of their cases and the native-born in 31 per cent. The cases 
m which the head was Hebrew foreign-born had the largest per cent 
(67.1), and the Irish native-born of foreign father, the smallest per 
cent (16.7) of cases reporting this cause of need. 

Death or disability of breadwinner, alone, or along with other 
causes, was the apparent cause of need in 34.2 per cent of the total 
number of cases, involving 30.9 per cent of the total number of per- 
sons. Included in this class are accident, illness, or death of bread- 
winner. 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner includes desertion by hus- 
band, incarceration of breadwinner, intemperance of breadwinner, 
and neglect by breadwinner. This class of causes, alone, or along 
with other causes, was reported in 26 per cent of the total number 
of cases, involving 28 per cent of the total number of persons. The 
• foreign-born reported this cause in 24.4 per cent of their cases and 
the native-born in 27.8 per cent. The cases in which the head was 
Norwegian native-born of foreign father show the largest per cent 

(42.9) of cases so reported and the Hebrew foreign-born, the smallest 
per cent (9.2). 

Old age, alone, or along with other causes, was reported in 7.2 per 
cent of the total number of cases, involving 3.2 per cent of the total 
number of persons. The cases in which the head was Irish, foreign- 
born, show the largest proportion of cases, or 20.5 per cent, so 
reported. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Minneapolis. 



203 



AID GIVEN. 

The aid furnished by the society is shown in the following tables 
for the cases and persons involved, by general nativity and race of 
head of case. Like the tables showing the causes of need, the per, 
cents will not total 100. 

Table 151. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head ofcase. ] 

[This table Includes only race's represented by 20 or more cases, shown in Table 148. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Pood or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical assist* 
ance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


285 
25 

53 
48 
28 

21 
S3 
76 
39 
91 
33 
137 


6.0 
12.0 

1.9 
8.3 
7.1 

9.5 
15.1 

3.9 

5.1 
12.1 

3.0 
11.7 


16.1 
4.0 

9.4 
25.0 
3.6 

14.3 
11.3 

5.3 
12.8 
16.5 

9.1 
17.5 


19.3 
12.0 

26.4 
27.1 
21.4 

9.5 
15.1 

5.3 
12.8 
20.9 
.9.1 
19.0 


31.9 
28.0 

24.5 
45.8 
28.6 

47.6 
34.0 
15.8 
38.5 
39.6 
33.3 
40.9 


21.1 
32.0 

11.3 

22.9 

- 21.4 

23.8 
24.5 
9.2 
23.1 
31.9 
12.1 
32.8 


12.6 




8.0 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


11.3 




8.3 




3.6 


Foreign-born: 


4.8 




17.0 




17.1 




7.7 




16.5 


Polish 


9.1 




13.9 








1,088 


7.5 


15.2 


18.1 


34.6 


23.3 


11.9 






Total native-born of foreign 


211 
522 
566 


6.2 
6.5 
8.5 


14.2 
14.8 
15.5 


24.6 
21.1 
15.4 


36.5 
33.5 
35.5 


21.3 
21.6 
24.9 


7.1 




10.2 




13.4 







Table 152. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, 

ever, are for all races.] 


as shown in Table 1 


18. The totals, how- 




Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved 


in cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Pood or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical assist- 
ance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


1,003 
72 

213 
151 
83 

55 
191 
370 
166 
376 
163 
562 


7.1 
13.9 

1.4 
14.6 
8.4 

9.1 

16.2 
2.4 
4.8 

14.6 
3.1 

15.1 


20.2 
6.9 

8.9 
22.5 
9.6 

20.0 
8.9 
5.1 

10.2 

21.3 
7.4 

21.7 


19.9 
6.9 

22.5 

25.8 
20.5 

7.3 
12.0 

5.9 
12.0 
19.7 

9.8 
20.1 


33.1 
27.8 

22.5 
45.0 
31.3 

41.8 
37.7 
15.1 
23.5 
43.6 
36.2 
40.7 


24.0 
26.4 

10.8 
27.2 
30.1 

32.7 
30.4 
8.9 
16.9 
35.1 
15.3 
32.6 


11.8 




.4.2 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


13.1 




7.9 




4.8 


Foreign-born: 


10.9 




18.8 




22.4 




7.8 




12.0 


Polish 


12.9 




15.8 








4,161 


8.6 


17.8 


17.8 


34.3 


25.0 


12.9 






Total native-born of foreign 


' 722 
1,802 
2,359 


8.2 
8.0 
9.0 


15.2 
17.6 
17.8 


25.2 
21.5 
14.9 


36.8 
34.3 
34.3 


23.8 
24.0 
25.9 


8.2 




10.0 




15.2 







204 



The Immigration Commission. 



The proportion of cases furnished each specified aid alone or along 
with other assistance, together with the proportion of persons 
involved, is as follows : 




Food or meals 

Fuel 

Employment secured 

Clothing 

Medicine or medical assistance 
Cash 



Per cent. 
34.6 
23.3 

18.1 
15.2 
11.9 
7.5 



Persons 

In- 
volved. 

Per cent. 
34.3 
25.0 
17.8 
17.8 
12.9 
8.6 



Food or meals were given alone or along with other assistance to 
34.6 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 34.3 per cent of 
the total number of persons. The foreign-born show 35.5 per cent 
of such cases involving 34.3 per cent of the number of persons. 

Fuel was given to 23.3 per cent, employment secured for 18.1 per 
cent, clothing to 15.2 per cent, medicine or medical assistance to 
11.9 per cent, and cash to 7.5 per cent of the total number of cases. 

PERSONS PER CASE. 



From Table 148 it may be noted that the average number of per- 
sons per case was 3.82. The average number of persons per case 
of the cases in which the head was foreign-born was 4.17, and of the 
cases in which the head was native-born was 3.45. 

A table showing, by general nativity and race of head of case, the 
number and per cent of cases consisting of each specified number of 
persons follows : 

Table 153. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 148. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

, Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 

German , 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Foreign- born: 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



Total 
num- 
ber of 



285 
25 



53 
48 
28 

21 
53 
76 
39 
91 
33 
137 



1,088 



211 
522 



Number of cases consisting of 
each specified number of per- 
sons. 



55 
122 
10S 



2 to 4. 5 to 8, 



137 
15 



95 

247 
225 



19 



56 
143 
205 



9 or 
more. 



Per cent of cases consisting of 
each specified number of per- 
sons. 



22.1 
16.0 



31.3 
25.0 

38.1 
18.9 

7.9 
33.3 
14.3 

3.0 
17.5 



21.1 



26. 1 
23.4 
19.1 



2 to 4. 5 to 8. 



4S. 1 
60.0 



39.6 
45.8 
57.1 

47.6 

52. S 
40.8 
2S.2 
46.2 
39 4 
43. S 



43.4 



45.0 
47.3 
39.8 



28.1 
24.0 



35.8 
18. S 
17.9 

14.3 
24.5 
46.1 
20.5 
37.4 
48.5 
35.8 



32.0 



26.5 
27.4 
36.2 



9 or 
more. 



1.8 



3.8 
4.2 



5.3 
17.9 
2.2 
9.1 
2.9 



3.5 



2.4 
1.9 
4.9 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Minneapolis. 



205 



The greatest number of cases, 472, or 43.4 per cent of the total 
number, are found to consist of from 2 to 4 persons; 348 cases, or 
32 per cent, consist of from 5 to 8 persons; 230 cases, or 21.1 per cent, 
consist of but 1 person and 38 cases, or 3.5 per cent, consist of 9 or 
more persons. 

The cases in which the head was English foreign-born, show the 
largest proportion consisting of but 1 person; negro native-born of na- 
tive father, the largest proportion consisting of from 2 to 4 persons; 
Polish foreign-born, the largest proportion consisting of from 5 to 
8 persons; and Irish foreign-born, the largest proportion consisting 
of 9 or more persons. 

"type" of case. 

The number and per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, 
with or without children, widow, with or without children, and 
widower, with or without children, are shown in the following tables: 

Table 154. — Number -of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower with 
each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 129. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





en 
CD 

s 


Number of cases consisting of — 




Husband and wife 
and— 




Widow and — 


Widower and- 




Others. 


General nativity and race 


o 
























































of head of case. 


u 




a 


a 


— 






a 


a 


^ 






9 





~ 






i 














































a 


■V 


T1 


'3 




a 


& 


TJ 


o 




s 


-n 


T1 


u 












I 


■s 


a 


3 






T3 


2 


3 


S a 




■a 


3 


3 








■" S3 






a 


1 


<N 


ui 


u 


•3 




o 
e* 


o 


Bv 


"a 


3 

o 


CN 


o 

s 


a* 


la 


o 




r\ 




o 




O 






o 




o 






r> 




O 




o 


n 








Eh 


'A 


rH 


m 


CO 


H 


'A 


i— i 


CO 


CO 


H 


'A 


rt 


CO 


CO 


fci 




CN 


H 


Native-born of native 


























' 














father: 








































White 


285 
25 


30 

8 


53 


51 
3 


8 


142 
11 


20 
4 


33 
2 


21 

1 


4 
2 


78 
9 


12 


1 
1 


2 


1 


16 
1 


31 


18 
4 


19 






Native-born of foreign 








father, by race of father: 










































53 
48 
28 


2 
4 
1 


9 
9 
5 


11 
6 

? 


4 
2 
1 


26 
21 

9 


3 

4 
1 


5 
6 
9 


5 
3 
3 


1 
1 


14 

14 
13 


1 

2 


1 

1 






2 
3 


7 
9 
ft 


4 
1 


11 








in 








6 


Foreign-born: 










































21 


2 


3 


7, 




7 


■/, 


1 


3 




6 




1 






1 


6 


1 


7 




53 
76 
39 
91 


7 
6 
3 

4 


10 
20 
2 
14 


8 

25 
4 
11 


4 
11 
8 
4 


29 
62 
17 
41 


5 
3 
3 


7 
1 
3 

17 


5 
2 
4 
1? 


.... 
? 


17 
6 

11 
16 


1 
3 
3 


.... 


1 
1 




2 
4 
4 
? 


4 

""l 
8 


1 
4 

4 


5 




4 




7 




1 


1 


1? 


Polish 


33 

137 


1 
6 


5 
15 


15 
28 


3 

11 


24 
60 


1 

9 


5 
19 


3 

25 


"3 


9 
56 




















4 


2 


1 


2 


9 


11 


1 


1? 








1,088 


83 


173 


213 


72 


541 


71 


128 


102 


18 


319 


33 


9 


7 


5 


54 


126 


48 


174 


Total native-born of for- 










































211 
522 


13 

51 


38 
91 


31 
86 


9 
17 


91 

245 


13 
37 


30 
65 


18 
40 


3 

9 


64 
151 


7 

19 


3 
5 






10 

27 


35 
66 


11 
33 


46 


Total native-born 


2 


1 


99 


Total foreign-born 


566 


32 


82 


127 


55 


296 


34 


63 


62 


9 


168 


14 


4 


5 


4 


27 


60 


15 


75 



206 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 155. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower with or 
without children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[jThis table includes only races represented by 20 or more eases, as shown in Table 129. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Total 
number 
of cases. 



Per cent of cases consisting of— 



Husband 
and wife, 
with or 
without 
children. 



Widow, 
with of 
without 
children. 



Widower 
with or 
without 

children. 



Others. 



Native-born of native father: 
. White 

Negro 

Native-bom of foreign father, by race of 
father: 

German 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Foreign-born: 

English ., 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



285 
25 



21 
53 
76 
39 
91 
33 
137 



49.8 
44.0 



49.1 
43.8 
32.1 

33.3 

54.7 
81.6 
43.6 
45.1 
72.7 
43.8 



27.4 
36.0 



26.4 
29.2 

46.4 

28.6 

32.1 

7.9 

28.2 
39.6 

27.3 
40.9 



5.6 
4.0 



6.3 
.0 

4.8 

3.8 
.5.3 
10.3 
2.2 
.0 
6.6 



49.7 



29.3 



5.0 



211 

522 
506 



43.1 
46.9 
52.3 



3(1. 3 
28. 9 
29.7 



4.7 
5.2 

4.8 



17.2 
16.0 



20.8 
20.8 
21.4 

33.3 

9.4 

5.3 

17.9 

13.2 

.0 



21.8 
19.0 
13.3 



The tables show that 541 cases, or 49.7 per cent of the total number 
consisted of husband and wife, with or without children. The 
greater proportion of these cases consist of husband and wife with 
from 3 to 5 children. The cases consisting of widow, with or without 
children were 319, or 29.3 per cent of the total number. The term 
"widow" as used in these tables includes, besides the widowed, 
deserted, and divorced, those wives whose husbands are residing 
elsewhere and unmarried mothers living with their children. The 
larger proportion of these cases consisted of widow with either 1 or 2 
children. The cases consisting of widower, with or without children, 
are 54, or 5 per cent, and of this number 33 cases consisted of the 
widower alone. 

Cases in which there are persons other than husband, wife and 
children and cases in which there is neither husband nor wife has been 
classed as "others." Cases under this class numbered 174, and of this 
number 126 consisted of but 1 person. 

The table following giving the number and per cent of cases con- 
sisting only of husband and wife, as compared with the total number 
assisted, is next presented. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Minneapolis. 



207 



Table 156. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

{This table Includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. ' The 

totals, however, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Cases consisting only 
of husband and wife. 




Number. 


Per cent. 




285 


30 


10.5 








1,088 


83 


7.6 








211 

522 
566 


13 
51 
32 


6.2 




9.8 




6.7 







The report for Minneapolis contained 83 cases, or 7.6 per cent of 
the total number, consisting only of husband and wife. 

AGE OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The age of the persons involved in the cases assisted, by general 
nativity and race of head of case, is presented below. 

Table 157. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general nativity 
i and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 148. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Number 
report- 
ing com- 
plete 
data. 


Number within each specified 
age group. 


Per cent within each 
age group. 


specified 


of head of case. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Native-born of native fa- 
ther: 
White 


992 
72 

213 
151 
81 

53 
191 
366 
166 
375 
161 
561 


470 
26 

120 
71 
41 

24 

78 
197 

76 
193 

95 
283 


352 
27 

69 
46 
34 

22 

64 
133 

49 
108 

44 
157 


133 
9 

21 

30 

6 

5 
41 
33 
30 
62 
21 
100 


37 
10 

3 

4 

2 
8 
3 
11 
12 
1 
21 


. 47.4 
36.1 

56.3 
47.0 
50.6 

45.3 
40.8 
53.8 
45.8 
51.5 
59.0 
50.4 


35.5 
37.5 

32.4 
30.5 
42.0 

41.5 
33.5 
36.3 
29.5 
28.8 
27.3 
28.0 


13.4 
12.5 

9.9 
19.9 
7.4 

9.4 
21.5 

9.0 
18.1 
16.5 
13.0 
17.8 


3.7 




13.9 


Native-born of foreign fa- 
ther, by race of father: 


1.4 




2.6 




.0 


Foreign-born: 


3.8 




4.2 




.8 




6.6 




3.2 


Polish 


.6 




3.7 








4,134 


2,055 


1,345 


597 


137 


49.7 


32.5 


14.4 


3.3 






Total native-born of foreign 
father 


718 
1,787 
2,347 


357 

856 

1,199 


257 
638 
707 


87 
229 
368 


17 
64 
73 


49.7 
47.9 
51.1 


35.8 
35.7 
30.1 


12.1 

12.8 
15.7 


2.4 
3.6 


Total foreign-bom 


3.1 



Of a total of 4,134 persons reporting age, 2,055, or 49.7 per cent, 
were under 16 years of age; 1,345, or 32.5 per cent, were from 16 to 
39 years of age; 597, or 14.4 per cent, were from 40 to 59 years of age; 
and 137, or 3.3 per cent, were 60 years of age or over. Of the total 



208 



The Immigration Commission. 



number of persons represented in cases in which the heads were 
Polish foreign-born, 59 per cent were under 16 years of age. Of the 
total number of persons represented in cases in which the heads were 
Norwegian native-born of foreign father, 92.8 per cent were less than 
40 years of age. Of the total number of persons represented in cases 
in which the heads were negroes native-born of native father, 26.4 
per cent were 40 years of age or over, and 13.9 per cent were 60 years 
of age or over. 

From the General Table 12, Volume II, page 699, we note that 447 
per cent of the total number of persons involved reporting age were 
children under 14 years of age and that 19.4 per cent were children 
under 6 years of age. 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

Statistics showing the conjugal condition of persons involved in 
the cases assisted who are 20 years of age or over follow. 



Table 158. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 



[This table includes only races with ! 



) or more persons reporting. 
MALE. 



The totals, however, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of 
individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Number who are — 



Single. 



Married. 



Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 



Per cent who are — 



Single. 



Married. 



Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 



Native-born of native father, 

White 

Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 

German 

Irish 

Foreign-born: 

German 

Hebrew 

Norwegian 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



163 
382 
380 



19.4 
43.6 



8.3 



17.3 

10.3 



19.6 



97 
269 
300 



32.7 
25.1 
13.9 



74.1 



77. S 
51.3 

80.6 
91.9 
80.8 



63.4 
70.4 
80.5 



4.6 



2.8 
5.1 

11.1 
1.4 
1.9 
9.0 



5.0 



3.9 
4.5 
5.5 



FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father, 
White 


252 

49 
41 

49 
77 
96 
126 


23 

3 
9 

1 
1 

7 
6 


152 

33 
21 

31 
68 
53 
67 


77 

13 
11 

17 
8 
36 
53 


9.1 

6.1 
22.0 

2.0 
1.3 
7.3 
4.8 


60.3 

67.3 
51.2 

63.3 
88.3 
55.2 
53.2 


30. f> 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


26.5 




26.8 


Foreign-born: 


34.7 




10.4 




37.5 




42.1 








1,010 


85 


620 


305 


8.4 


61.4 


30.2 






Total native-born of foreign 


205 
486 
524 


33 
60 
25 


116 
279 
341 


56 
147 
158 


16.1 

12.3 

4.8 


56.6 
57.4 
65.1 


27.3 




30.2 




30.2 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Minneapolis. 



209 



Table 158. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual — Continued. 

TOTAL. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Native-born of native father, 
White 


468 

85 
80 

85 
151 
148 
204 


69 

10 
26 

4 
6 
16 
14 


312 

61 
41 

60 
136 

95 
130 


87 

14 
13 

21 
9 
37 
60 


14.7 

11.8 
32.5 

4.7 
4.0 
10.8 
6.9 


66.7 

71.8 
51.3 

70.6 
90.1 
64.2 
63.7 


18.6 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


16.5 




16.3 


Foreign-born: 


24.7 




6.0 




25.0 




29.4 








1,772 


234 


1,195 


343 


13.2 


67.4 


19.4 






Total native-born of foreign 


358 
868 
904 


83 
156 

78 


213 
548 
647 


62 
164 
179 


23.2 
18.0 
8.6 


59.5 
63.1 
71.6 


17.3 




18.9 




19.8 







Of the 1,772 persons 20 years of age or over reporting conjugal 
condition, 1,195, or 67.4 per cent, were married; 343, or 19.4 per cent, 
were deserted, separated, or widowed; and 234 ; or 13.2 per cent, were 
single. The foreign-born had a larger proportion of persons married 
and the smaller proportion of persons single. The Irish native-born 
of foreign father had 32.5 per cent single. The Hebrew foreign- 
born had 90.1 per cent married. The Swedish foreign-born had 29.4 
per cent deserted, separated, or widowed. 

Comparing the males and females, 75.5 per cent of the males and 
61.4 per cent of the females were married, 5 per cent of the males and 
30.2 per cent of the females were deserted, separated, or widowed, 
and 19.6 per cent of the males and 8.4 per cent of the females were 
single. 

The next tables give the number and per cent of cases in which the 
wife was the head of the case and reported widowed, deserted, or 
separated. 



210 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 159. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 148. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Total, 
reporting 
complete 

data. 



Number. 



Widowed. 



Deserted 
or sepa- 
rated. 



"Widowed. 



Deserted 
or sepa- 
rated. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 

German 

Irish. 

Norwegian 

Foreign-born: 

English , 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Swedish 



(°) 



(a 



(») 



62.3 



00 

(a) 
(a) 

(«) 

(<• 



65.3 



45.7 



Grand total. 



2(17 



Total native-born of foreign father. 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



55 

142 

155 



47. 3 
47.2 

57.4 



52.7 

52.8 
42.6 



a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

Table 160. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 148. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Total 

number of 

cases. 



Widowed. 



Deserted or 



Per cent. 



Deserted or 
separated. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 

German 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Foreign-born: 

English 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Swedish 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



2.S.5 
25 



53 
48 
28 

21 

53 
76 
39 
HI 
33 
1.37 



211 
522 
666 



156 



42 



11.9 
28.0 



13.2 
12.5 
10.7 

.0 

17.0 
5.3 

20.5 

20.9 
6.1 

24.1 



14.3 



12.3 

12. S 
15.7 



14.7 
16.0 



11.3 
10.4 
32.1 

19.0 

13.2 
3.9 
5.1 

17.6 

9.1 
14.6 



13.0 



13.7 
14.4 
11.7 



Of the total number of cases, 297, or 27.3 per cent, were cases in 
which the head was a wife reported widowed, deserted, or separated. 

Of the foreign-born cases, 15.7 per cent were cases in which the 
head was a wife widowed, and 11.7 per cent in which the head of the 
case was a wife deserted or separated. Of the native-born cases, 12.8 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Minneapolis. 



211 



per cent were cases in which head was a wife widowed and 14.4 
per cent in which the head was a wife deserted or separated. 

Of the 297 cases in which the heads were wives widowed, deserted 
or separated, 52.5 per cent were widowed and 47.5 per cent were 
deserted or separated. 



GENERAL OCCUPATION OF CHILDREN. 

The proportion of children involved in the cases assisted 6 and 
under 16 years of age who are at home, at school, and at work, is 
shown in the following table, by sex and race of individual: 

Table 161. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 



[This table includes in each section only races with 20 or more males or females reporting. 

however, are for all races.] 



The totals, 



General nativity and race of individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent — 



At home. At school. At work. 



Native-born of native father, White 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Swedish 

Foreign-born, Norwegian 



Grand total. 



Total native-born of foreign father.. 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-bom 



556 
75 



9.0 

22.2 
20.6 
5.9 
6.0 
6.1 
9.5 



9.5 



9.5 
9.3 



87. 2 

77.8 
76.5 
85.3 
84.0 
87.8 
85.7 



85.4 
86.2 

88.0 



3.8 



2.9 

8.8 
10.0 
•6.1 
4.8 



4.1 



4.8 
4.3 

2.7 



Native-born of native father, White 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Norwegian 

Swedish 

Foreign-born, Hebrew 



Grand total. 



Total native-born of foreign father . 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



620 



299 
54S 
72 



14.8 
20.7 
11.1 
13.9 
8.7 
8.3 



10.3 



11.0 
10.8 



81.5 
79.3 
81.5 
77.8 
90.2 
91.7 



86.0 
86.1 
91.7 



3.3 
3.7 



7.4 
8.3 
1.1 



2.9 



3.0 
3.1 
1.4 



TOTAL. 





454 

54 
63 
61 
86 
190 

43 
33 


9.5 

18.5 
20.6 
8.2 
9.3 

7.4 

9.3 

9.1 


87.0 

79.6 
77.8 
83.6 
81.4 
88.9 

90.7 
84.8 


3.5 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


1.9 




1.6 




8.2 




9.3 




3.7 


Foreign-born: 


.0 




6.1 








1,251 


9.9 


86.6 


3.5 








635 

1,104 

147 


10.4 
10.1 
8.2 


85.7 
86.1 
89.8 


3.9 




3.7 




2.0 







212 



The Immigration Commission. 



A total of 1,251 children 6 and under 16 years of age were involved 
in the cases assisted. Of this number, 86.6 per cent were at school, 
9.9 per cent at home, and 3.5 per cent at work. 

The proportion of children at school for the foreign-born was 89.8, 
the native-born of foreign father 85.7, and the white native-born of 
native father, 87. The proportion of children at home for the foreign- 
born was 9.9 per cent, native-born of foreign father, 10.4 per cent, 
and the white native-born of native father, 9.5. The proportion of 
children at work for the foreign-born was 2, the native-born of foreign 
father, 3.9, and the white native-born of native father, 3.5. 

The Hebrew foreign-born children show the largest percentage 
(90.7) at school, the Hebrew native-born of foreign father, the 
largest percentage (20.6) at home, and the Norwegian native-born of 
foreign father the largest percentage (9.3) at work. 

A comparison of the first and second generation of imm igrant races 
and the native-born of native father, as to the occupation of children 
involved in the cases assisted, is shown in the following table: 

Table 162. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at 
school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children horn in the United States, and also 20 or more 
children born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.] 



General nativity and race of 
father. 


Birth- 
place of 
child. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number— 


Per cent — 


At 
home. 


At 
school. 


At 
work. 


At 
home. 


At 
school. 


At 
work. 




United 
States. 

United 
States. 

Abroad . 

United 
States. 

Abroad . 


454 

' 63 

43 
86 

33 


43 

13 

4 
8 

3 


395 

49 

39 
70 

28 


16 

1 

8 
2 


9.5 

20.6 

9.3 
9.3 

9.1 


87.0 

77.8 

90.7 
81.4 

84.8 


3.5 


Foreign-born: 


1.6 




9.3 




6.1 



Comparing the children born in the United States and abroad of 
foreign-born Hebrew and Norwegian fathers, it has been found that 
the children born abroad make a far better showing than those born 
in the United States as to the proportion at school, at home, and at 
work. Also, the proportion for each class, with the exception of the 
children born abroad of foreign-born Hebrew fathers, is below that 
of the white children born in the United States of native fathers. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Minneapolis. 



213 



TEARS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The period of residence in this country for the heads of cases who 
were foreign-born may be seen in the following table : 

Table 163. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each 
specified number of years, by race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 148. The total, however, 

is for all foreign-born.] 



Race of head of case. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United 
States each specified 
number of years. 




Under 
5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 




19 
53 
76 
38 
88 
33 
134 


5 
2 
9 
3 
11 
5 
5 


7 

9 

37 

1 

18 
14 
16 


3 

11 
19 

5 
23 

6 
40 


4 
31 
11 
29 
36 

8 
73 


3.8 
11.8 

7.9 
12.5 
15.2 

3.7 


(a) 

20.8 
60.5 
10.5 
33.0 
57.6 
15.7 


(a) 
41.5 






85.5 




23.7 




59.1 


Polish 


75.8 




45.5 






Total 


557 


54 


121 


132 


250 


9.7 


31.4 


55.1 







a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

From the foregoing table it will be noted that the foreign-born 
heads of cases reporting years in the United States numbered 557. 
Of this number, 9.7 per cent have lived in the United States less than 
five years, 31.4 per cent less than ten years, and 55.1 per cent less 
than twenty years. The Hebrew and the Polish show the shortest 

Eeriod of residence. The Hebrew had 11.8 per cent in the United 
tates less than five years, 60.5 per cent less than ten years, and 85.5 
per cent less than twenty years. The Polish had 15.2 per cent in the 
United States less than five years, 57.6 per cent less than ten years, 
and 75.8 per cent less than twenty years. The Norwegian had 12.5 
per cent in the United States less than five years, 33 per cent less than 
ten years, and 59.1 per cent less than twenty years. The Irish show 
the longest period of residence with but 7.9 per cent in the United 
States less than five years, 10.5 per cent less than ten years, and 23.7 
per cent less than twenty years. 

A similar table which follows shows the period of residence in this 
country of the foreign-born persons by race of individual. 



214 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 164. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each 
specified number of years, by race of individual. 

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign- 
bom.] 



Race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in United 
States each specified 
number of years. 




Under 
5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 19. 


20 or 
over. 


Under 
5. 


Under 
10. 


Under 
20. 


Canadian (other than French) 


40 

95 
207 

58 
186 

82 
223 


12 
2 
28 
3 
37 
14 
13 


15 
21 
111 
2 
48 
39 
39 


2 
19 
49 
12 
42 
12 
70 


11 
53 
19 
41 
59 
17 
101 


30.0 
2.1 

13.5 
5.2 

19.9 

17.1, 
5.8 


67.5 
24.2 
67.1 
8.6 
45.7 
64.6 
23.3 


72.5 
44.2 




90.8 




29.3 




68.3 


Polish 


79.3 




54.7 








1,100 


143 


321 


2S6 


380 


13.0 


42.2 


65.5 







Studying the years in the United States for each individual who was 
foreign-born, by race of individual, it will be noted that 13 per cent 
of the total number of foreign-born individuals reporting years in the 
United States have been here less than 5 years, 42.2 per cent have been 
here less than ten years, and 65.5 per cent less than twenty years. 

The Hebrews report the highest proportion in the United States 
under twenty years followed by the Polish as in the previous table 
and the Canadian, other than French, who show 72.5 per cent in the 
United States less than twenty years. 

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH. 

The percentage of persons, foreign-born or native-born of foreign 
father, 6 years of age or over, belonging to the non- English-speaking 
races, and who speak English, is presented in the table below: 

Table 165. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and 
general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.] 



General nativity and race of individual. 


Number 


reporting complete 
data. 


Per cent who speak English. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


22 
68 
43 
74 
19 
137 

41 
98 
76 
37 
89 


20 
85 
37 
88 
23 
154 

54 
108 
114 

43 
137 


42 
153 

80 
162 

42 
291 

95 
206 
190 

80 
226 


100.0 
100.0 

95.3 
100.0 

(o) 

99.3 

97.6 
88.8 
90.8 
81.1 
97.8 


100.0 
100.0 
91.9 
98.9 
100.0 
98.7 

94.4 
67.6 
84.2 
51.2 
94.2 


100.0 




100.0 




93.8 




99.4 




100.0 




99.0 


Foreign-born: 


95.8 




77.7 




86.8 


Polish 


65.0 




95.6 








855 


1,027 


1,882 


96.3 


88.8 


92.2 








443 
412 


488 
539 


931 
951 


99.3 
93.0 


98.6 
80.0 


98.9 




85.6 







a Not computed, owing to small number Involved. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Minneapolis. 



215 



Of the total number reporting, 92.2 per cent speak the English 
language, with 96.3 per cent of the males and 88.8 per cent of the 
females. Of the males native-born of foreign father, 99.3 per cent 
speak English and of the foreign-born, 93 per cent. Of the females 
native-born of foreign father, 98.6 per cent speak English and of the 
foreign-born 80 per cent. Among the foreign-born the lowest per 
cents are shown by the Polish, with 65 per cent speaking English, the 
Hebrew with 77.7 per cent, and the Norwegian with 86.8 per cent. 
Practically only one-half of the foreign-born Polish females speak 
English. 

CITIZENSHIP. 

Data relative to the citizenship of the .foreign-born males who have 
been in the United States five years or over, and who were 21 years of 
age or over at the time of coming, are shown in the following table 
by race of individual. 

Table 166. — Present political condition of foreign-horn males who have been in the United 
States S years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of 
individual. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Race of individual. 


Fully natu- 
ralized. 


Having first 
papers only. 


Fully natu- 
ralized. 


Having first 
papers only. 




46 
25 
51 


21 
18 
47 


8 
2 
2 


45.7 
72.0 
92.2 


17.4 




8.0 




3.9 






Total 


209 


147 


23 


70.3 


11.0 







It was found that 209 males applicable to this grouping had reported 
citizenship. Of this number 147, or 70.3 per cent, were fully natu- 
ralized and 23, or 11 per cent, had filed first papers only. Of the 
three races included in this table the Swedish show 96.1 per cent with 
first or second naturalization papers, the Norwegian 80 per cent, and 
Hebrew 63.1 per cent. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



65812°— vol 34—11 15 



217 



ST. IOTJIS. 

The report for St. Louis, Mo., covers all cases assisted by the Prov- 
ident Association from December 1, 1908, to May 31, 1909. 

GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE. 

The following table shows in detail, by general nativity and race 
of head of case, the number and per cent of the cases of each race 
assisted and the number and per cent of the persons involved in 
such cases: 

Table 167. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head of 

case. 

[No- including 1 case, involving 4 persons, race not reported.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent of 
total. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent of 
total. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian (other than French) 

English 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Polish 

Russian 

Scotch 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Foreign-bom: 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Danish. 

English 

Flemish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Magyar ■ 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Welsh 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



855 
381 

3 
1 
9 

18 

152 

2 

40 
2 
1 
1 
6 
1 
2 

1 
1 
2 
1 

20 

1 

3 

117 

5 

20 
5 
3 
1 
1 

11 
4 
2 
1 



1,683 

238 

1,474 

209 



50.8 
22.6 



1.2 
.1 
.2 

7.0 
.3 

1.2 
.3 
.2 
.1 
.1 
.7 
.2 
.1 
.1 
.5 
.1 



14.1 

87.6 
12.4 



3,177 
1,111 

19 
2 
35 

89 
031 
6 
136 
5 
8 
2 

22 
2 

10 

6 

6 

5 

3 

63 

4 

9 

402 

23 

68 

23 

21 

4 

4 

60 

6 

11 

1 

37 

4 



i, 015 



967 

5,255 

760 



(«) 



(a) 



(«) 



52.8 
18.5 

.3 

.6 
1.5 
10.5 
.1 
2.3 
.1 
.1 

.4 

.2 

.1 
.1 
.1 

1.0 
.1 
.) 

6.7 
.4 

1.1 
.4 
.3 
.1 
.1 

1.0 
.1 
.2 
.1 
.6 
.1 



16.1 

87.4 

i2. a 



o Less than 0.05 per cent. 



219 



220 



The Immigration Commission. 



The total number of cases assisted reporting race of head was 1,683 
and the total number of persons represented in these cases was 6,015. 
The head of the cases was native-born in 1,474 cases, or 87.6 per 
cent of the total number; and was foreign-born in 209 cases, or 12.4 
per cent. Included with the native-born are 238 cases, or 14.1 per 
cent of the total number, in which the head was native-born of for- 
eign father. 

The races represented by 20 or more cases are as follows: 



Race. 



Cases. 



Number. 



Per cent. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent. 



White, native-born of native father. . 
Negro, native-born of native father. . . 
German, native-born of foreign father 

German, foreign-born 

Irish, native-born of foreign father 

English, foreign-born 

Irish, foreign-born 



855 
381 
152 
117 
40 
20 
20 



50.8 
22.6 
9.0 
7.0 
2.4 
1.2 
1.2 



3,177 

1,111 

631 

402 
136 
63 

OS 



52.8 
18.5 
10.5 
6.7 
2.3 
1.0 
1.1 



It will be noted that the greatest proportion of the assistance fur- 
nished by the society was given to the cases in which the head was 
white native-born of native father, represented by 855 cases, or 50.8 
per cent of the total number of cases, involving 3,177 persons, or 
52.8 per cent of the total number of persons. A much smaller pro- 
portion is shown for the other races — the negro native-born of 
native father having 22.6 per cent; the German native-born of for- 
eign father, 9 per cent; German, foreign-born, 7 per cent; Irish, 
native-born of foreign father, 2.4 per cent; and the English, foreign- 
born, and Irish, foreign-born, 1.2 per cent each. 

The persons involved in the cases show practically the same dis- 
tribution among the different races. 

The races represented by 20 or more cases have been selected for a 
more detailed study. 

APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED. 



The tables following present the proportion of cases and persons 
involved, by race of head of case, for each class of apparent causes of 
need. This information may be found in more detail in General 
Tables 2-5, Volume II, pages 928-932. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: St. Louis. 



221 



Table 168. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, by 
general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 167. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disabil- 
ity of 
bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disabil- 
ity of 
another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 

employ- 
ment 

or insuf- 
ficient 

earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


855 
381 

152 
40 

. 20 
117 
20 


16.4 
18.6 

15.1 
22.5 

20.0 
11.1 
5.0 


4.7 
5.8 

5.3 
7.5 

5.0 

6.8 

.0 


77.9 
69.8 

76.3 
75.0 

65.0 
70.9 
80.0 


8.5 
5.2 

11.2 
5.0 

.0 
5.1 
10.0 


5.0 
18.4 

5.3 
5.0 

30.0 
23.9 
25.0 


2.7 




1.6 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 




2.5 


Foreign-born: 
















1,683 


16.6 


5.3 


75.0 


7.5 


10.0 








Total native-born of foreign 


238 

1,474 

209 


17.2 
17.1 
13.4 


5.0 
5.0 

7.2 


76.9 
75.6 
70.8 


9.7 
7.9 
5.3 


6.5 

8.5 

20.6 


1.3 








4.8 







Table 169. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class of 
apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 167. 

ever, are for all races.] 



The totals, how- 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each 
specified class of apparent causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 

of 
another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


3,177 
1,111 

631 
136 

63 
402 
68 


15.4 
17.5 

13.8 
22.8 

25.4 
14.9 
2.9 


5.6 
6.5 

5.9 
11.0 

9.5 

7.2 

.0 


81.3 
75.7 

80.0 
72.8 

63.5 
75.9 
91.2 


9.3 
7.2 

12.4 
7.4 

.0 
6.2 
8.8 


2.5 
9.8 

3.0 
2.2 

19.0 
12.4 
10.3 


2.2 




2.3 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


.3 




2.2 


Foreign-born: 


3.2 




6.5 




.0 








6,015 


16.2 


6.2 


79.2 


8.7 


4.9 


2.3 






Total native-born of foreign 


967 

5,255 

760 


17.0 
16.1 
16.6 


5.6 
5.8 
9.1 


78.8 
79.7 
75.5 


10.8 
9.1 
5.9 


2.9 
4.1 

10.1 


1.0 




2.0 




4.3 







The per cent of the total number of cases and the per cent of the 
total number of persons involved reporting the different classes of 
apparent causes of need are as follows. It must be borne in mind 
that one or more causes may be noted for one case, hence the same 



222 



The Immigration Commission. 



case may be counted under two or more causes and the per cents 
will total more than 100. 




Persons 
involved. 



Death or disability of breadwinner 

Death or disability of another member of family 

Lack of employment or insufficient earnings 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner 

Old age 

Other 



Per cent. 
16.6 

5.3 
75.0 

7.5 
10.0 

2.5 



Per cent. 

16.2 
6.2 

79.2 
8.7 
4.9 
2.3 



The cause showing the largest proportion of cases and persons 
involved is lack of employment or insufficient earnings, alone, or 
combined with other causes. Such a cause of need was reported in 
75 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 79.2 per cent of 
the total number of persons. 

The other classes of causes was reported in a small proportion of 
cases as compared with lack of employment or insufficient earnings. 
Death or disability of breadwinner was reported a cause of need in 
16.6 per cent of the total number of cases, old age in 10 per cent, 
neglect or bad habits of breadwinner in 7.5 per cent, and death or 
disability of another member of family in 5.3 per cent. The only 
marked difference shown between the native and foreign born is for 
the cause old age, having 8.5 per cent of the native-born and 20.6 
per cent of the foreign-born so reported. 

AID GIVEN. 

Classification of the aid given was made under ten headings," and 
the six most important were chosen for more detailed showings. 

This assistance furnished by the society is shown in the following 
tables, by cases and by persons involved: 

Table 170. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity andrace of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases 

ever, are for all races.; 


as shown 


in Table 167. The totals, how- 




Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or medi- 
cal assist- 
ance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


855 
381 

152 
40 

20 
117 
20 


5.4 
2.4 

6.6 
2.5 

5.0 
3.4 
5.0 


52.7 
40.4 

52.6 
47.5 

45.0 
60.7 
40.0 


5.1 
7.9 

.7 
7.5 

.0 
6.0 
20.0 


72.5 
66.1 

73.7 
75.0 

90.0 
78.6 
75.0 


54.0 
69.3 

57.2 
47.5 

50.0 
54.7 
60.0 


6.4 




3.9 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


5.3 




7.5 


Foreign-bom: 


10.0 




8.5 




5.0 








1,683 


4.6 


50.3 


5.6 


72.1 


57.4 


6.2 






Total native-born of foreign 


238 

1,474 

209 


6.3 
4.7 
3.8 


54.6 
49.9 
53.1 


2.1 
5.4 
7.2 


76.1 
71.4 
76.6 


55.5 
58.2 
51.7 


5.9 




5.7 




10.0 







a See General Tables 6 and 7, Vol. II, pp. 933 and 934. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: St. Louis. 



223 



Table 171. : — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more 'cases, as shown in Table 167. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved 


in cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Cash. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or medi- 
cal assist- 
ance. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


3,177 
1,111 

631 
136 

63 
402 
68 


4.8 
3.4 

5.1 
1.-5 

3.2 

4.5 
2.9 


59.2 
47.3 

61.6 
57.4 

49.2 
73.6 
41.2 


4.4 
8.6 

.6 
9.6 

.0 

5.5 

23.5 


72.9 
72.1 

75.9 
74.3 

93.7 
80.1 
82.4 


53.7 
65.6 

51.2 
52.2 

57.1 
49.0 
55.9 


6.3 




3.7 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


5.4 




8.8 


Foreign-born: 


15.9 




9.5 




5.9 








6,015 


4.4 


57.7 


5.1 


74.2 


54.6 


6.4 






Total native-born of foreign 


967 

5,255 

760 


4.8 
4.5 
3.9 


63.2 
57.4 
59.9 


2.3 
4.9 
6.4 


77.6 
73.6 
78.4 


51.8 
55.9 
45.9 


5.4 




5.6 




12.2 







Noted in the order of their importance, with the per cent of cases 
and per cent of persons involved, the aid given was as follows. The 
same case was often furnished more than one kind of assistance and 
will, therefore, appear under more than one heading: 




Food or meals 

Fuel 

Clothing 

Medicine or medical assistance 

Employment secured 

Cash 



Per cent. 
72.1 

57.4 
50.3 
6.2 
5.6 
4.6 




As seen by referring to the foregoing tables, food or meals alone, 
or along with other assistance, were provided in 72.1 per cent of the 
total number of cases, involving 74.2 per cent of the total number of 
persons. Fuel was furnished to 57.4 per cent of the total number of 
cases, clothing to 50.3 per cent, medicine or medical assistance to 
6.2 per cent, employment to 5.6 per cent, and cash to 4.6 per cent. 

PERSONS PER CASE. 



The average number of persons per case was 3.57. The cases where 
the head was foreign-born averaged 3.64 persons per case, the native- 
born of foreign father 4.06 persons, and the total native-born 3.57 
persons. These figures were obtained from Table 1. 



224 



The Immigration Commission. 



The number and per cent of cases consisting of each specified num- 
ber of persons is presented in the table below: 

Table 172. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 167. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


Total 
num- 
ber of 
cases. 


Number of cases consisting of 
each specified number of per- 
sons. 


Per cent of cases consisting of 
each specified number of per- 
sons. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


1. 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


855 
381 

152 
40 

20 
117 
20 


85 
84 

13 
1 

3 

21 
4 


507' 
231 

74 
29 

13 
63 
12 


250 
62 

63 
10 

3 

30 

4 


13 
4 

2 

1 
3 


9.9 
22.0 

8.6 
2.5 

15.0 
17.9 
20.0 


59.3 
60.6 

48.7 
72.5 

65.0 
53.8 
60.0 


29.2 
16.3 

41.4 
25.0 

15.0 
25.6 
20.0 


1.5 




1.0 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


1.3 




.0 


Foreign-bom: 


5.0 




2.6 




.0 








1,683 


219 


974 


464 


26 


13.0 


57.9 


27.6 


1.5 






Total native-born of foreign 


238 

1,474 

209 


17 
186 
33 


126 
864 
110 


91 

403 

61 


4 

21 

5 


7.1 
12.6 
15.8 


52.9 
58.6 
52.6 


38.2 
27.3 
29.2 


1.7 




1.4 




2.4 







The total number of persons involved in the cases assisted was 
1,683. Of this number 974, or 57.9 per cent, represented cases con- 
sisting of from 2 to 4 persons; 464, or 27.6 per cent, of from 5 to 8 
persons; 26, or 1.5 per cent, of 9 or more persons; and 219, or 13 per 
cent, of but 1 person. 



TYPE OF CASE. 



In order to further study the cases they were divided into three 
groups, cases consisting of husband and wife, with or without chil- 
dren, cases consisting of widow, with or without children, and cases 
consisting of widower, with or without children. Cases in which 
there are persons other than husband, wife, or children, and cases in 
which there is neither husband nor wife have been classified as 
"others." 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: St. Louis. 



225 



This grouping is presented in the tables which follow: 

Table 173. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with 
each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 167. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Total 
num- 
ber of 
cases. 


Number of cases consisting of— 




Husba 


nd and wife 


Widow and — 


Widower 


and- 




Others. 


General nativity and 
race of head of case. 












! 
2 

o 
o 
7, 


© 


a 

m © 

CO 


a) 

V 


"(3 
O 


a 
£ 

a 



a 

CI SD 




a 

"a 

to 

CO 


CO 


■a 


E-i 


I 

1 

V 

O 


It 


5 
1 


a 
°d 

CO 

1 

2 

1 




CO 


"c3 
O 

H 

12 
8 

2 


§ 

1 

a 

10 
3 

2 


B E 

P, 

110 

80 

17 
6 

6 
10 
2 


"ca 



Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


855 
381 

152 
40 

20 

117 
20 


97 
53 

15 
11 

4 

18 
3 


158 
25 

24 
4 

3 

19 

6 


153 
21 

36 

a 
i 

18 
1 


25 
6 

5 
2 

"5 
1 


433 
105 

80 
22 

8 
60 
11 


69 

76 

10 
1 

1 
14 
4 


126 

73 

18 
7 

1 

14 
1 


87 
32 

20 

4 

1 
8 
1 


8 

4 

3 
"3 


290 
185 

51 
12 

3 

39 
6 


6 
5 

1 








Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of 
father: 




Irish 


fi 


Foreign-born: 

English 


2 
6 


1 

""i 






3 

7 
1 


"i 


fi 




1 


















Grand total 


1,683 

238 

1,474 

209 


213 

33 

183 
30 


259 

37 

220 

39 


265 

52 
226 
39 


50 

11 
42 

8 


787 

133 
671 
116 


183 

14 
159 

24 


246 

28 

227 

19 


159 

27 
146 
13 


19 

3 
15 
4 


607 

72 

547 

60 


20 


9 


5 




34 


16 


239 


255 


Total native-born of 

foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 


1 

12 

8 


1 
7 
2 


1 
4 
1 




3 

23 
11 


2 
15 
1 


28 

218 

21 


30 
233 
22 



Table 174. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow , or widower, with or 
without children , by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 167. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Per cent of cases consisting of— 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Husband 
and wife, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widow, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widower, 
with or 
without 

children. 


Others. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


855 
381 

152 
40 

20 
117 
20 


50.6 
27.6 

52.6 
55.0 

40.0 
51.3 
55.0 


33.9 
48.6 

33.6 
30.0 

15.0 
33.3 
30.0 


1.4 
2.1 

1.3 
.0 

15.0 
6.0 
5.0 


14.0 




21.8 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


12.5 




15.0 


Foreign-born: 


30.0 




9.4 




10.0 








1,683 


46.8 


36.1 


2.0 


15.2 








238 

1,474 

209 


55.9 
45.5 
55.5 


30.3 
37.1 

28.7 


1.3 
1.6 
5.3 


12.6 




15.8 




10.5 







226 



The Immigration Commission. 



The number of cases assisted by the society consisting of husband 
and wife, with or without children, was 787, or 46.8 per cent of the 
total number. The largest proportion of cases in this group consist 
of husband and wife with from 3 to 5 children. The number of cases 
consisting of widow, with or without children, was 607, or 36.1 per 
cent. Of this number, 246 consisted of widow with from 1 to 2 chil- 
dren, and 183 consisted only of widow. The number of cases consist- 
ing of widower, with or without children, was 34, or 2 per cent, 20 
cases of which consisted only of widower. 

The largest proportion of cases for each race was found to consist 
of husband and wife, with or without children, with the exception of 
the negro native-born of native father. This race had 27.6 per cent 
consisting of husband and wife, with or without children; 2.1 per 
cent consisting of widower, with or without children; 48.6 per cent 
consisting of widow, with or without children; and 21.8 per cent classi- 
fied under " others. " 

Owing to the proportion of cases consisting only of husband and 
wife, a special study was made of these cases, tabulating by age of 
head of case and cause of need. 

A table showing the cases consisting only of husband and wife, by 
race of head of case, follows : 

Table 175. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 
totals, however, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Cases consisting only of 
husband and wife. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


855 
381 

152 
40 

117 


97 
53 

15 
11 
18 


11.3 




13.9 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


9.9 




27.5 




15.4 








1,683 


213 


12.7 








238 

1,474 

209 


33 
1S3 
30 


13 Q 




12.4 




14.4 







From this table we learn that 213 cases, or 12.7 per cent of the total 
number, consisted only of husband and wife. Of the cases in which 
the husband was native-born, 12.4 per cent consisted only of husband 
and wife, native-born of foreign father 13.9 per cent, and foreign- 
born 14.4 per cent. The apparent cause of need reported for the 
cases consisting only of husband and wife follows. 



Immigrants as Charily Seekers: St. Louis. 



227 



Table 176. — Per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 
totals, however, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Disabil- 
ity of 
hus- 
band. 


Death or 
disabil- 
ity of 
another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 

employ- 
ment 

or insuf- 
ficient 

earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 

habits of 
hus- 
band. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


97 
53 

15 
11 

18 


19.6 
22.6 

33.3 
27.3 
11.1 


6.2 
1.9 

.0 
9.1 
11.1 


77.3 
71.7 

60.0 
72.7 
55.6 


2.1 
.0 

.0 
.0 
.0 


10.3 
28.3 

20.0 
9.1 
55.6 








Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


















213 


21.1 


5.2 


72.3 


1.4 


21.1 








Total native-born of foreign 


33 
1S3 
30 


33.3 
23.0 
10.0 


6.1 
4.9 
6.7 


66.7 
73.8 
63.3 


.0 
1.1 
3.3 


18.2 
16.9 
46.7 

















The classes of apparent causes of need reported for the cases con- 
sisting only of husband and wife and the per cent of each were as 
follows : 

Per cent 
of cases. 

Lack of employment or insufficient earnings 72. 3 

Disability of husband 21. 1 

Old age 21.1 

Death or disability of another member of family 5. 2 

Neglect or bad habits of husband 1. 4 

Other 2. 8 

The cases in which the husband was foreign-born show a much 
larger proportion of cases assisted on account of old age, having 46.7 

Ser cent so reported while the native-born have but 16.9 per cent. 
lb such marked difference is found for any of the other causes. 
Lack of employment or insufficient earnings is found to be the chief 
cause of need with 72.3 per cent of the cases so reportmg. Disability 
of husband and old age is found to have been reported in 21.1 per 
cent of the cases. 



228 



The Immigration Commission. 



The age of husband is shown in the following table : 

Table 177. — Age of head of case where case consists only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 
totals, however, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number where head is — 


Per cent where head is — 


General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


Under 

50 
years. 


50 to 59 
years. 


60 to 69 
years. 


70 years 
or over. 


Under 

50 
years. 


50 to 59 

years. 


60 to 69 
years. 


70 years 
or over. 


Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


97 
53 

15 
11 
18 


52 
15 

6 
9 
3 


24 
8 

5 
1 
3 


16 

18 

2 
4 


5 
12 

2 
1 

8 


53.6 
28.3 

40.0 
81.8 
16.7 


24.7 
15.1 

33.3 
9.1 
16.7 


16.5 
34.0 

13.3 

.0 

22.2 


5.2 




22.6 


Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of father: 


13.3 




9.1 


Foreign-bom, German 


44.4 


Grand total 


213 


92 


47 


43 


31 


43.2 


22.1 


20.2 


14.6 


Total native-born of for- 


33 
183 
30 


18 

85 

7 


7 

39 

8 


4 

38 

5 


4 
21 
10 


54.5 
46.4 
23.3 


21.2 
21.3 
26.7 


12.1 
20.8 
16.7 


12.1 




11.5 




33.3 







Of the total number of husbands in the cases consisting only of 
husband and wife, 56.9 per cent were 50 years of age or over, 34.8 per 
cent were 60 years of age or over, and 14.6 per cent were 70 years of 
age or over. The majority of the husbands who were foreign-born 
were older than those native-born. The foreign-born Germans were 
70 years of age or over in 44.4 per cent of their number. Fifty -six 
and six-tenths per cent of the negro native-born of native father, 
were 60 years of age or over, and 53.6 per cent of the white native- 
born of native father, were under 50 years of age. 



AGE OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The number and per cent of persons involved in the cases assisted 
within each age group is shown in the table following. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: St. Louis. 



229 



Table 178. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented. by20or more cases, as shown InTablel67. The totals, however, 

are for all races.] 



General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified 
age group. 


Per cent within each specified 
age group. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Native-born of native fa- 
ther: 
White 


3,162 
1,110 

629 
136 

63 

399 

68 


1,512 
500 

. 341 
56 

24 
180 
30 


1,009 
272 

167 
42 

9 
82 
17 


502 
196 

96 
32 

14 
79 
13 


139 
142 

25 
6 

16 

58 
8 


47.8 
45.0 

54.2 
41.2 

38.1 
45.1 
44.1 


31.9 
24.5 

26.6 
30.9 

14.3 
20.6 
25.0 


15.9 
17.7 

15.3 
23.5 

22.2 
19.8 
19.1 


4.4 




12.8 


Native-born of foreign fa- 
ther, by race of father: 


4.0 




4.4 


Foreign-born: 


25.4 




14.5 




11.8 








5,992 


2,870 


1,703 


1,004 


415 


47.9 


28.4 


16.8 


6.9 






Total native-born of foreign 


965 

5,237 

755 


500 

2,512 

358 


260 

1,541 

162 


164 
862 
142 


41 
322 
93 


51.8 
48.0 
47.4 


26.9 
29.4 
21.5 


17.0 
16.5 
18.8 


4.2 




6.1 




12.3 







Practically one-half of the persons involved in the cases assisted 
were less than 16 years of age. From General Table 12, Volume II, 
page 943, we find that 2,602, or 43.4 per cent, were children 13 years 
of age or under, and that 1,116, or 18.6 percent, were children under 
6 years of age. 

Of the 5,992 persons reporting age, 2,870, or 47.9 per cent, were 
under 16 years of age; 1,703, or 28.4 per cent, were from 16 to 39 
years of age; 1,004, or 16.8 per cent, were from 40 to 59 years of age; 
and 415, or 6.9 per cent, were 60 years of age or over. Of the native- 
born, 77.4 per cent were less than 40 years of age, and of the foreign- 
born 68.9 per cent. 



230 



The Immigration Commission. 



CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The conjugal condition of persons involved in the cases assisted, 
20 years of age or over, is shown in the following table: 

Table 179. — Number and per cent of persons $0 years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[The table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are lor all races.] 

MALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


575 
145 

97 
79 


67 
14 

5 
3 


485 
120 

90 

67 


23 
11 

2 
9 


11.7 
9.7 

5.2 
3.8 


84.3 
82.8 

92.8 
84.8 


4.0 




7.6 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father, German 


2.1 
11.4 








1,035 


99 


881 


55 


9.6 


85.1 


5.3 






Total native-born of foreign fa- 


167 
887 
148 


11 
92 
7 


149 
754 
127 


7 
41 
14 


6.6 
10.4 
4.7 


89.2 
85.0 
85.8 


4.2 




4.6 




9.5 






FEMALE. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


966 
412 

147 
102 


40 
13 

7 
2 


527 
115 

80 
54 


399 
284 

60 
46 


4.1 
3.2 

4.8 
2.0 


54.6 
27.9 

54.4 
52.9 


41.3 




68.9 


Native-bom of foreign father, by 
race of father, German 


40.8 
45.1 








1,787 


66 


876 


845 


3.7 


49.0 


47.3 






Total native-born of foreign fa- 


217 

1,596 

191 


9 
62 
4 


123 
766 
110 


85 

768 
77 


4.1 
3.9 
2.1 


56.7 
48.0 
57.6 


39.2 




48.1 




40.3 










TOTAL. 










Native-born of native father: 
White 


1,541 
557 

244 
181 


107 
27 

12 
5 


1,012 
235 

170 
121 


422 
295 

62 
55 


6.9 
4.8 

4.9 
2.8 


65.7 
42.2 

69.7 
66.9 


27.4 




53.0 


Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father, German 


25.4 
30.4 








2,822 


165 


1,757 


900 


5.8 


62.3 


31.9 






Total native-born of foreign fa- 


384 

2,483 

339 


20 
154 
11 


272 

1,520 

237 


92 

809 

91 


5.2 
6.2 
3.2 


70.8 
61.2 
69.9 


24.0 




32.6 




26.8 







The total number of persons 20 years of age and over, involved 
in the cases assisted, was 2,822. Of this number, 1,757, or 62.3 per 
cent, were married; 900, or 31.9 per cent, were deserted, separated, 
or widowed; and 165, or 5.8 per cent, were single. Dividing them by 
sex, 85.1 per cent of the males and 49 per cent of the females were 
married, 5.3 per cent of the males and 47.3 per cent of the females 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: St. Louis. 



231 



were deserted, separated, or widowed, and 9.6 per cent of the males 
and 3.7 per cent of fbe females were single. 

The foreign-born show the larger per cent of married and the 
smaller per cent of both deserted, separated, or widowed and single 
persons. The negroes native-born of native father, have the largest 
proportion (53) reported deserted, separated, or widowed. 

Taking the cases in which the wife was the head of the case and 
reported as deserted, separated, or widowed, the following tables 
show the number and per cent widowed and deserted or separated: 

Table 180. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 20 or more cases , as shown in Table 167. The totals, however, 

are for all races.) 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


343 
246 

58 
13 

4 
43 
6 


212 
186 

31 
8 

3 

34 
5 


131 
60 

27 
5 

1 
9 

1 


61.8 
75.6 

53.4 
00 

00 

79.1 
00 








Native-born of foreign father, by race of 
father: 






00 

(<0 

20.9 


Foreign-born: 






00 






738 


490 


248 


66.4 


33 6 








82 

671 

67 


43 
441 
49 


39 

230 
18 


52.4 
65.7 
73.1 


47.6 




34 3 




26.9 







a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

Table 181. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more eases, as shown in Table 107. The totals, however, 

are for all races.J 





Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number- 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


855 
381 

152 
40 

20 
117 
20 


212 
186 

31 

8 

3 

34 
5 


131 
60 

27 
5 

1 
9 
1 


24.8 
48.8 

20.4 
20.0 

• 15.0 
29.1 
25.0 


15.3 




15.7 


Native-bom of foreign father, by race of 
father: 


17.8 




12.5 


Foreign-born: 


5.0 




7.7 




5.0 








1,683 


490 


248 


29.1 


14.7 








238 

1,474 

209 


43 
441 
49 


39 

230 

18 


18.1 
29.9 
23.4 


16.4 




15.6 




8.6 







232 



The Immigration Commission. 



Of the 738 cases in which, the wife was the head, of the case and 
reported deserted, separated, or widowed, 490, or 66.4 per cent, 
were widowed, and 248, or 33.6 per cent, were deserted or separated. 
Of the total number of cases, 29.1 per cent had a wife as the head 
or the case and reported widowed, and 14.7 per cent had a wife as the 
head of the case and reported deserted or separated. Of the foreign- 
born, 23.4 per cent were cases with a wife reported widowed and 8.6 
ger cent were cases with a wife reported deserted or separated. 
>f the native-born, 29.9 per cent were cases with a wife reported 
widowed and 15.6 per cent with a wife reported deserted or separated. 

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF CHILDEEN. 

A study was made of the occupation of children 6 and under 16 
years of age, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 
The following table gives the proportion of children in this age 
group at home, at school, and at work: 



Table 182. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

|This table includes in each section only races with 20 or more males or females reporting. The totals, 

however, are for all races.] 



MALE 










General nativity and race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent — 


At home. 


At school. 


At work. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


644 
149 
71 


24.5 
22.8 
21.1 


69.9 
72.5 
73.2 


5.6 




4.7 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father, German. 


5.6 




911 


23.8 


70.7 


5.5 








109 

902 

9 


22.9 
24.1 
00 


70.6 
70.4 
00 


6.4 




5.5 




00 





FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 


570 
162 
50 


24.4 
26.5 
10.0 


71.4 
72.2 
82.0 


4.2 




1.2 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father, German. 


8.0 




843 

93 

825 

18 


24.6 


71.9 


3.6 








24.7 
24.8 
00 


71.0 
71.5 
(<0 


4.3 




3.6 




00 





TOTAL. 



Native-born of native father: 

White .• 


1,214 
311 
121 


24.5 
24.8 
16.5 


70.6 
72.3 
76.9 


4.9 




2.9 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of father, German. 


6.6 




1,754 


24.2 


71.3 


4.6 








202 

1,727 

27 


23.8 
24.4 
7.4 


70.8 
70.9 
92.6 


5.4 




4.6 




.0 







o. Not computed, owing to small number Involved. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: St. Louis. 



233 



Of a total of 1,754 children 6 and under 16 years of age, 71.3 per 
cent were at school, 24.2 per cent were at home, and 4.6 per cent 
were at work. The children white native-born of native father 
make the poorest showing in this table. 

YEARS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Owing to the small proportion of cases in which the head was 
foreign-born, the following tables will not be very satisfactory. 

A table showing the years the foreign-born heads of cases have 
been in the United States follows : 

Table 183. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each 
specified number of years, by race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by 20 or more cases, as shown in Table 167. The total, how- 
ever, is for all foreign-born.] 



Race of head of case. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in the United States each 
specified number of years. 


Per cent in the United States 
each specified number of 
years. 




Under 5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 19. 


20 or over. 


Under 5. 


Under 10. 


Under 20. 




15 
110 
19 


1 




3 

14 
5 


11 
90 
13 


(a) 

0.0 
(<■) 


(a) 

5.5 


(a) 




6 
1 


18.2 






(a) 






Total 


189 


8 


17 


29 


135 


4.2 


13.2 


28.6 







a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

This table indicates that a large proportion of the foreign-born 
heads of cases assisted by the society have been residents of the 
United States for twenty years or over. Of the total number report- 
ing years in the United States, 4.2 per cent were here under five 
years, 13.2 per cent under ten years, and 28.6 per cent under twenty 
years. 

Tabulating years in the United States by race of individual brings 
out the facts that 69.3 per cent of the total number of foreign-born 
persons reporting years in the United States have been here less than 
20 years, 32.0 per cent less than 10 years, and 8.9 per cent less than 
5 years. 

Table 184. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each 
specified number of years, by race of individual. 

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign- 
born.] 



Race of individual. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each speci- 
fied number of years. 


Per cent in United States 
each specified number ol 
years. 




Under 5. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 19. 


20 or over. 


Under 5. 


Under 10. 


Under 20. 




154 




10 


19 


125 


0.0 


6.5 


18.8 










303 


27 


43 


43 


190 


8.9 


23.1 


37.3 







65812°— vol 34— 11- 



-16 



234 



The Immigration Commission. 



ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH. 

The table showing the ability to speak English for the non-English- 
speaking races, by general nativity and race of individual, follows : 

Table 185. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and 
general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.] 



General nativity and race of individual. 


Number reporting complete 
data. 


Per cent who speak English. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Native-born of foreign father, by race of 


186 
80 


207 
104 


393 
184 


100.0 
97.5 


99.5 
99.0 






98.4 






364 


420 


784 


98.4 


98.3 










240 
124 


253 
167 


493 
291 


100.0 
95.2 


99.6 
96.4 













The non-English-speaking races assisted by the society show in the 
grand total 98.3 per cent speaking the English language. The foreign- 
born alone show 95.9 per cent able to speak English. 



CITIZENSHIP. 

The following table shows the number and per cent of foreign-born 
males 21 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United 
States, with a residency here of five years or over, who have their 
first and second naturalization papers. 

Table 186. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United 
States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of 
individual. 

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign- 
born.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent— 


Race of Individual. 


Fully nat- 
uralized. 


Having 
first pa- 
pers only. 


Fully nat- 
uralized. 


Having 
first pa- 
pers only. 




38 


38 
















Total 


61 


61 




100.0 











The table shows there are no aliens among the foreign-born males 
assisted by the society who reported citizenship. 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



235 



WASHINGTON. 

The report for the city of Washington covers the assistance given 
by the Associated Charities for a period of six months from December 
1, 1908, to May 31, 1909. 

GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE. 

The number and per cent of cases and persons involved in the cases 
assisted by the Associated Charities of Washington, D. C, is shown in 
the following table by general nativity and race of head of case : 

Table 187. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head of 

case. 

[Not including 2 cases, involving 4 persons, race not reported.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent of 
total. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent of 
total. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Foreign-born: 

Canadian (other than French) 

Dutch 

English 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Negro '. 

Norwegian 

Russian 

Scotch 

Scotch-Irish 

Swedish 

Grand total. 

Total native-bom of "foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



37.0 
56.9 

.1 
.4 
.1 



.1 
.1 

.6 
.3 

1.3 
.1 

1.0 
.1 
.6 
.3 
.3 
.1 
.2 
.1 
.1 
.1 



2,408 
2,987 

8 
29 

3 
33 

1 

6 
32 
10 
76 

8 
52 

4 
41 
17 
13 

6 
11 

7 



41.8 
51.9 



.1 
.5 



O) 



(«) 



.1 

.6 
.2 
1.3 
.1 
.9 
.1 
.7 
.3 
.2 
.1 
.2 
.1 
.1 



1,556 



100.0 



5,756 



100.0 



13 

1,474 

82 



94.7 
5.3 



5,468 
288 



1.3 

95.0 

5.0 



a Less than 0.05 per cent. 



The total number of cases assisted reporting race of head of case 
was 1,556, involving 5,756 persons. By far the greater proportion of 
the work was among the native-born. The cases in which the head 
was native-born numbered 1,474, or 94.7 per cent of the total num- 
ber of cases, involving 5,468 persons, or 95 per cent of the total num- 
ber of persons. The cases in which the head was foreign-born 

237 



238 



The Immigration Commission. 



numbered 82, or 5.3 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 
288 persons, or 5 per cent of the total number of persons. The cases 
in wnich the head was native-born of foreign father numbered 13, or 
0.8 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 73 persons^ or 1.3 
per cent of the total number of persons. 

The race showing the largest proportion of cases assisted is the 
negro native-born of native father, with 886 cases, or 56.9 per cent of 
the total number of cases, involving 2,987 persons, or 51.9 per cent 
of the total number of persons. The white native-born of native 
father have the next largest number of cases, having 575 cases, or 
37 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 2,408 persons, or 
41.8 per cent of the total number of persons. 

Owing to the small number of cases in which the head was foreign- 
born or native-born of foreign father, only the cases in which the 
head was native-born of native father, white and negro, have 'been 
selected for further study. The totals, however, include all cases 
reporting data. 

APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED. 



The apparent cause of need was reported under fourteen different 
headings and grouped under five classes, as may be seen by referring 
to General Tables 2-5, Volume II, pages 1080-1083. The per cent of 
cases and persons involved reporting each class of apparent causes 
of need are shown in the following tables. It will be noted that the 
percentage for each race totals more than 100, due to the fact that 
more than one cause is often reported to a case. 



Table 188. — Per cent of cases assisted/or each specified class of apparent causes of need, by 
general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This tattle includes only races represented by more than 20 cases, as shown in Table 187. The totals, how- 
ever, are lor all races.] 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Native-bom of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Grand total 

Total native-born of foreign 

father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



574 

S.sil 



13 

1,473 

82 



Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 



Death or 
disability 
of bread- 



Death or 
dsiability 
of another 
member 
of family. 



34.8 

48. Ci 



(<0 
43.0 
35.4 



32.9 
35.7 



34.6 
28.0 



Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuf- 
ficient 
earnings. 



43.2 



(<0 
42.0 
64. 6 



Neglect 
or bad 

habits of 
bread- 



26.8 
18.7 



00 

22 1 

1&3 



Old age. 



7.1 

8.2 



(<0 



7.8 
7.3 



Other. 



13.9 
7.9 



CO 



10.3 

15.9 



a Not computed, owing to small number Involved. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Washington. 



239 



Table 189. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class of 
apparent causes ofneed } by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by more than 20 cases, as shown. In Table 187. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
of another 
member, 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuf- 
ficient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


2,402 
2,987 


28.6 
39.8 


39.7 
44.3 


58.4 
38.4 


28.9 
21.9 


3.2 
4.7 


14.3 




9.6 








5,750 


34.2 


42.1 


48.5 


25.1 


4.0 


12.5 






Total native-born of foreign 


73 

5,462 

288 


19.2 
34.6 
26.0 


28.8 
42.1 
42.7 


76.7 
47.7 
62.5 


46.6 
25.3 
20.8 


2.7 
4.0 
3.8 


17.8 




11.8 




26.0 







As shown by the foregoing tables, the per cent of cases and persons 
involved reporting each class of apparent causes of need is as follows : 



Lack of employment or insufficient earnings 

Death or disability of breadwinner 

Death or disability of another member of family 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner 

Old age 

Other 



Cases. 


Persons 
involved. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


43.2 


. 48.5 


42.6 


34.2 


34.2 


42.1 


21.9 


25.1 


7.8 


4.0 


10.6 


12.5 



The cause of need most frequently reported was lack of employ- 
ment or insufficient earnings alone, or along with other causes. The 
native-born, however, show a smaller per cent of cases reporting 
lack of employment or insufficient earnings than death or disability 
of breadwinner. Of the total number of cases where the head is 
white, 58.4 per cent sought assistance on account of lack of employ- 
ment or insufficient earnings, and negro 38.4 per cent. 

Death or disability of breadwinner, which includes accident, ill- 
ness, or death of breadwinner, was the apparent cause of need in 
42.6 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 34.2 per cent of 
the total number of persons. A greater proportion of the negroes 
than of whites are assisted for this class of apparent cause of need. 

Death or disability of another member of family, which includes 
accident, illness, or death of another member of family, was the 
apparent cause of need in 34.2 per cent of the total number of cases, 
involving 42.1 per cent of the total number of persons. The negroes 
exceed the whites in the proportion of cases reporting this class of 
causes. 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner, which includes desertion by 
husband, incarceration of breadwinner, intemperance of bread- 
winner, and neglect by breadwinner, was the apparent cause of need 



240 



The Immigration Commission. 



in 21.9 per cent of the total number of cases, with 25.1 per cent of 
the persons involved. This cause is reported for 26.8 per cent of the 
whites and 18.7 per cent of the negroes. 

Old age alone, or along with other causes, is the apparent cause of 
need in 7.8 per cent of the total number of cases and 4 per cent of 
the total number of persons. 

AID GIVEN. 

The assistance furnished by the society is shown in the tables 
which follow: 



Table 190. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by more than 20 cases, as shown in Table 187. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical as- 
sistance. 


Rent. 


Native-bom of native father: 
White 


574 
886 


36.1 
22.7 


11.1 
4.9 


36.4 
31.4 


23.9 
21.7 


33.3 
54.9 














1,555 


28.0 


7.7 


34.0 


22.3 


45.7 








Total native-born of foreign 


13 
1,473 

82 


C) 
28.0 
26.8 


(a) 
7.5 
11.0 


33.3 
45.1 


C) 
22.5 
17.1 


(°) 
46.2 
36.6 


<,") 






2.4 







o Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

Table 191. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 

and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by more than 20 cases, as shown in Table 187. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Clothing. 


Employ- 
ment 
secured. 


Food or 
meals. 


Fuel. 


Medicine 
or med- 
ical as- 
sistance. 


Rent. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


2,402 
2,987 


42.7 
31.2 


10.1 
5.1 


34.3 
32.4 


25.5 
21.7 


30.3 
47.5 


3.4 




1.8 








5,750 


36.2 


7.8 


33.7 


23.5 


39.5 


2.6 






Total native-born of foreign 


73 

5,462 

288 


46.6 
36.4 
32.3 


26.0 
7.6 
12.5 


30.1 
33.2 
43.4 


26.0 
23.5 
24.3 


15.1 
39.5 
39.6 


9.6 




2.6 




2-4 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Washington. 241 



The per cent of cases and persons involved for each specified 
given is as follows: 



aid 



Persons 
involved. 



Medicine or medical assistance 

Food or meals 

Clothing 

Fuel 

Employment secured 

Rent 



Per cent. 
45.7 

34.0 
28.0 
22.3 
7.7 
2.3 



Per cent. 
39.5 
33.7 
36.2 
23.5 
7.8 
2.6 



A greater per cent of the native-born received medicine or med- 
ical assistance, particularly the negroes, with 54.9 per cent of cases. 
The greater per cent of the foreign-born received food or meals. 

PERSONS PER CASE. 

From Table 187 we find that the average number of persons per 
case was 3.70 for the total number of cases. For the foreign-born, 
the average number of persons per case was 3.51, and for the native- 
born 3.71. For the white, the average number of persons per case 
was 4.19 and for the negro, 3.37. 

The number and per cent of cases consisting of each specified 
number of persons, by general nativity and race of head of case, are 
shown in the following table : 

Table 192. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

(This table includes only races represented by more than 20 cases, as shown in Table 187. The totals, 

however, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases consisting of 
each specified number of per- 
sons. 


Per cent of cases consisting of 
each specified number of per- 
sons. 


J. 


2to4 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


1 


2 to 4. 


5 to 8. 


9 or 
more. 


Native - bom of native 
father: 
White 


575 
886 


122 

214 


190 
429 


231 
223 


32 
20 


21.2 
24.2 


33.0 

48.4 


40.2 
25.2 


5.6 




2.3 








1,556 


369 


643 


488 


56 


23.7 


41.3 


31.4 


3.6 






Total native-born of for- 


13 

1,474 

82 


336 
33 


5 

624 

19 


8 
462 
26 


52 
4 


(«) 

22.8 
40.2 


42.3 
23.2 


00 

31.3 

31.7 


00 




3.5 




4.9 







o Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

The largest proportion of the cases, or 41.3 per cent, consisted of 
from 2 to 4 persons. The per cent of cases consisting of from 5 to 
8 persons is 31.4, of 9 or more persons 3.6 per cent, and of 1 person 
23.7 per cent. The largest proportion of the foreign-born cases, or 
40.2 per cent, consisted of but 1 person. The largest proportion of 
the cases in which the head was white native-born of native father, 



242 



The Immigration Commission. 



or 40.2 per cent, consisted of from 5 to 8 persons, and the largest pro- 
portion of cases in which the head was a negro native-born of native 
father, or 48.4 per cent, consisted of from 2 to 4 persons. 

"type" of case. 

A study of the cases was made as to the proportion of cases con- 
sisting of husband and wife, with or without children, widow, with 
or without children, and widower, with or without children. The 
term "widow" as used in this table includes, besides the widowed, 
deserted, or divorced, those wives whose husbands are residing else- 
where and unmarried mothers living with their children. 

The following tables present this data: 

Table 193. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with 
each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 



[This table includes only races represented by more than 20 cases, as shown in Table 187. 

however, are for all races.] 



The totals, 





Total 
num- 
ber of 
cases. 


Number of cases consisting of— 




Husband and wife 
and— 


Widow j 






Widower and — 




General nativity and 






race of head of case. 


d 
2 

O 

o 
55 


3 
°d 

O 


3 
° a 


N 

2 


O 


a 
2 

1 
o 
25 


1 . 


3 
°d 

■8"° 

CO 


IS 

2 

°% 
to 


s 

o 


d 

3 

u 
O 

85 


^d 
o 


3 
°d 

CO 


4> 

H 

2 

<y 

to 


3 

o 

Eh 


a 
o 


0) 

h 

C<1 


s 

o 
6h 


Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


575 

886 


39 
75 


68 
122 


146 
127 


49 
34 


302 
358 


20 
71 


36 

113 


44 
80 


7 
9 


107 
273 


20 
31 


6 
6 


3 
5 


""i 


29 
43 


82 
112 


55 
100 


137 




'1? 






Grand total 


1,556 


116 


202 


292 


92 


702 


94 


154 


130 


17 


395 


59 


12 


10 


l 


82 


216 


161 


377 


Total native-born of 

foreign father 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 


13 

1,474 
82 


1 

115 

1 


3 

193 

9 


2 

275 
17 


. 2 

85 
7 


8 
66S 
34 






1 

125 
5 


1 
17 


2 

382 
13 






1 
9 

1 


.... 


1 
73 
9 


194 

22 


2 

157 

4 




91 
3 


149 
5 


51 

8 


12 


351 
26 



Table 194. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, with or 
without children, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by more than 20 cases, as shown in Table 187. The totals, 

however, are for all races.] 





Total 

number of 

cases. 


Per cent of cases consisting of— 


General nativity and race of head of case 


Husband 
and wife, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widow, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Widower, 
with or 
without 
children. 


Others. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


575 
886 


52.5 
40.4 


18.6 
30.8 


5.0 
4.9 


23.8 




23.9 








1,556 


45.1 


25.4 


5.3 


24.2 








13 

1,474 

82 


W 
45.3 
41.5 


25.9 
15.9 


00 
5.0 
11.0 


00 
23.8 






31.7 







a Not computed, owing to small number involved* 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Washington. 



243 



Of the 1,556 cases, 702, or 45.1 per cent, consisted of husband and 
wife, with or without children, the greater proportion of cases con- 
sisting of husband and wife with from 3 to 5 children. The cases 
consisting of widow, with or without children, numbered 395, or 
25.4 per cent of the total number, with the largest proportion of this 
number consisting of cases with widow and 1 or 2 children. Eighty- 
two cases, or 5.3 per cent, consisted of widower, with or without 
children. Of this number 59 cases consisted of the widower alone. 

Cases in which there are persons other than husband, wife, or 
children, and cases in which there is neither husband nor wife, have 
been classed under "others." Such cases numbered 377, or 24.2 
per cent of the total number. Of this number 216 cases consisted of 
but 1 person. 

Owmg to the large number of cases consisting of but husband and 
wife, the following table is given, showing the number and per cent of 
the total number of cases which consist only of husband and wife : 



Table 195. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table Includes only races represented by 10 or more cases consisting only of husband and wife. The 

totals, however, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race of head of case. 


Total 

number of 

cases. 


Cases consisting only of 
husband and wife. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


575 
886 


39 

75 


6.8 




8.5 








1,556 


116 


7.5 






Total native-born of foreign father 


13 

1,474 
82 


1 

115 

1 


7.8 




1.2 







« Not computed, owing to small number involved. 



The cases consisting only of husband and wife numbered 116, or 
7.5 per cent of the total number of cases. The white show 39 cases, 
or 6.8 per cent, consisting only of husband and wife, and the negro 
75 cases, or 8.5 per cent. 



244 



The Immigration Commission. 



AGE OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 

The proportion of persons involved in the cases assisted in each 
specified age group is shown in the following table, by race of head 
of case: 

Table 196. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general nativity 
and race of head of case . 

| This table includes only races represented by more than 20 cases, as shown in Table 187. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 



General nativity and race 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified 
age group. 


Per cent within each s 
age group. 


oecified 


of head of case. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Under 
16. 


16 to 
39. 


40 to 
59. 


60 or 
over. 


Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


2. 316 
2,873 


1,154 
1,339 


756 
1,028 


337 
329 


99 
177 


49.2 
46.6 


32.2 
35.8 


14.4 
11.5 


4.2 




6.2 








5.576 


2,673 


1,893 


719 


291 


47.9 


33.9 


12.9 


5.2 






Total native-born of foreign 


73 

5,292 

284 


36 

2,529 

144 


24 

1,808 

85 


9 

675 
44 


t 

280 

11 


49.3 
47.8 
50.7 


32.9 
34.2 
29.9 


12.3 
12.8 
15.5 


5.5 




5.3 




3.9 







Of the 5,576 persons involved in the cases assisted, 2,673, or 47.9 
per cent, are children under the age of 16. From General Table 
12, Volume II, page 1092, it will be seen that 2,368 persons, or 42.5 per 
cent, were children 13 years of age or under, and 868, or 15.6 per cent, 
were children under 6 years of age. 

The per cent of persons between the age of 16 and 39 was 33.9, 
between the age of 40 and 59 was 12.9, and 60 years of age or over 
was 5.2. 

Fifty and seven-tenths per cent of the persons foreign-born and 
47.8 per cent of the persons native-born were children under 16 
years of age, and 49.3 per cent of the persons foreign-born and 52.3 
per cent of the persons native-born were 16 years of age or over. 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN CASES ASSISTED. 



The conjugal condition of the persons involved in the cases assisted 
who were 20 years of age or over is shown in the table following, by 
race and sex. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Washington. 



245 



Table 197. — Number and per cent of -persons 20 years of age or over in each conjugal 
condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

(This table Includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.] 

MALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number who are — 


Per cent who are — 


General nativity and race of in- 
dividual. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted, 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Single. 


Married. 


Deserted. 

sepa- 
rated, or 
widowed. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


472 
512 


115 
99 


329 
382 


28 
31 


24.4 
19.3 


69.7 
74.6 


5 9 




C. 1 








1,067 


241 


760 


66 


22.6 


71.2 


6 2 






Total native-born of foreign 


20 

1,000 

63 


7 
221 
20 


12 

723 

37 


1 

60 
6 


35.0 
22.0 
31.7 


60.0 
72.0 
58.7 


5.0 




6.0 




9.5 







FEMALE. 



Native-born of native father: 
White 


520 

819 


40 
111 


334 
431 


146 

277 


7.7 
13.6 


64.2 
52.6 


2S. 1 




33 8 








1,398 


153 


806 


439 


10.9 


57.7 


31.4 






Total native-born of foreign 


10 

1,349 

49 




8 
773 
33 


2 

425 

14 


(<0 
11.2 
4.1 


57.3 
67.3 


C<0 
31.5 




151 
2 




28. 6 







TOTAL. 



Native-born of native father: 
White 


992 
1,331 


155 
210 


663 
813 


174 
308 


15.6 
15.8 


66.8 
61.1 


17.5 




23.1 








2,465 


394 


1,566 


505 


16.0 


63.5 


20.5 






Total native-born of foreign 


30 

2,353 

112 


7 
372 
22 


20 

1,496 

70 


3 
485 
20 


23.3 
15.8 
19.6 


66.7 
63.6 
62.5 


10.0 




20.6 




17.9 







o Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

The total number of persons 20 years of age or over reporting 
conjugal condition was 2,465. Of this number, 1,566, or 63.5 per 
cent, were married, 505, or 20.5 per cent, were deserted, separated, 
or widowed, and 394, or 16 per cent were single. 

Comparing the males and females, 71.2 per cent of the males and 
57.7 per cent of the females were married, 6.2 per cent of the males 
and 31.4 per cent of the females were deserted, separated, or widowed, 
and 22.6 per cent of the males and 10.9 per cent of the females were 
single. 



246 



The Immigration Commission. 



The number and per cent of cases where the wife is the head of 
the case reported widowed, deserted, or separated are presented below: 

Table 198. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by more than 20 cases, as shown in Table 18Z- The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number — 


Per cent- 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


123 
264 


85 
194 


38 
70 


69.1 
73.5 


30.9 




26.5 








404 


289 


115 


71.5 


28.5 








2 
389 
15 


1 

280 

9 


1 

109 

6 


C) 

72.0 
(«) 


28.0 






(<0 





a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

Table 199. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

[This table includes only races represented by more than 20 cases, as shown in Table 187. The totals, how- 
ever, are for all races.] 





Total 

number of 

cases. 


Number — 


Per cent — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


575 
886 


85 
194 


38 
70 


14.8 
21.9 


6.6 




7.9 








1,556 


289 


115 


18.6 


7.4 








13 

1,474 
82 


1 

280 

9 


1 

109 

6 


19.0 
11.0 


(") 




7.4 




7.3 







i Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

Comparing the cases in which the head is a wife reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated with the total number of cases assisted, 289 
cases, or 18.6 per cent, had the wife as head and reported widowed, 
and 115 cases, or 7.4 per cent, had the wife as head and reported 
deserted or separated. The cases in which the head was negro 
native-born of native father, had 21.9 per cent with a wife widowed 
as the head of the case, and 7.9 per cent with a wife deserted or sepa- 
rated, while the white native-born of native father had 14.8 per cent 
with a wife widowed and 6.6 per cent with the wife deserted or 
separated. 

Practically one-fourth of the cases assisted by the society consisted 
of cases in which the wife was the head of the case reported widowed, 
deserted, or separated. Of the 404 cases so reported, 289, or 71.5 
per cent, were cases in which the wife was widowed, and 115, or 28.5 
per cent were cases in which the wife was deserted or separated 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Washington. 



247 



GENERAL OCCUPATION OF CHILDREN. 

The occupation of children 6 and under 16 years of age is shown 
in the following table : 

Table 200. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at hoTrie, at school, and at 
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. 

[This table Includes in eack. section only races with 20 or more males or females reporting. The totals, 

however, are for all races.] 

MALE. 



General nativity and race of individual. 



Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 



Per cent. 



At home. At school. At work. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 



409 

459 



15.6 
17.0 



Grand total. 



Total native-bom of foreign father.. 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



51 
919 



17.6 
i.4 



(<*) 



80.2 
80.0 



78.4 

10.0 



(°) 



4.2 
3.1 



C) 



3.9 
3.6 



Native-bom of native father: 

White 

Negro 



Grand total. 



Total native-born of foreign father. 

Total native-born 

Total foreign-born 



390 
460 



28 
878 



20.8 
21.3 



10.7 
20.7 



(") 



77.4 

75.9 



85.7 
76.9 



W 



1.8 
2.8 



C) 



3.6 
2.4 



TOTAL. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 


799 
919 


18.1 
19.2 


78.8 
77.9 


3.0 




2.9 








1,807 


18.5 


78.5 


3.0 








79 

1,797 

10 


15.2 
18.5 


81.0 
78.5 
(a) 


3.8 




3.0 




(a) 





a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 

The total number of children involved in the cases assisted, 6 and 
under 16 years of age, was 1,807. Seventy-eight and five-tenths of 
this number were at school, 18.5 per cent were at home, and 3 per 
cent were at work. 

Comparing the male and female, 80 per cent of the males and 77 
per cent of the females were at school, 16.5 per cent of the males and 
20.6 per cent of the females were at home, and 3.6 per cent of the 
males and 2.4 per cent of the females were at work. 



HONOLULU, HAWAII. 



65S12 — vol 34— 11 17 249 



HONOLULU. 

This report covers the work of the Associated Charities of Honolulu, 
Hawaii, during the six months' period from December 1, 1908, to 
May 31, 1909. In order to satisfactorily present the data for Hono- 
lulu, it was necessary to modify the form of tabulation used for the 
cities of continental United States. It was impossible, therefore, 
to combine the data for Honolulu with those for the other cities 
included in the Commission's investigation. Instead of the nativity 
division followed in the reports for other cities, the following group 
classifications are used in the report for Honolulu : 

1. Persons born in Hawaiian Islands of native (Hawaiian) father. 

2. Persons born in Hawaiian Islands of father born elsewhere. 

3. Persons born in continental United States of native father. 

4. Persons born in continental United States of father born else- 
where. 

5. Persons foreign-born. (Born in countries other than Hawaii 
and continental United States.) 



GENERAL NATIVITY AND RACE. 

A general summary showing the number of cases assisted and the 
number of persons involved in the cases assisted by the Associated 
Charities of Honolulu during the six months' period from December 1, 
1908, to May 31, 1909, follows. The data are presented by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 

Table 201. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of head 

of case. 





Cases assisted. 


Persons involved. 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Number. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Number. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Born in Hawaiian Islands of native (Hawaiian) father, Hawaiian 
Born in Hawaiian Islands of father bom elsewhere: 


12 

1 
1 

1 

17 
1 

1 
1 
1 

6 
1 

4 
2 
2 
1 

13 
43 
2 
7 


10.3 

.9 
.9 
.9 

14.5 
.9 

.9 
.9 
.9 

5.1 

.9 

3.4 

1.7 

1.7 

.9 

11.1 

36.8 

1.7 

6.0 


49 

1 

4 
2 

31 

8 

1 
2 
1 

14 
2 

17 
2 
5 
5 

44 

217 

2 

22 


11.4 
.2 




.9 




.5 


Born In continental United States of native father: 

White 


7.2 




1.9 


Born in continental United States of father born elsewhere: 


.2 




.5 




.2 


Foreign-born: 


3.3 




.5 




4.0 




.5 




1.2 




1.2 




10.3 




50.6 




.5 




5.1 








117 


100.0 


429 


100.0 






Total bom In Hawaiian Islands of native (Hawaiian) father 

Total born in Hawaiian Islands of father bom elsewhere 

Total born in continental United States of native father 

Total born in continental United States of father bom elsewhere . 


12 
3 

18 
3 

81 


10.3 
2.6 

15.4 
2.6 

69.2 


49 
7 

39 

4 

330 


11.4 

1.6 

9.1 

.9 

76.9 







251 



252 



The Immigration Commission. 



During the period of the investigation 117 cases were assisted, 
involving 429 persons. The cases in which the head was foreign-born 
comprise the larger proportion assisted, with 81 cases, or 69.2 per 
cent of the total number, involving 330 persons, or 76.9 per cent of 
the total number of persons involved. There were 18 cases assisted, 
involving 39 persons, in which the head was born in Continental 
United States of native father. Twelve cases, involving 49 persons, 
show the head of the case born in Hawaiian Islands of Hawaiian 
father. 

The races represented by more than 10 cases are the folio-wing: 



Race of head of case. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. Per cent 



Persons Involved. 



Number. Per cent. 



Portuguese, foreign-born 

White, born in cortinental United States of native father 

Porto Rlcan, foreign-bom 

Hawaiian, born of Hawaiian father 



36.8 
14.5 
11.1 
10.3 



217 
31 
44 



50.6 

7.2 
10.3 

11.4 



As will be seen from the preceding table, the Portuguese foreign- 
born, is represented by the largest number of cases, involving over 
one-half the total number of persons. The other races represented 
by 10 or more cases are the white, born in continental United States 
of native father, the Porto Rican foreign-born, and the native 
Hawaiian, born of Hawaiian father. 

APPARENT CAUSE OF NEED 

The number and per cent of cases assisted and the number and per 
cent of persons involved where each specified class of apparent causes 
for seeking assistance was reported are shown in the following table : 

Table 202. — Number and per cent of cases assisted and persons involved in each specified 
class of apparent causes of need. 



Apparent cause of need. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



Lack of employment or insufficient earnings 

Death or disability of breadwinner 

Old age 

Death or disability of another member of family 

Neglect or bad habits of breadwinner 

Other 



33.3 
17.9 
12. S 
10.3 
12.8 



316 

17S 
39 
92 
36 
47 



73.7 
41.5 

9.1 
21.4 

8.4 
11.0 



As shown above, lack of employment or insufficient earnings was 
reported as an apparent cause in 65.8 per cent of the total number 
of cases, involving 73.7 per cent of the total number of persons; 
death or disability of breadwinner was reported in 33.3 per cent of 
the total number of cases, involving 41.5 per cent of the total num- 
ber of persons; old age was reported in 17.9 per cent of the total 
number of cases, involving 9.1 per cent of the total number of per- 
sons; death or disability of another member of family was reported 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Honolulu. 



253 



in 12.8 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 21.4 per cent 
of the total number of persons ; neglect or bad habits of breadwinner 
was reported in 10.3 per cent of the total number of cases, involv- 
ing 8.4 per cent of the total number of persons; and "other" causes 
was reported in 12.8 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 
11 per cent of the total number of persons. 

AID GIVEN. 

The number and per cent of cases and the number and per cent of 
persons involved in cases given each specified aid by the society are 
shown in the table which follows : 

Table 203. — Number and per cent of cases assisted and persons involved in each specified 

case of aid given. 



Aid given. 



Cases assisted. 



Number. 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



Persons involved. 



Number. 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



Food or meals 

Clothing 

Rent 

Employment secured 

Medicine or medical assistance 

Cash 

Transportation 

Lodging 

Other 



67.6 
49.1 
14.8 
13.9 
7.4 
6.5 
3.7 
2.8 
20.4 



294 

231 
52 
58 
42 
11 
6 
3 
94 



71.5 
56.2 
12.7 
14.1 
10.2 
2.7 
1.5 
.7 
22.9 



Food or meals was furnished to 67.6 per cent of the total number of 
cases, involving 71.5 per cent of the total number of persons; clothing 
to 49.1 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 56.2 per cent 
of the total number of persons; rent to 14.8 per cent of the total 
number of cases, involving 12.7 per cent of the total number of per- 
sons; employment was secured hi 13.9 per cent of the total number 
of cases, involving 14.1 per cent of the total number of persons; 
medicine or medical assistance to 7.4 per cent of the total number 
of cases, involving 10.2 per cent of the total number of persons; cash- 
to 6.5 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 2.7 per cent of 
the total number of persons; transportation to 3.7 per cent of the 
total number of cases, involving 1.5 per cent of the total number of 
persons; lodging to 2.8 per cent of the total number of cases, involv- 
ing 0.7 per cent of the total number of persons; and "other" assist- 
ance to 20.4 per cent of the total number of cases, involving 22.9 per 
cent of the total number of persons. 

TEARS IN HAWAII. 



The number of foreign-born heads of cases who have been in 
Hawaii each specified number of years is shown in the table which 
follows. This table includes heads of cases born in countries other 
than Hawaii and continental United States. 



254 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 204. — Total number of foreign-born heads of cases in Hawaii each specified number 
of years, by race of head of case. 





Number 
report- 
ing com- 
plete 
data. 




Number in Hawaii. 




Race of head of case. 


Under 5 
years. 


5 to 9 
years. 


10 to 19 
years. 


20 years 
or over. 




6 
1 
4 
2 
2 
1 

13 
43 
2 
7 


3 


1 




2 




1 








1 


3 








2 






1 


1 








1 






13 








7 
1 
5 


2 


34 


1 

2 


















51 


10 


19 


4 


42 







Of the 81 foreign-born heads of cases 42, or one-half, had been in 
Hawaii twenty years or more. The Portuguese are represented by 
43 cases, and 34 of that number had been in Hawaii twenty years or 
more. Of the 81 foreign-born 16 had been in Hawaii less than five 
years, 19 from five to nine years, and 4 from ten to fourteen years. 



STATISTICS OF PAUPERISM IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 



255. 



PAUPERISM 1ST THE UNITED STATES, 1850 TO 1908. 

This section of the Commission's report on "Immigrants as 
Charity Seekers" consists of a compilation of Federal statistics rela- 
tive to pauperism in the United States from 1850 to 1908. Statis- 
tics are available from two sources, the Bureau of the Census and the 
Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization. 

The United States census first gave statistics of pauperism in 1850. 
That census and those of 1860 and 1870, gave, as far as ascertainable, 
data relative to public charitable aid including " out-door relief." 
The census of 1880 shows only an enumeration of paupers in the 
public almshouses. In 1890 and in 1904 the census in addition to 
enumerating the inmates of public almshouses, also stated the inmates 
of charitable and benevolent institutions, public and private, in the 
United States. 

The United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization in 
1904 and again in 1908 collected and published data relative to the 
number of aliens in charitable institutions. These statistics are pre- 
sented by race of the inmates, instead of by nationality as in the 
census. The Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization since 1892 
has published annually the number of immigrants seeking admission 
to the United States and the number debarred as "paupers or likely 
to become a public charge." 

GENERAL EEVIEW OP CENSUS STATISTICS. 

Censuses of 1850, 1860, and 1870. Paupers in Almshouses and Persons 
Receiving Out-door Relief. 

In the census of 1850, in order to secure data relative to paupers, 
information was obtained from the population returns and from 
parish and county records. 

This census and those for 1860 and 1870 are comparable, all includ- 
ing the number of persons receiving out-door relief as far as ascer- 
tainable. They do not include, however, those in charitable insti- 
tutions, such as hospitals and dispensaries, or those in asylums for the 
insane, the feeble-minded, the blmd, or the deaf and the dumb. The 
compiler in noting these facts says in 1870 that the pauperism of the 
afflicted class and of the inmates of such institutions is to be regarded 
as incident to their several disabilities or infirmities, and that while 
some of these persons would be paupers if they were not so afflicted, 
far more are only paupers because they are thus afflicted and while 
thus afflicted. 

It is well to note also that attention is called to the fact that the 
immediate relief given in the ports by immigration commissioners 
is not considered, as the immigrant does not become a pauper until 

a ' ' Out-door relief, ' ' in the more general use, means the aid given to the poor outside 
of institutions, as, in their homes. 

257 



258 The Immigration Commission. 

he has passed from under the control of the Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, and becomes a registered inmate of some asylum or alms- 
house and that, until such time, he can not be said to constitute a 
pauper of the city or State. The development in the idea of inclusion 
and exclusion of the several classes will be indicated in the discussion 
of the various tables. 

Tables 1, 2, and 3 give the census results for 1850, 1860, and 1870, 
of the paupers in public institutions, including the out-door relief 
reported. These tables are as follows: 

Table 1. Paupers in public institutions and paupers receiving 
out-door relief, classified r>y nativity, and by States and Territories, 
June 1, 1850. 

Table 2. Paupers in public institutions and paupers receiving 
out-door assistance, classified by nativity, and by States and Terri- 
tories, with the total cost, June 1 , 1860. 

Table 3. Paupers in public institutions and paupers receiving 
out-door assistance, classified by nativity, and by States and Terri- 
tories, with the total cost, June 1, 1870. 

Censuses oe 1880, .1890, and 1904. Paupers in Almshouses. 

In the censuses of 1880, 1890, and 1900 no attempt was made to 
include statistics relative to out-door relief because of the incomplete- 
ness of the data gathered. The total out-door poor is, however, 
stated in 1880 and 1890 as received, but attention is called in 1890 
to a single instance to show the great inaccuracy of it, namely, that 
the whole city of Boston only reports 13 out-door cases. The returns 
for 1850, 1860, and 1870 are therefore not strictly comparable with 
those for 1880, 1890, and 1900, which only enumerated paupers in 
public almshouses. 

Census of 1880. 

The census for 1880 furnishes figures showing the number of 
paupers in public almshouses on June 1, 1880. The data tabulated 
are shown in Table 4. 

Table 4. Paupers in almshouses, classified by color, sex, nativity, 
and race, and by States and Territories, June 1, 1880. 

Census of 1890. 

The census of 1890 includes data both for almshouses and for 
benevolent institutions. Under almshouses are reported establish- 
ments owned and controlled by counties and towns, and even paupers 
permanently supported by contract with private persons are 
included. Hospitals for the sick and for the insane and children's 
homes are listed as benevolent institutions and not as almshouses. 
As the methods of the States differed somewhat in this, it was 
stated that it caused the enumerators some difficulty in following 
this classification. For instance, New York includes inmates of 
hospitals for sick and for the insane as in almshouses, which was 
not done by the census. On the other hand, in Wisconsin the pau- 
per insane in county insane asylums have been included by the 
census in almshouses, although they are not included by the State 
authorities. Massachusetts classifies the children in the Marcella 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 259 

Street Home as paupers which the census places under benevolent 
institutions. In this census no returns for paupers in public alms- 
houses were received from Alaska, Indian Territory, Oklahoma, or 
Wyoming. New Mexico reports only one. 

The following tables show the principal data furnished in the census 
of 1890: 

Table 5. Paupers in almshouses, classified by color, nativity, race, 
and sex, for States and Territories and by geographical divisions, 
June 1, 1890. 

Table 6. Foreign-born white paupers in almshouses, by nationality, 
with corresponding figures for population at large and number of 
inmates to each million of population for the same race and nation- 
ality, June 1, 1890. 

Table 7. Native-born white paupers of foreign father or mother in 
almshouses, by nationalities, June 1, 1890. 

Table 8. Political condition of foreign male paupers in almshouses, 
by color and race, June 1, 1890. 

Table 9. Ability to speak English of paupers in almshouses, by 
color, nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

Table 10. Literacy of paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, 
race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

Table 11. Age of paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, 
and sex, June 1, 1890. 

Table 12. Conjugal condition of paupers in almshouses, by color, 
nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

Table 13. Number and per cent of foreign-born male paupers in 
almshouses who have been in the United States each specified num- 
ber of years, by color, June 1, 1890. 

Table 14. Causes of pauperism in almshouses, by geographical 
divisions, June 1, 1890. 

Table 15. Causes of pauperism in almshouses, by color, nativity, 
race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

Census of 1904. 

A census of paupers in almshouses was taken December 31, 1903, 
and the results were published as a part of the United States Cen- 
sus bulletin entitled " Paupers in almshouses, 1904." In making 
comparisons it must be assumed that the population in 1903 was the 
same as in 1900. 

The same general rule as in 1890 appears to have been followed in 
determining what are almshouses. In place of taking the previous 
census date of June 1, this census fixed upon December 31 as show- 
ing more accurately the normal number in the almshouses. The 
census for 1880 and that for 1890 gives only the number of inmates 
present on the census date June 1. The census of 1904 gives data 
also as to number admitted during the year from January 1 to 
December 31, 1904, and gives in addition a table accounting for dis- 
charges, deaths, and transfers. However, for purposes of comparison 
only the table for December 31, 1903, will be given. The other 
tables are published in the census bulletin for 1904, above referred to. 
The tables shown in the Commission's report are as follows. 



260 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 16. Paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, sex, 
States and Territories, and geographical divisions, December 31, 
1903. 

Table 17. Paupers admitted to almshouses during 1904, by color, 
nativity, race, sex. States and Territories, and geographical divisions."' 

Table 18. Foreign-born white paupers admitted to almshouses 
during 1904 by country of birth, States and Territories, and geo- 
graphical divisions. 

Table 19. Paupers in almshouses during 1904, native-born white 
of foreign father or mother, by nationalities. 

Table 20. Literacy of paupers 10 years of age or over in alms- 
houses during 1904, by color, nativity, race, and sex. 

Table 21. Paupers in almshouses during 1904, by color, nativity, 
sex, and age. 

Table 22. Conjugal condition of paupers in almshouses during 1904, 
by color, nativity, race, and sex. 

Table 23. Foreign-born paupers admitted to almshouses during 
1904, by sex, race, years in the United States, and main geographic 
divisions. 

Comparison of Census Figures op Paupers in Almshouses, 1850 to 1903. 

As has already been stated, only a very general comparison can be 
made of the data shown in the census reports from 1850 to 1903 , for the 
reason that the class of institutions included varied in the different 
censuses. However, the enumerations for 1850, 1860, and 1870 are 
comparable and the census data for 1880, 1890, and December 31, 
1903, are along the same general lines. 

For convenience of comparison the table which follows gives the 
number and ratio of paupers in public almshouses enumerated on 
date of census, by sex, color, and nativity, for 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 
1890, and 1903. In the censuses of 1850, 1860, and 1870 the figures 
include incomplete returns for persons given out-door relief . 

Table 1. — Number and ratio of paupers in public almshouses enumerated on date of 
census, by sex, color, and nativity, for 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890, and 190S. 

[Compiled from Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I, p. 267, and Paupers in 
Almshouses, 1904, Twelfth Census, pp. 5, 6, and 101 (includes a small number of out-door poor in 1850, I860, 
and 1870).] 



Sex, color, and na- 


Number of paupers. 


Ratios to 1,000,000 of population. 


tivity. 


1903. 


1890. 


1880. 


1870. 


1860. 


1850. 


1903.1 


1890. 


1880. 


1870. 


1860. 


1850. 


Total 


81,704 


73,045 


66,203 


76,737 


82,942 


50,353 


1,014 


1,166 


1,320 


1,990 


2,638 


2,171 






Male 


52,444 
29,320 
49,473 
32,291 
74,854 
6,910 


40,741 
32, 304 
44,626 
28,419 
66, 578 
6,467 


35,564 
30, 639 
43,236 
22,967 
60,486 
5,717 








1,270 

745 

754 

3,123 

1,120 

752 


1,270 
1,057 

836 
3,072 
1,211 

847 


1,394 
1,244 

994 
3,438 
1,394 

847 
























53,939 
22,798 
67,337 
9,400 


50,483 
32, 459 


36,916 
13,437 


1,635 
4,095 
2,005 
1,928 


1,849 
7,843 


1,765 


Foreign-born 

White 


5,986 























a Based upon the population of 1900. 



The number of paupers per 1,000,000 population declined steadily 
with each census period. The number of native-born paupers per 
1,000,000 native-born in the population declined more rapidly than 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



261 



did the number of foreign-born paupers per 1,000,000 foreign-born 
in the population. During the period from 1880 to 1903 the number 
of white paupers per 1,000,000 of the white population declined more 
than did the number of colored paupers per 1,000,000 of the colored 
population; and during the same period the number of male paupers 
per 1,000,000 of the male population declined but little, while the 
number of female paupers per 1,000,000 of the female population de- 
clined materially. 

The table which follows shows the distribution, by color and 
nativity, of paupers enumerated in public almshouses and ratio of 
paupers to general population of same color and nativity, for the 
decennial periods 1880, 1890, and 1903. 

Table 2. — Distribution, by color and nativity, of paupers enumerated in almhouses and 
ratio of paupers to general population of same color andnativity, 1903, 1890, and 1880. 



[From Paupers in Almhouses, Twelfth Census, 1904, p. 0. 


] 










Paupers enumerated in almhouses. 


Per cent distribu- 
tion of general 
population. 


Color and nativity. 


Number. 


Number per 
100,000 of popula- 
tion. 


■Per cent distribu- 
tion. 




De- 
cem- 
ber 
31, 
1903. 


June 
1,1890. 


Tune 
1, 1880. 


De- 
cem- 
ber 
31, 
1903. a 


June 

1, 
1890. 


June 

1, 
1880. 


De- 
cem- 
ber 
31, 
1903. 


June 

1, 
1890. 


June 

1, 
1880. 


1900. 


1890. 


1880. 




81,764 


73,045 


66,203 


107.6 


116.6 


132.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






White 


74, 854 

42.205 

32, 136 

513 

6, 910 


66,57S 
36, 656 
27,648 
2,274 
6,407 


60,486 
37.603 
22,883 


112.0 

74.6 

314. 6 


21.1 
79.9 
303.1 


139.4 
102.1 
348.8 


91.5 
51.6 
39.3 
0.6 
8.5 


91.1 
50.2 
37.8 
3.1 
8.9 


91.4 
56.8 
34.6 


87.9 
74.5 
13.4 


87.8 
73.2 
14.6 


86.5 


Native 

Foreign-born 

Nativity unknown. . 


73.4 
13.1 


5,717 


75.2 


84.7 


84.7 


8.6 


12.1 


12.2 


13. S 







& Based upon the population of 1900. 

The following comment on the figures for 1903 appears in the 
census report: 

The figures showing the number of paupers per 100,000 population for 1903 are 
computed on the 1900 population, and are consequently higher than the true fijpireB 
based on the actual population in 1903 would be. Therefore, they clearly indicate 
that the ratio is still decreasing for the native white and for the colored paupers. 
For the foreign-born white the ratio is much smaller than in 1880, but somewhat 
greater than in 1890. 

It appears from the above table that the aggregate number of 
paupers in almhouses increased with each decade, but that the 
number per 100,000 population decreased materially. During the 
period from 1880 to 1903 the number of native-born white paupers 
per 100,000 of the native-born white population declined more than 
did the number of foreign-born white paupers per 100,000 of the 
foreign-born white population. During the same period the number 
of white paupers per 100,000 of the white population declined more 
than did the number of colored paupers per 100,000 of the colored 
population. In each of the years shown on the page following the 
proportion of foreign-born white paupers is much larger than the 
proportion of foreign-born whites in the total population. 



262 



The Immigration Commission. 



Foreign-born whites. 



Year. 


Per cent 
of total 
number 

of 
paupers. 


Per cent 
of total 
popula- 
tion. 


1880 


34.6 
37.8 




1890 




1900 




1903 : 


39.3 









BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 

After the census of 1850 was taken the Superintendent of the 
Census reports that he perceived the weight of the objection that as 
no account was tak-en of those supported or relieved by individual 
charities, the statistics would not represent the whole number of 
paupers supported in the United States, and therefore he issued a 
circular in March, 1854, to the proper officers of the several States, 
in different sections, in order if possible to make some estimate of the 
private charities, benevolent associations, etc., but that the returns, 
though interesting, were not as numerous as desired. The data enu- 
merated for several cities are so meager that it could not be used for 
this report, no information being given as to the nativity of the indi- 
viduals. 

In the census of 1890, however, the statistics of the inmates of 
benevolent institutions were taken, as also again in 1903. The 
latter census, however, reports only the total number and gives no 
data as to the nativity of the inmates. 

In explaining the expression "benevolent institutions," the 
Eleventh Census says: 

There are, among institutions devoted to works of beneficence, such as the care of 
the sick, of the aged, and of children, some of which receive no compensation for the 
service rendered other than that derived from gifts, and from the interest or endow- 
ments, or from the slight earnings of the beneficiaries. Others, for instance certain 
hospitals, perform such services exclusively for pay, and receive no charity cases. 
Others still are of a mixed character. Among the institutions here listed are undoubt- 
edly some which are not strictly benevolent, though an effort has been made to 
exclude them. The list of hospitals, however, is as complete as it has been possible 
to make it , and includes all which were founded or are maintained by gifts or endow- 
ments, even where the patients admitted are known to pay for care and treatment. 
An attempt was made to expurge sanitariums and infirmaries which are private prop- 
erty and conducted for pecuniary profit. 

This census does not include under the number of inmates of benev- 
olent institutions, public and private, the inmates of hospitals for the 
insane, schools and homes for the deaf and blind, or asylums for the 
feeble-minded. 

In the introduction to the census of 1903 for benevolent institu- 
tions is the following: 

Under the definition adopted, institutions have been considered as benevolent if 
supported wholly or in part by public taxation, private endowment, or subscriptions, 
donations, or other forms of gifts for the benefit of the sick, aged, and needy. * * * 
In all cases it seemed better to give the term "benevolent institutions " a broad inter- 

a Compendium of United States Census 1850, "Charities." 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 263 

pretation rather than omit mention of institutional charities possessing some local 
importance. Under the heading "benevolent institutions" are included those in 
which there may be some pay patients and in which there is a combination of educa- 
tional work and institutional care. Free dispensaries and so-called day nurseries 
have been included. Institutes for the blind and the deaf and dumb are included 
where they sustain a home. Inmates of almshouses and schools for feeble-minded 
are not included nor institutional activities confined to a brief part of the year. 

- It will be necessary in comparing the total inmates in benevolent 
institutions, given in 1890, with the number of 1904 to bear in mind 
that the latter in most tables given by the census includes institutions 
for the deaf, dumb, and blind, which sustain a home. 

Census of 1890, Benevolent Institutions. 

Tables 24 to 34 enumerate the inmates of benevolent institutions, 
public and private, in the United States in 1890, exclusive of inmates 
of prisons, hospitals for insane, almshouses, and schools and homes 
for the deaf, the dumb, the blind, and the feeble-minded. 

The following tables are from the census report for 1890: 

Table 24. Inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, nativity, 
race, and sex, States and Territories, and geographical divisions, 
June 1, 1890. 

Table 25. Foreign-born white inmates of benevolent institutions, 
by nationality, with corresponding figures for population at large, and 
number of inmates to each million of population for the same race 
and nationality, June 1, 1890. 

Table 26. Native-born white inmates of benevolent institutions, 
of foreign father or mother, by nationalities, June 1, 1890. 

Table 27. Political condition of foreign-born males, 21 years of age 
and over, who are inmates of benevolent institutions, by color and 
race, June 1, 1890. 

Table 28. Ability to speak English of inmates of benevolent insti- 
tutions, by color, nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

Table 29. Literacy of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, 
nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

Table 30. Age of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, 
nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

Table 31. Conjugal condition of inmates of benevolent institutions, 
by color, nativity, race, and sex, June , 1890. 

Table 32. Number and per cent of foreign-born male inmates of 
benevolent institutions who have been in the United States each 
specified number of years, by color, June 1, 1890. 

Table 33. Number and per cent of causes of dependence of inmatea 
of benevolent institutions, by geographical divisions, June 1, 1890. 

Table 34. Causes of dependence of inmates of benevolent institu- 
tions, by color, nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

Census op 1904, Benevolent Institutions. 

The report for benevolent institutions, published by the census in 
1904, gives no tables corresponding to those for 1890, showing nativ- 
ity, race, or nationality of the inmates. It does give the total number 
of inmates and the cost of maintenance of institutions. Table 35 
grves a general summary of all benevolent institutions, public and 



264 The Immigration Commission. 

private, and exclusive of prisons, hospitals for insane, almshouses, 
schools for the feeble-minded, and schools and homes for the deaf and 
the blind, by States and Territories. It is thus comparable with the 
number of inmates reported in 1890. The title of the table is as 
follows : 

Table 35. General summary of all benevolent institutions, public 
and private (exclusive of prisons, hospitals for insane, almshouses, 
schools for feeble-minded, and schools and homes for the deaf and 
blind), 1904. 

The total number of inmates January 1, 1904, was 268,656, against 
111,910, June 1, 1890. The cost of maintenance is not given in 1890, 
but in 1903 the total cost is given as $52,053,950, not including 
schools and homes for deaf and blind. 

UNITED STATES BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION. 

Aliens in Charitable Institutions. 

In 1898 the Commissioner-General of Immigration reported that, 
with a view to obtaining light upon the subject of the number of 
immigrants in charitable institutions, inquiries had been sent to the 
managers of charitable, penal, and reformatory institutions. Every 
official, however, stated that no statistics were kept of alien crimi- 
nals, paupers, or insane persons, but that they were all classed as 
foreigners. 

In conformity with the act of March 3, 1903, the Bureau of Immi- 
gration and Naturalization, by means of special agents, however, 
collected data relative to alien inmates of all penal, charitable, and 
reformatory institutions in the United States. Four years later simi- 
lar statistics were again gathered by the bureau. All institutions, 
except those for the insane, and penal and reformatory institutions, 
which latter included juvenile delinquents, were classified as chari- 
table institutions. Inmates of almshouses, homes, asylums for orphans, 
juveniles, and feeble-minded were included. 

The statistics, except for grand totals in a general way, can not be 
compared with the census, as they are more inclusive and are tabu- 
lated by race of people and not by nationality. The fact must be borne 
in mind, also, as with the census, that pay patients are included. 

The following tables are from the report of the United States 
Bureau of Immigration for 1904. 

Table 36. Aliens detained in charitable institutions, public and 
private, by sex, age, probable period of detention, and jurisdiction 
of institutions; classified also by States and Territories and by geo- 
graphical divisions (charitable institutions include almshouses, 
homes, juvenile asylums, hospitals, institutions for the feeble-minded, 
and all other institutions in which people dependent upon charity 
are confined, except institutions for the insane), 1904. 

Table 37. Aliens detained in charitable institutions, by race, sex, 
age, probable period of detention, and jurisdiction of institution, 1904. 

Table 38. Number of years foreign-born inmates of charitable 
institutions have been in the United States, 1904. 

The investigations made by the United States Bureau of Immi- 
gration and naturalization in 1908 show, by States, not only the 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 265 

number of aliens in charitable institutions, but also the number of 
inmates who were naturalized citizens and the number who were- 
native-born. The tables shown are the following : 

Table 39. Political condition of inmates of charitable institutions, 

?ublic and private, of the United States, by nativity, States and 
'erritories, and by geographical divisions (charitable, institutions 
include almshouses, homes, juvenile asylums, hospitals, institutions 
for the feeble-minded, and all other institutions in which people 
dependent upon public charity are confined, except institutions for 
the insane), 1908. 

Table 40. Aliens detained in charitable institutions, by race, sex, 
age, probable period of detention, and jurisdiction of institution, 1908. 

Table 41. Per cent of foreign-born inmates of charitable institutions 
who have been in the United States each specified number of years, 
1908. 

The number of aliens in charitable institutions increased during 
the four-year period from 15,396 in 1904 to 19,572 in 1908. 

DEBARRED AND DEPORTED IMMIGRANTS. 

The United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization since 
1892 has reported the number of intended immigrants refused admis* 
sion to the United States, among other reasons, as paupers or persons 
likely to become public charges. The bureau also reports the num- 
ber of immigrants deported after landing. Data relative to debarred 
and deported immigrants from the reports of the United States Bureau 
of Immigration and Naturalization have been compiled and are shown 
in the tables which follow: 

Table 42. Number of aliens debarred at seaports and number 
deported after landing, fiscal years 1892 to 1910. 

Table 43. Number of aliens refused admission from contiguous 
foreign territory, fiscal years 1900 to 1910. 

Table 44. Number of aliens debarred and number deported, by 
race or people, fiscal years 1904 and 1908. 

65812°— vol 34—11 18 



266 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 1. — Paupers in public institutions and paupers receiving out-door relief, classified 
by nativity, and by States and Territories, June 1, 1850. 

[From Compendium ol United States Census, 1850, pp. 163-164.] 



States and Territories. 


Received 

support 

during 

year. 


Received support June 1. 


Total cost 
of annual 
support. 


Total. 


Native. 


Foreign. 




363 
105 


315 
67 


306 
67 


9 


117,559 














2,337 
697 


1,744 
273 


1,463 
240 


281 
33 


95, 624 




17, 730 


T>istr)nt nf nnlirmhia 


Florida. 


76 

1,036 

797 

1,182 

135 
1,126 

423 
5,503 
4,494 

15,777 
1,190 


62 
854 
434 
583 

44 

777 

106 

3,536 

2,001 

5,549 
429 


58 
825 
279 
446 

27 
690 

76 
3,209 
1,681 

4,059 
248 


4 
29 
155 
137 

17 

87 

30 

326 

320 

1,490 
181 






27,820 


Illinois 


45, 213 




57, 560 




5,358 




57,543 




39,806 




151,664 




71, 668 




392, 715 




27, 556 








260 
2,977 

3,600 
2,392 


257 
505 

2,184 
1,578 


245 
251 

1,998 
1,339 


12 
254 

186 
239 


18, 132 




53,243 




157,351 




93, 110 








59,855 

1,931 
2,513 


12,833 

1,580 
1,673 


5,755 

1,567 
1,254 


7,078 

13 
419 


817,336 




60,085 


Ohio 


95,250 








11,551 

2,560 
1,642 
1,005 

7 


3,811 

696 

1,293 

591 

4 


2,654 

492 

1,113 

577 

4 


1,157 

204 
180 
14 


232, 138 




45,837 




48,337 




30,981 




438 


Utah 








3,654 

5,118 

666 


1,879 

4,458 

238 


1,565 

4,356 

72 


314 
102 
166 


120, 462 


Virginia 


151,722 




14,743 






The United States 


134,972 


50,353 


36, 916 


13, 437 


2,954,806 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



267 



Table 2. — Paupers in public institutions and paupers receiving out-door assistance, 
classified by nativity, and by States and Territories, with total cost, June 1, I860. 

[From United States Census Report, Mortality and Miscellaneous Statistics, 1860, p. 512.] 



States and Territories. 



Received 

support 

during 

year. 



Received support June 1. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



Total cost 
of annual 
support. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut . 



Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. . 

Florida 

Georgia 



Illinois.... 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky. 



Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts- 
Michigan 



Minnesota.. 
Mississippi.. 

Missouri 

Nebraska. . . 
Nevada 



New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina. . 



Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. 
Rhode Island.. 



South Carolina. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 



Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington. 
Wisconsin... 



582 

289 

2,183 

'4,044' 



449 
178 
293 



431 
175 
105 



2,238 



1,548 



742 
2,081 

168 
1,451 

4,628 
3,565 
2,165 
21 
1,265 

194 

8,946 

4,275 

51,880 

9,104 

350 

374 

958 

30 



447 

142 

107 

1,196 

1,856 
1,589 



162 
4,618 

720 
6,503 
1,423 

156 
301 

784 



331 

95 

105 

1,106 

707 

1,120 

322 

7 
749 

146 
4,147 

621 
5,206 

679 



270 
513 



4,394 
8,200 



2,311 
1,861 



2,072 
1,308 



164, 782 
1,922 

5,953 

50 

16, 463 

1,108 

1,640 
3,038 



3,387 

6,027 

7 

5,256 



19, 215 
1,431 

14,092 

25 

7,776 

613 

1,439 
935 

122 
1 

1, 850 

4,534 

2 

1,964 



7,666 
1,422 

5,700 

15 

4,495 

445 

1,404 
776 

108 
1 

1,510 

4,320 

1 

815 



18 
3 

188 



116 

47 

2 

90 

1,149 

469 

361 

14 

150 

16 
471 

99 

1,297 

744 

117 

31 

271 

3 



239 
553 



11,549 



8,392 

10 

3,281 



35 
159 

14 



340 

214 

1 

1,149 



$38,890 
16,702 
99, 171 



126,355 



22,830 
12, 650 
4,654 
45,161 

196,184 
151,851 

83,737 
423 

71,603 

11, 395 
226,945 

75, 113 
579, 397 
113,227 

26, 871 

26,675 

70,445 

724 



153, 958 
132, 646 



1,440,904 



311, 109 
13,155 

665, 396 
42,785 

65,242 

64, 774 

12,849 

344 

120, 473 

208, 649 

1,870 

126,500 



The United States. 



321,665 



82,942 



50,483 



32, 459 



5, 445, 143 



268 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 3. — Paupers in public institutions and paupers receiving out-door assistance, 
classified by nativity, and by States and Territories, with total cost, June 1, 1810. 

[From Compendium of Ninth Census of the United States, 1870, p . 530.] 



States and Territories. 


Received 

support 

during 

year. 


Received support June 1. 


Total cost 
of annual 
support. 


Total. 


Native. 


Foreign. 




890 


687 


681 


6 


S81, 459 








626 

2,317 

73 

1,728 


538 

991 

19 

1,705 


490 
354 

8 

1,237 


48 

637 

11 

468 


74, 917 




273, 147 




11,422 




189,918 








556 
303 
147 

2,181 
41 
6,054 
4,657 
1,543 

361 
2,059 
..590 
4,619 
1,857 

8,036 

3,151 

684 

921 

2,424 

104 
93 

196 
2,636 
3,356 


453 
279 
147 

1,816 

4 

2,363 

3,652 

853 

336 
1,784 

507 
3,631 
1,612 

5,777 

2,042 

392 

809 

1,854 

23 

92 

54 

2,129 

2,390 


403 
234 
142 

1,777 

3 

1,254 

2,790 

542 

190 
1,667 

409 
3,188 
1,347 

5,396 
853 
126 
793 

1,415 

8 

54 

29 

1,754 

1,669 


50 
45 
5 

39 

1 

1,109 

862 

311 

146 
117 
98 
443 
265 

381 

1,189 

6 

16 

439 

15 

38 

25 

375 

721 


41, 266 




26, 364 




9,830 




159, 793 




7,247 


Illinois 


556, 061 




403, 521 




175, 179 




46, 475 




160, 717 




53,300 




367,000 




163,584 




1,121,604 




269, 682 




66, 167 




96, 707 




191, 171 




17, 065 




11, 161 




23,702 




235,126 




283, 341 








26, 152 

1,706 

6,383 

133 

15, 872 
1,046 
2,343 
1,349 

204 

56 

2,008 

3,890 

34 

1,102 
1,553 


14,100 

1,652 

3,674 

81 

8,796 

634 

2,071 

1,332 

202 
51 

1,785 
3,280 

20 

994 

1,126 


5,953 

1,647 

2,860 

62 

4,822 

442 

1,994 

1,280 

177 

20 

1,262 

3,254 

15 
948 
390 


8, 147 

5 

814 

19 

3,974 
192 
77 
52 

25 
31 
523 
26 

5 
46 
736 


2,661,385 




136, 470 


Ohio 


566, 280 




24,800 




1,256,024 




97, 702 




224, 805 




99, 811 




21, 219 


Utah 


6,206 




178, 628 




303, 081 




5,283 


West Virginia 


80,628 




151, 181 




















116, 102 


76, 737 


53, 939 


22,798 


10,930,429 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



269 



Table 4. — Paupers in almshouses, classified by color, sex, nativity, and race, and by States 
and Territories, June 1, 1880. 

[From United States Census Report, Detective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes, 1880, p. 447.] 



States and Terri- 


To- 
tal. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Na- 
tive. 


For- 
eign. 


White. 


Col- 
ored. 


Native 
white. 


Foreign- 
born white. 


Colored. 


tories. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Alabama 


514 

4 

105 

1,594 

46 

1,418 


228 

4 

45 

1,377 

41 

776 


286 

60 

217 

5 

642 


462 
3 
103 
607 
25 

961 


52 
1 
2 

987 
21 

457 


305 

4 

85 

1,528 

43 

1,331 


o209 

20 

6 66 

3 

87 


99 

3 

33 

501 

19 

501 


156 

50 
67 
3 

373 


34 

1 

2 

815 

20 

234 


16 


95 


114 




145 
1 

223 


10 
61 
2 

41 


10 




5 




1 




46 




387 
184 
45 

550 

7 

3,684 

3,052 

1,165 

335 
1,366 


190 
89 
33 

222 

7 

2,108 

1,586 

689 

223 
646 


197 
95 
12 

328 

1,576 

1,466 

476 

132 
720 


328 
142 
44 

534 

2 

1,917 

2,445 

752 

278 
1,183 


59 
42 
1 

16 

5 

1,767 

607 

413 

77 
183 


280 
111 
24 

385 

7 

3,628 

2,965 

1, 147 

308 
1,043 


107 
73 
21 

165 

»56 

i*87 

18 

47 
323 


108 
27 
15 

127 

2 

934 

1,101 

395 

137 
343 


113 
42 
8 

242 

928 

1,258 

339 

94 

517 


34 

21 

1 

12 

5 

1,139 

436 

285 

59 
139 


25 
21 

4 


48 
41 
17 

83 


59 


District of Columbia 


32 
4 




82 








627 
170 
128 

18 
44 


35 

49 

9 

27 
164 


21 




38 




9 




20 


Kentucky 


159 




1,505 
1,187 

4,533 

1,747 

227 

345 

1,477 


786 
664 

2,501 

1,048 
156 
148 
779 


719 
523 

2,032 

698 

71 

197 

698 


1,268 
911 

3,035 

1,074 

96 

334 

1,012 


237 
276 

1,498 
672 

- 131 

11 

465 


1,488 
857 

4,455 
1,680 
... .226 
165 
1,284 


«17 
/330 

78 
h 66 
*1 
i 180 
* 193 


636 
303 

1,754 

575 

62 

55 

394 


616 

284 

1,211 

437 

. 34 

102 

425 


140 
177 

707 

435 

94 

8 

297 


96 
93 

783 
233 
36 

168 


10 
184 

40 
38 

85 
88 


7 




146 




38 
28 




1 




95 




105 








113 

95 

1,198 

2,462 


67 

84 

591 

1,393 


46 

11 

607 

1,069 


60 

29 

1,002 

1,526 


53 
66 
196 
936 


106 

92 

1,187 

2,291 


«7 
13 
11 
171 


29 
25 
500 
773 


25 

4 

491 

582 


35 
56 
87 
532 


17 

7 

109 

404 


3 
3 
4 

88 


4 






New Hampshire 


7 
83 








12,452 

1,275 

6,974 

51 

9,184 

- 526 

519 

1,136 

210 


6,i96 

491 

3,879 

45 

5,157 
263 
206 
453 

120 


6,256 

784 

3,095 

6 

4,027 
263 
313 
683 

90 


5,187 

1,271 

5,136 

32 

5,715 
366 
474 

1,063 

184 


7,265 

4 

1,838 

19 

3,469 
160 
45 
73 

26 


i2,2ii 

803 

6,616 

44 

8,653 
492 
277 
830 

134 


)j>241 

472 

<*358 

«7 

o31 

a34 

a 242 

*306 

"76 


2,590 

261 

2,396 

27 

2,752 
171 
68 
276 

58 


2,363 

538 

2,383 

3 

2,439 
163 
166 
481 

52 


3,495 

4 

1,293 

13 

2,153 
79 
23 
53 

21 


3,763 

544 
1 

1,309 
79 
20 
20 

3 


111 
226 
190 

5 

252 
13 
115 
124 

41 


130 


North Carolina 

Ohio 


246 
168 




2 


Pennsylvania 

South Carolina .... 


279 
21 
127 
182 




35 








655 
2,117 

11 

711 

1,018 


. 347 
973 

10 
334 
609 


308 
1,144 

1 

377 
409 


537 
2,064 

3 

671 
400 


118 
53 

8 
40 
618 


651 
1,090 

11 

641 
1,008 


4 

1,027 

70 
P10 


273 
392 

2 
261 
208 


260 
645 

1 
340 
182 


72 
45 

8 
31 
395 


46 
8 


2 
536 


2 




491 


Washington 




9 
223 


42 
6 


28 

4 


































The United States 


66,203 


35,564 


30,639 


43,236 


22,967 


60,486 


5,717 


19,186 


18,417 


13,490 


9,393 


2,888 


2,829 



o Including 2 foreign colored. 

6 Including 10 Chinese and 17 foreign Indians. 

c Including 1 foreign colored. 

d Including 1 foreign colored and 2 Indians. 

« Including 1 foreign colored and 1 Indian. 

/ Including 6 foreign colored. 

Q Including^ foreign_colored. 

A Including 4 foreign colored and 4 Indians. 

•' Including 1 foreign Indian. 



I Including 3 foreign colored. 
* Including 1 Indian. 

I Including 2 Chinese and 1 foreign colored. 
m Including 7 foreign colored. 
n Including 5 Chinese. 
o Including 6 foreign colored, 1 Chinese, and 1 

Indian. 
p Including 3 Indians. 



NaTE.-^The total number of pauper Chinese is 18; native Indians, 16; foreign Indians, 18; and foreign 
colored, 48- There are no returns of almshouses from the State of Louisiana, provision being made with 
private institutions by the several parishes for the maintenance and care of their poor. 



270 



The Immigration Commission. 



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274 



The Immigration Commission. 



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Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



275 











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276 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 6. — Foreign-born white paupers in almshouses, by nationality, with corresponding 
figures for population at large and number of inmates to each million of population for 
the same race and nationality, June 1, 1890. 

[From United States Census Report, Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, 1890, Part I, p. 274.] 



Nationalities. 


Population. 


Paupers in alms- 
houses. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ratio. 




973.488 

76,467 

1,046 

4,619 

15,809 


924 
42 
1 
54 
13 


949 




549 




956 




11,691 




822 








1,071,419 


1.034 


965 








907, 269 

242,197 

100,065 

946 

1,871,339 

123,185 
22, 629 
118,097 
132,523 
113,028 

2,784,693 

1,877 

81,821 

62,409 

182,342 

2,881 

322,660 

147,416 

15,654 

182,614 

6,020 

478,024 

104,060 

1,823 

9,170 

12,544 


1,962 
575 
256 


2,163 




2,374 




2,568 








14,128 

96 
31 
170 
115 
411 

6,784 

1 

138 

49 

149 


7,550 




779 




1,370 




1,439 
868 






3,636 

2,436 
533 








1,687 

785 




Italy 


817 








369 
219 

27 
107 

14 

646 

309 

2 

5 

6 


1,144 




1,486 
1,725 






686 




2,326 
1,351 






2,969 




1,097 




545 




478 








8,027,276 


26, 569 


3,310 








2,070 

2,045 

379 

2,186 


2 


966 














2 


915 








6,680 


4 


599 








1,535 
5,938 


1 

11 


651 




1,852 








1,958 
1,112 


2 
2 


1,021 




1,799 








3,070 


4 


1,303 








5,484 
465 


25 


4,559 












Total 


9,121.867 


27,648 


3,031 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



277 



Table 7. — Native-born white paupers of foreign father or mother in almshouses, by 

nationalities, June 1, 1890. 



[From United States Census Report, Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, 1890 


Parti, p 


275J 


Birthplaces of foreign parents. 


Total. 


Foreign 

fathers. 


Foreign 
mothers. 


Canada (English) 


100 
8 
11 


50. 
6 
8 










3 






119 


64 










174 

75 

8 

345 

1 

2 

8 

33 

156 

4 

3 
1 
1 
1 

1 
2 

7 
4 


115 
51 

6 
231 

1 

2 

7 
24 
99 

2 

3 


59 


Scotland 






Ireland. 


114 


Azores Islands 






Denmark 






9 




Holland 




Italy ' 




Norway 










Portugal 


i 

1 

1 

5 
2 








Spain • 








Switzerland 










826 
1 
3 


551 










1 








Total 


949 


616 









Table 8. — Political condition of foreign male paupers in almshouses, by color and race, 

June 1, 1890. 

[From United States Census Report, Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, 1890, Part I, p. 278.] 





Numbers. 


Percentages. 


Color and race. 


Total. 


Aliens. 


Natural- 
ized. 


Natural- 
ization 
papers 
filed. 


Aliens. 


Natural- 
ized. 


Natural- 
ization 
papers 
filed. 


White 


16, 938 
41 
12 


8,058 
24 
12 


8,733 
17 


147 


47.57 

58.54 

100.00 


51.56 
41.46 


0.87 






















Total 


16,991 


8,094 


8,750 


147 


47.64 


51.50 


.8G 







a The total number here given includes 298 foreign white paupers who are under 21 years of age. It also 
ncludes 41 negroes, who are elsewhere classed in this report with the native population, and 12 Chinese. 



278 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 9. — Ability to speak English of paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, 

and sex, June 1, 1S90. 

[From United States Census Report, Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, 1890, Part I, p. 280.) 

BOTH SEXES. 





Numbers. 


Percentages.^ 


Color, nativity, and race. 


Total. 


Speak 
English. 


Do not 

speak 

English. 


Not 
stated. 


Speak 
EDglish. 


Do not 

speak 

English. 




21, 519 

949 

3,580 

10, 608 


20, 776 

849 

3,304 

10, 196 


187 
11 
80 
42 


556 
89 
196 
370 


99.11 
98.72 
97.64 
99.59 






















36,656 
27, 648 
2,274 


35, 125 

23,173 

1,943 


320 

3,883 

62 


1,211 
592 
209 


99.10 
85.05 
96.91 


.90 








3.09 






White 


66, 578 


60,241 


4,265 


2,072 


93.39 


C. 61 








6,418 
13 
36 


0,316 

6 

27 


14 
7 
5 


88 


99.78 
46.15 
84.38 


.22 








4 


15.62 








6,467 


6,349 


26 


92 


99.59 


.41 






Total ,. 


73,045 


66,590 


4,291 


2,164 


93. 95 


6.05 



MALE. 





11,123 

538 

2,176 

5,538 


10,684 

487 

2,032 

5,325 


86 
5 
39 
20 


353 
46 
105 
193 


99.20 
98.98 
98.12 
99.63 


0.80 




1.02 




1.88 




.37 








19, 375 
16, 938 
1,074 


18,528 

14,056 

906 


150 

2,529 

32 


697 
353 
136 


99.20 
84.75 
90.59 


.80 




15.25 




3.41 






White 


37,387 


33,490 


2,711 


1,186 


92.51 


7.49 








3,326 
12 
16 


3,262 
6 
10 


11 
6 
3 


53 


99.06 
50.00 
76.92 


.34 




50.00 




3 


23.08 








3, 354 


3,278 


20 


50 


99.39 


.61 






Total 


40,741 


36,768 


2,731 


1,242 


93.09 


6.91 







FEMALE. 





10, 396 

411 

1,404 

5,070 


10,092 

362 

1,272 

4,871 


101 
6 
41 
22 


203 
43 
91 

177 


99.01 
98.37 
96.88 
99.55 


0.99 




1.63 




3.12 




.45 








17,281 
10, 710 
1,200 


16,597 
9,117 
1,037 


170 

1,354 

30 


514 
239 
133 


98.99 
87.07 
97.19 


1.01 




12.93 




2.81 






White 


29, 191 


20, 751 


1, 554 


886 


94.51 


5.49 








3,092 
1 
20 


3,054 


3 
1 

2 


35 


99.90 


.10 




100.00 




17 


1 


89.47 


10. 53 








3,113 


3,071 


6 


36 


99.81 


.19 






Total 


32, 304 


29,822 


1,560 


922 


95. 03 


4.97 







o The percentages are calculated on the total basis of 70,881 reported, omitting 2,104 not stated. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



279 



Table 10. — Literacy of paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 

1890. 

[From United States Census Report, Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, 1890, Part I, p. 294.] 

BOTH SEXES. 





Numbers. 


Per cent. 


Color, nativity, and race. 


Total. 


Can 

neither 

read nor 

write. 


Can read 
only. 


Can both 
read and 
write, a 


Can 

neither 

read nor 

write. 


Can read 
only. 


Can both 
read and 
write, a 




21, 519 

949 

3,580 

10, 008 


7,450 
174 
893 

4,128 


1,421 
65 
196 
658 


12,648 

710 

2,491 

5,822 


34.62 
18.34 
24.94 
38.92 


6.60 
6.85 
5.48 
6.20 


58.78 






69.58 
54.88 


One or both parents unknown. . . 




36, 656 

27,648 

2,274 


12,645 
8,326 
1,062 


2,340 

1,782 

93 


21, 671 
17,540 
1,119 


34.50 
30.11 
46.70 


6.38 
6.45 
4.09 


59.12 












White 


66, 578 


22,033 


4,215 


40, 330 


33.09 


6.33 


60.58 






6,418 
13 
36 


5,013 
8 
31 


217 
1 
1 


1,188 
4 
4 


78.11 
61.54 
86.11 


3.38 
7.69 
2.78 


18.51 






11.11 






6,467 


5,052 


219 


1,196 


78.12 


3.39 


18.49 




Total 


73,045 


27,085 


4, 434_ 


41,526 


37.08 


6.07 









MALE. 





11,123 

538 

2,176 

5,538 


3,223 

89 

484 

1,928 


547 
23 
91 

267 


7,353 

426 

1,601 

3,343 


28.98 
16.54 
22.24 
34.82 


4.92 
4.28 
4.18 
4.82 


66.10 
79.18 
73.58 
60.36 


One parent foreign - 


One or both parents unknown. . 




19, 375 
16, 938 
1,074 


5,724 
4,229 

477 


928 
842 
45 


12,723 

11,867 

552 


29.54 
24.97 
44.41 


■ 4.79 
4.97 
4.19 
















White 


37, 387 


10,430 


1,815 


25, 142 


27.90 


4.86 


67.24 






3,326 
12 
16 


2,475 
8 
13 


122 
1 


729 
3 
3 


74.41 
66.67 
81.25 


3.67 
8.33 






















3,354 


2,496 


123 


735 


74.42 


3.67 








Total 


40,741 


12,926 


1,938 


25,877 


31.73 


4.75 









FEMALE. 





10,396 

411 

1,404 

5,070 


4,227 

85 

409 

2,200 


874 
42 
105 
391 


5,295 
284 
890 

2,479 


40.66 
20.68 
29.13 
43.39 


8.41 
10.22 
7.48 
7.71 


50 93 




69.10 






One or both parents unknown. . 


48.90 




17,281 
10,710 
1,200 


6,921 

4,097 

585 


1,412 
940 
48 


8,948 

5,673 

567 


40.05 
38.25 
48.75 


8.17 
8.78 
4.00 


51.78 




52.97 




47.25 






White 


29,191 


11,603 


2,400 


15, 188 


39.75 


8.22 


52.03 








3,092 

1 

20 


2,538 


95 


459 
1 
1 


82.08 


3.07 


14.85 




100 00 




18 


1 


90.00 


5.00 


5.00 








3,113 


2,556 


96 


461 


82.11 


3.08 


14.81 






Total 


32,304 


14,159 


2,496 


15,649 


43.83 


7.73 


48.44 







a Including those not stated. 



280 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 11.— Age of paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I, p. 283.) 
BOTH SEXES.n 



Decennial periods. 



White. 



Native-born. 



o3, 



Colored. 



Under 10 years 
10-19 years.'. .. 

20-29 years 

30-39 years 

40-49 years 

60-59 years 

60-69 years 

70-79 years 

80-89 years 

90-99 years 

Total 



3,651 

2,228 
3,979 
5,400 
4,931 
4,3S3 
4,548 
4,542 
2,235 
308 



2,074 

1,222 

1,900 

2, 

2.763 

2,785 

3,073 

3,183 

1, 



391 
273 
040 
890 
547 
312 
251 
167 
72 
15 



678 
1,344 
1,826 
1,522 
1,196 
1,113 
1,063 

499 
94 



55 
172 
1,352 
2,403 
3,832 
4,810 
6,956 
5,553 
1,965 
234 



34 
79 
109 
301 
373 
271 
300 
213 
104 
25 



085 
031 
729 

025 
833 
840 
557 
204 



594 
431 
682 
023 
720 
019 
825 
836 
557 
202 



65, 412 



36,205 



3,55810,327 27,332 

I 



1,875 



6,135 



6,089 



Under 10 years 

10-19 years 

20-29 years 

30-39 years 

40-49 years 

50-59 years.. . . 

60-69 years 

70-79 years 

80-89 years 

90-99 years 

Total.... 



2,422 
1,537 
2,995 
4,335 
4,881 
5,600 
7,755 
7,103 
2,905 
425 



39,958 



36,752 



2,052 
1,178 

2^605 
2,288 
2,250 
2,590 
2,784 
1,315 
179 



19, 140 



1,112 

018 

823 

1,157 

1,214 

1,398 

1,733 

1,947 

943 

108 



11,053 



224 
170 
365 
536 
319 
213 
171 
108 
45 
9 



2,160 



010 
048 
2X9 
53 



29 
92 

677 
1,297 
2,087 
2,883 
4,565 
3,742 
1,256 

132 



16,760 



21 

41 

75 

133 

101 

117 

140 

107 

. 48 

9 



320 
226 
344 
31 a: 
345 
350 
400 
470 
286 
105 



310 
225 
343 
294 
341 
347 
456 
408 
2SIi 
104 



3,180 



FEMALE. 



Under 10 years. 

10-19 years 

20-29 years 

30-39 years 

40-49 years. . . . 
50-59 years. . . . 

60-69 years 

70-79 years 

80-89 years 

90-99 years 

Total.... 



1,916 
1,375 
3,190 
4.400 
4, 
4, 
4,1 
4,045 
1,956 
346 



31,589 



1,599 
1,050 
2,1 
2,795 
2,643 
2,133 
1,958 
1,758 
920 
129 



17,065 



in ',2 
604 
1,0' 
1,432 
1,549 
1,387 
1,340 
1,236 
655 



107 
103 
275 
354 
228 



375 

3 IS 
OKI 
963 
830 
01)8 
497 
415 
210 
41 



20 

Si I 

675 

1,106 

1,745 

1,927 

2,391 

1,811 

709 

102 



10,572 



13 
38 

94 
16S 
212 
154 
100 
km; 
50 
16 



1,023 



27S 
207 
341 
331 
384 
275 
373 
370 
271 



278 
200 
339 
329 
379 
272 
369 



1 19 



o Omitting 1,342 not stated and 156 aged 100 years and over. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



281 



Table 12. — Conjugal condition of paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, and 

sex, 



oaupers in almsh 
x, June 1, 1890. 



[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, Part I, p. 292.] 

BOTH SEXES. 





Number. 


Per cento 


Color, nativity, and race. 


3 
o 
6-< 


CD 

a 

CO 


T3 

b 

03 


% 
o 

is 


H3 

! 

> 
A 


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to 
O 


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bo 

a 


CD 


•a 
I 


•d 
I 




21,519 

949 

3,580 

10,608 


13,060 

561 

2,616 

6,791 


3,092 
129 
419 

1,310 


4,884 
236 
474 

1,620 


300 
16 
30 

127 


183 

7 

41 

760- 


61.21 
59.55 
73.92 
68.96 


14.49 
13.70 
11.84 
13.30 


22.89 
25.05 
13.39 
16.45 


1.41 




1.70 




.85 


One or both parents unknown. . 


1.29 




36,656 
27,648 
2,274 


23,028 
11,622 
1,045 


4,950 

5,487 

315 


7,214 

9,096 

379 


473 
187 
23 


991 

1,256 

512 


64.57 
44 04 
59.31 


13.88 
20.79 
17.88 


20.23 
34.46 
21. 51 


1.32 




.71 




1.30 






White 


66, 578 


35,695 


10,752 


16,689 


683 


2,759 


55.93 


16.85 


26.15 


1.07 








6,418 
13 
36 


3,551 
11 
21 


810 


1,729 


28 


300 
2 
3 


58.04 
100.00 
63.64 


13.24 


28.26 


.46 








9 


3 




27.27 


9.09 










6,467 


3,583 


819 


1,732 


28 


305 


58.15 


13.29 


28.11 


.45 






Total 


73,045 


39,278 


11,571 


18,421 


711 


3,064 


56.13 


16.53 


26.32 


1.02 







MALE. 





11,123 

538 

2,176 

5,538 


7,017 

340 

1,712 

3,766 


1,594 
63 
193 

578 


2,256 
122 
226 
705 


163 
8 
20 
46 


93 

5 

25 

443 


63.62 
63.79 
79.59 
73.92 


14.45 

11.82 

8.97 

11.34 


20.45 
22.89 
10.51 
13.84 


1.48 




1.50 




.93 


One or froth parents unknown . . 


.90 




19,375 
16,938 
1,074 


12,835 

8,474 

532 


2,428 

3,123 

104 


3,309 

4,526 

131 


237 

131 

7 


566 
684 
300 


68.24 
52.13 
68.73 


12.91 
19.21 
13.44 


17.59 
27.85 
16.93 


1.26 




.81 




.90 






White 


37,387 


21,841 


5,655 


7,966 


375 


1,550 


60.94 


15.78 


22.23 


1.05 








3,326 
12 
16 


1,942 
10 
10 


453 


769 


21 


141 
2 
2 


60.97 
100.00 
71.43 


14.22 


24.15 


.66 








3 


. 1 




21.43 


7.14 










3,354 


1,962 


456 


770 


21 


145 


61.14 


14.21 


24.00 


.65 






Total 


40,741 


23,803 


6,111 


8,736 


396 


1,695 


60.96 


15.65 


22.37 


1.02 







FEMALE. 





10,396 

411 

1,404 

5,070 


6,043 
221 
904 

3,025 


1,498 

66 

226 

732 


2,628 
114 
248 
915 


137 
8 
10 
81 


90 

2 

16 

317. 


58.64 
54.03 
65.13 
63.64 


14.53 
16.14 
16.28 
15.40 


25.50 
27.87 
17.87 
19.25 


1.33 




1.96 




.72 


One or both parents unknown. . 


1.71 




17,281 
10,710 
1,200 


10, 193 

3,148 

513 


2,522 

2,364 

211 


3,905 

4,570 

248 


236 
56 
16 


425 
572 
212 


60.47 
31.05 
51.92 


14 96 
23.32 
21.36 


23.17 
45.08 
25.10 


1.40 




.55 




1.62 






White 


29,191 


13,854 


5,097 


8,723 


308 


1,209 


49.51 


18.22 


31.17 


1.10 








3,092 

1 

20 


1,609 
1 
11 


357 


960 


7 


159 


54 86 
100.00 
57.89 


12.17 


32. 73, 


.24 








6 


2 




1 


31.58 


10.53 










3,113 


1,621 


363 


962" 


7 


160 


54 89 


12.29 


32. 58 


.24 




• ,•■' ;,'<■ 




32,304 


15,475 


5,460 


9,685 


315 


1,369 


50.02 


17.65 


31.31 


1:02 







o The percentages are calculated on the total basis of 69,981 reported, omitting 3,064 not stated. 
65812°— vol 34^-11 19 



282 



The Immigration Commission. 



Owing to the fact that the average age of the foreign-born is higher 
than- that of the other groups, the percentage of single paupers in 
that element of the population is correspondingly less. On the other 
.hand, the largest percentage of the single is among natives with both 
parents foreign. The percentage of single among the negroes is less 
than among the native whites. The percentage of widows is much 
larger among the foreign paupers than in any other group. 

Table 13. — Number and per cent of foreign-born male paupers in almshouses, who have 
been in the United States each specified number of years, by color, June 1, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, 1890, Eleventh Census, Part I, p. 300.] 





Number. 


Per cent.a 






































Si 


Color. 




>> 














o 

o 


>-< 


c- 












E2 


o 
o 




o 


V 

■a 
c 


c5 


o3 






03 


a-, 
o 


w 
(fl 

CD 


ft 

CD 

o 


<D 

a 


CO 
>> 


o3 




s 


<fl 


a. 
o 






& 


P 


'- 


N 


CO 


~r 


lO 


o 


- 1 


2 


P 


^ 


N 


m 


>r 


iO 


<o 


2 


White 


16,938 


18 


67 


7.? 


94 


117 


m 


541 


11,217 


4,688 


0.15 


55 


59 


77 


fl 95 


1 00 


4 4? 


91.57 




53 






1 




2 




1 


35 


14 






2.56 




5.13 




2.57 


89.74 










Total.... 


16,991 


18 


67 


74 


94 


119 


123 


542 


11, 252 


4,702 


.15 


.55 


.60 


.76 


.97 


1.00 


4.41 


9L56 



a The percentages are calculated on the total basis of 12,289 reported, omitting 4,702 not stated. 

Table 14. — Number and per cent of causes of pauperism in almshouses, by geographical 

divisions, June 1, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, Part I, p. 303.] 
BOTH SEXES. 



Assigned causes of 
pauperism. 



Number.** 



The 
United 
States. 



Geographical divisions. 



North 
Atlan- 
tic. 



South 
Atlan- 
tic. 



North 
Cen- 
tral. 



South 
Cen- 
tral. 



West- 
ern. 



Per cent. 



Geographical divisions. 



North 
Atlan- 
tic. 



South 
Atlan- 
tic. 



North 
Cen- 
tral. 



South 
Cen- 
tral. 



West- 
ern. 



Tramps 

Drunkards 

Old and infirm. 

Bedridden 

Deformed 

Crippled 

Epileptic 

Paralytic 

Syphilitic 

Rheumatic 

Lying-in cases. . 
No other home. 
Miscellaneous.. 
Not stated 



971 

4,094 

20, 121 

1,825 

2,157 

10,373 

3,000 

3,511 

1,421 

6,951 

612 

72,722 

25,058 

95 



219 

2, 452 

8,727 

282 

700 

3,987 

984 

1,328 

47 

2,901 

290 

30,993 

10,284 

6S 



99 

168 

2,478 

302 

353 

1,147 

262 

452 

223 

Ml 

80 

8,084 

2,035 

2 



439 

1,214 

5,830 

774 

844 

3, 526 

1, 

1,000 

490 

2,037 

202 

25,515 

11,203 

21 



15S 

117 

1,669 

287 

212 

933 

293 

348 

143 

501 

36 

5,003 

1,379 

3 



56 

143 

1,417 

180 

48 

780 

53 

383 

88 

582 

4 

3,127 

157 

1 



22.55 

59. 

43.37 

15.45 

32.45 

38.44 

32.80 

37.83 

33.57 

41.73 

47.39 

42.62 

41. 04 1 

71.58 



10.20 
4.11 
12.32 
16.55 
16.37 
11.06 
8.73 
12.87 
15.69 
13.38 
13.07 
11.12 
8.12 
2.11 



45.21 
29.65 
28.97 
42.41 
39.13 
33.99 
46.93 
28.48 
34.48 
29.31 
33.01 
35.08 
44.71 
22.10 



16. 27 
2.86 
8.30 

15.73 
9.83 
8.99 
9.77 
9.91 

10.07 
7.21 
5. 
6.88 
5.50 
3.16 



5.77 

3.49 

7.04 

9.86 

2.22 

7.52 

1.77 

10.91 

6.19 

8.37 

.65 

4.30 

.63 

1.05 



Total" 73,045 31,143 



8,100 25,615 



5,049 



3,138 



42.63 11.09 35.07 6.91 



a The figures showing assigned causes of pauperism do not, when added, form the total number of 
paupers, for the reason that many paupers may be classed under more than one or these subdivisions; the 
same person may be a tramp, a drunkard, crippled, old and infirm, and rheumatic. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



283 



Table 14. — Number and per cent of causes of pauperism in almshouses, by geographical 



d per cent of causes of pauperism in al 
divisions, June 1, 1890 — Continued. 



MALE. 



Assigned causes of 
pauperism. 



Tramps 

Drunkards 

Old and infirm 

Bedridden 

Deformed 

Crippled 

Epileptic 

Paralytic 

Syphilitic 

Rheumatic 

No other home 
Miscellaneous.. 
Not stated 

Total o.. 



Number. 



The 
United 
States. 



734 

2,792 

11, 799 

948 

1,307 

7,181 

1,642 

2,373 

797 

4,567 

40,563 

12, 007 

58 



Geographical divisions. 



North 
Atlan- 
tic. 



218 

1,386 

4,565 

148 

439 

2,692 

543 

856 

254 

1, 

16, 822 

4, 

46 



40,741 16,893 



South 
Atlan- 
tic. 



North 
Cen- 
tral 



21 

129 

1,240 

113 

202 
709 
132 
291 
104 
486 
3,865 
906 
1 



South 
Cen- 
tral. 



3C6 

1,046 

3,874 

403 

500 

2,505 

782 

664 

304 

1,465 

14, 774 

5,620 

10 



75 
94 
859 
134 
120 
563 
143 
211 
61 
268 
2.347 
567 
1 



3,87314,832 2,381 2,762 



West- 
ern 



54 

137 

1,261 

150 

46 
712 

42 
351 

74 

520 

2,755 

108 



Per cent. 



Geographical divisions. 



North 
Atlan- 
tic. 



29.70 
49.64 
38.69 
15.61 
33.59 
37.49 
33.07 
36.07 
31. 87 
40.03 
41.47 
40.03 
79.31 



41.46 



South 
Atlan- 
tic. 



North 
Cen- 
tral. 



2.80 

4.62 

10.51 

11.92 

15. 45 

9.87 

8.04 

12.27 

13.05 

10.64 

9.53 

7.54 

1.73 



49.86 
37.46 
32.83 
42.51 
38.26 
34.88 
47.62 
27.98 
38.14 
32.08 
36.42 
46.81 
17.24 



South 
Cen- 
tral. 



West- 
ern. 



7.36 
4.91 

10.69 

15.82 
3.52 
9.92 
2.56 

14.79 
9.29 

11.38 

6.79 

.90 



FEMALE. 





237 

1,302 

8,322 

877 

850 

3,192 

1,358 

1,138 

624 

2,384 

612 

32, 159 

13,051 

37 


1 

1,066 

4,162 

134 

261 

1,295 

441 

472 

223 

1,073 

290 

14,171 

5,478 

22 


78 73 

39 168 

1,238 1,956 

189 371 

151 344 

438 1,021 

130 620 

161 336 

119 186 

444 572 

80 202 

4,21910,741 

1,129 5,583 

1' 11 


83 

23 
810 
153 

92 
370 
150 
137 

82 
233 

36 

2,656 

812 

2 


2 

6 
156 
30 

2 
68 
11 
32 
14 
62 

4 

372 

49 

1 


0.42 
81.87 
50.01 
15.27 
30.71 
40. 57 
32.47 
41.48 
35.74 
45.01 
47.39 
44.06 
41.97 
59.46 


32.91 


30.80 


35.02 
1.77 
9.73 
17.45 
10.82 
11.59 
11.05 
12.04 
13.14 
9.77 
5.88 
8.26 
6.22 
5.41 


°:% 




3.00 12.90 
14.88 23.50 
21.55 42.31 




1.88 




3.42 




17.76 
13.72 
9.57 
14.15 
19.07 
18.63 
13.07 
13.12 
8.65 
2.70 


40.47 
31.99 
46.10 
29.52 
29.81 
23.99 
33.01 
33.40 
42.78 
29.73 


.24 




2.13 




.81 




2.81 




2.24 




2.60 




.65 




1.16 




.38 




2.70 






Total <• 


32, 304 


14,250 


4,22710,783 


2,668 


376 


44.11 


13.09 


33.38 


8.26 


1.16 







284 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 15. — Causes of pauperism in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 

1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I, p. 304.] 

NUMBER a — B OTH SEXES. 



Color, nativity, and 
race. 



p. 



Parents native 

One parent foreign... 

Parents foreign 

One or both parents 
unknown 



21,519 

949 

3,580 

10,608 



796 
41 
197 



227 
389 

,990 



609 

21 
60 



865 
33 
100 



. 043 
14.5 
492 



1,062 
40 
231 



443 

26 
79 



1,962 
84 

207 

585 



21,425 

944 

3,559 

10,555 



Native-born... 

Foreign-born 

Nativity unknown. . 



36,656 
27,648 
2,274 



1,319 
2,610 
63 



;,442 

1,233 

440 



924 
537 
73 



1,368 
451 
74 



2,004 
605 



730 

439 

23 



2,838 

3,245 

97 



36,483 
27,552 
2,265 



40 
35 

10 



White. 



66,578 



907 



3,992 



18,115 



1,893 



3,097 



6,180 



528 



66,300 



23,332 



85 



Negroes. . 
Chinese. . 
Indians. . 



6,418 
13 



289 
1 
1 



262 

"i 



.124 
2 

5 



223 
3 
3 



768 
1 
2 



6,374 
12 



,710 
5 

11 



Colored. 
Total... 



6,467 



102 



291 



2W 



292 



771 



6,422 



1,726 



4,094 



1,825 



2,157 



3,000 



6,951 



72,722 



10 



MALE. 



Parents native 

One parent foreign . . . 

Parents foreign 

One or both parents 


11, 123 

538 

2,176 

5,538 


159 
11 
28 

91 


688 
33 
142 

199 


3,216 
127 
240 

1,148 


303 
11 

44 

100 


507 
22 
64 

190 


1,995 
108 
368 

706 


545 
24 
142 

335 


730 
47 
120 

234 


207 
12 
52 

70 


1,210 
59 
156 

364 




11,080 

536 

2,163 

5,510 


3,227 
87 
761 

2,540 


13 
2 
7 

4 






Native-born.... 

Foreign-born 

Nativity unknown . . 


19,375 
16,938 
1,074 


289 

375 

30 


1,062 

1,610 

41 


4,731 

5,808 

207 


458 

311 

38 


783 

325 

35 


3,177 

3,157 

128 


1,046 
378 

44 


1,131 
928 
44 


341 

317 

14 


1,789 

2,271 

47 




19,289 
16.881 
i;068 


6,615 

4,018 

613 


26 
25 
3 


White 


37,387 


694 


2,713 


10,746 


807 


1,143 


6,462 


1,468 


2,103 


672 


4,107 




37,238 


11,246 


54 








3,326 
12 
16 


40 


78 


1,049 


139 
1 
1 


164 


717 
2 


173 
1 


269 
1 


121 
2 
2 


458 
1 
1 




3,298 
11 
16 


752 
5 
4 


4 










1 


4 
















Colored 


3,354 


40 


79 


1,053 


141 


164 


719 


174 


270 


125 


460 




3,325 


761 


4 




40,741 


734 


2,792 


11, 799 


948 


1,307 


7,181 


1,642 


2,373 


797 


4,567 




40,563 


12,007 


58 







FEMALE. 



Parents native 

One parent foreign . . . 

Parents foreign 

One or both parents 


10,396 

411 

1,404 

5,070 


141 
2 
3 

41 


108 
8 
55 

86 


2,620 
100 
149 

842 


306 
10 
16 

134 


358 
11 
36 

180 


1,048 
37 
124 

437 


517 
16 
89 

336 


368 
12 
56 

157 


236 
14 
27 

112 


752 
25 
51 

mi 


237 
9 
58 

76 


10,345 

408 

1,396 

5,045 


3,548 
83 
555 

2,673 


8 
1 
2 

3 








Native-born... 


17,281 
10,710 
1,200 


187 
11 
15 


257 

1,000 

22 


3,711 

3,425 

233 


466 

226 

35 


585 
126 
39 


1,646 

1,016 

118 


958 

227 

55 


593 
365 
36 


389 

122 

9 


1,049 

974 

50 


380 

141 

7 


17,194 
10,671 
1,197 


6,859 

4.416 

811 


14 
10 


Nativity unknown. . . 


7 


White 


29, 191 


213 


1,279 


7,369 


727 


750 


2,780 


1 240 


994 


520 


2 073 


528 


29,062 


12,086 


31 






" 






3,092 
1 
20 


24 


23 


948 


150 


98 


407 


116 


143 


102 
1 
1 


310 


84 


3,076 
1 
20 


958 


6 












5 




2 


5 


2 


1 


1 




7 












Colored 


3,113 


24 


23 


953 


150 


100 


412 


118 


144 


104 


311 


84 


3,097 


965 


6 


Total 


32,304 


237 


1,302 


8,322 


877 


850 


3,1921.358 


1,138 


624 


2,384 


612 


32,159 


13,051 


37 











a The figures showing assigned causes of pauperism do not, when added, form the total number of paupers, 
for the reason that many paupers may be classed under more than one of these subdivisions; the same 
person may be a tramp, a drunkard, crippled, old and infirm, and rheumatic. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



285 






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286 



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293 



Table 18. — Foreign-born white paupers admitted to almshouses during 1904, by country 
of birth, States and Territories, and geographical divisions. 

[From Paupers in Almshouses, Twelfth Census, 1904, p. 100.] 





3 

o 


Number bom in — 


State or Territory. 


■a 
1 


1 


■a 
a 

03 . 
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j£ 

a 
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3 


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1 
1 

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244 

205 

60 

4,303 

238 
1,107 
6,572 

724 
4,225 


83 

69 

15 

2,321 

129 

685 

3,565 

398 

1,723 


5 

5 

1 

69 



92 

1,228 

169 

855 


18 
19 
5 

482 
31 
81 

423 
62 

439 


104 
91 
34 

694 
37 
36 

284 

4 

33 




10 

8 

2 

128 

9 

27 

134 

12 

94 


1 

3 

2 

130 

4 

47 

231 

15 

164 


12 


1 


5 
3 


5 




6 




1 

15 
3 
1 

00 
5 

43 








75 
5 
44 
130 
7 
49 


5 

38 

5 

136 


153 
4 

42 
219 

13 
280 






10 
47 


Connecticut , 








409 




North Atlantic division. 


17, 678 


8,988 


2,430 


1,560 


1,317 


316 


424 


597 


140 


185 


719 


1,002 




30 
435 
23 
77 
09 
4 
20 
12 
24 


16 
190 
17 
25 
41 

11 
4 
10 


5 
138 
2 
8 
12 
1 
5 
2 
2 


1 
29 
2 
15 
5 
2 
2 
2 
5 


1 
7 


2 

11 


1 

13 






1 
6 


1 
16 






3 


3 


19 


District of Columbia 




6 


3 


3 
2 


3 

3 


3 


1 


4 
4 






1 
















1 
1 
1 














1 
3 


1 


1 
1 
























South Atlantic division. 


694 


314 


175 


63 


14 


20 


20 


12 


8 


8 


25 


35 


Ohio 


2,350 

334 

2,061 

1,034 

640 

326 

296 

282 

83 

66 

57 

126 


691 

133 

679 

204 

76 

48 

68 

122 

9 

16 

8 

45 


679 
94 

632 
' 275 

294 
61 

108 
99 
2 
12 
23 
22 


223 

31 

135 

107 

28 

12 

25 

24 

3 

1 

5 

10 


69 
6 

48 
204 

30 

28 
5 
5 

14 
5 
1 
6 


41 

14 
272 

52 
100 
117 

46 
6 

42 

25 
5 

14 


46 
10 
46 
45 
8 
11 
7 
5 
3 
5 
1 
4 


74 
2 

18 

6 

.... 

3 
2 


29 
5 
23 
14 
4 
8 
4 
6 


156 
8 

38 
2 

12 
3 

16 

1 
2 
5 
3 


102 
13 
79 
25 
43 

2 
2 
4 


240 












































1 
9 


1 
3 












North Central division. 


7,655 


2,099 


2,301 


604 


421 


734 


191 


106 


10S 


246 


274 


571 




80 
05 
18 
2 
32 
204 


39 
21 

8 

10 
43 


29 
21 
1 
1 
8 
46 


3 

10 
1 










5 
3 
1 




2 






2 
1 


3 


"2" 


3 
1 








1 






1 
1 
4 






1 
15 


2 

7 



5 


2 


4 
5 










2 


6 










14 
75 


1 
20 


3 
37 


i 

1 






1 
1 




3 
1 










3 


5 




1 








South Central division. 


490 


142 


146 


32 


15 


14 


11 


6 


22 


2 


10 


90 




362 


138 


54 


30 


46 


31 


16 


3 


8 




5 










230 


66 


35 


34 


11 


38 


6 


5 


3 


3 


9 










152 
79 

119 
57 

190 

189 
3,403 


18 
11 
36 
13 
45 
33 
997 


25 
6 

14 
10 
21 
46 
494 


11 
27 
11 
5 
26 
17 
333 


4 

8 
7 
18 
16 
162 


10 
15 
15 
8 
41 
39 
241 


5 
4 
3 
7 
12 
7 
121 


7 
4 
8 

"5" 

9 

211 






1 
1 




Utah 










4 
1 
3 

4 
116 




20 












4 
1 
9 


26 
















Western division 


4,781 


1,357 


705 


494 


272 


438 


181 


252 


139 


17 


42 


884 


Continental United 


31,298 


12,900 


5,757 


2,753 


2,039 


1,5" 


827 


973 


417 


458 


1,070 


2,582 









a Includes Newfoundland. 



294 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 19. — Paupers in almshouses during 1904, native-born white of foreign father or 

mother, by nationalities. 

[From Paupers In Almshouses, Twelfth Census, 1904, p. 100.] 



Birthplace of 
mother. 



Continental Uni- 




ted States 


61,796 


Foreign coun- 






78, 114 




37,050 


Germany 

England and 


15,811 




6, 5*9 


Canadaa 


3,612 


Scandinavia . . 


3,3^2 




2,167 


Italy 


1,407 


France 


1,136 


Hungary and 
Bohemia — 




816 


Russia and 




Poland 


1,781 


Other coun- 






4,383 
8,753 


Unknown 


Total 


148, 663 



Having fathers bom in- 



•a 

r 
j 



59,452 

1»! 
529 

189 

240 

239 

18 

07 
4 
27 

1 

7 



1,846 

76,592 
36,476 
15,606 

6,320 
3,344 
3,343 
2,096 
1,399 
1,107 

815 



4,317 
128 



36,45215,616 



35,886 
33 

234 

114 

5 

160 



48 
15,444 



37,15116,004 






311 

6,428 
281 

27 

5,930 
70 

5 

86 



13 



3,217 
71 

7 



24 



23 

,349 
11 

7 



119 

2,095 

142 

12 



1,815 

4 



3,374 2,219 



1,410 
3 
1 

1 
3 



1 

1,394 

4 



1,123 
17 

30 

14 
24 



1,022 



812 



817 



1,767 
1 

13 



1,748 

5 
5 



1,783 



4,319 
16 

30 

15 
2 
3 
6 
1 

10 



4,233 
3 



4,385 



153 

45 
16 

19 
29 
11 
4 
4 
2 



18 
8,234 



a Includes Newfoundland. 

Table 20. — Literacy of paupers 10 years of age or over in almshouses, during 1904, by 
color, nativity, race, and sex. 

[Compiled from Paupers in Almshouses, Twelfth Census, 1904, pp. 156-159.] 
BOTH SEXES. 





Number. 


Per cent. 


Color, nativity, and race. 


Total. 


Can 

neither 

read nor 

write. 


Can read 
only. 


Can both 
read and 
write, o 


Can 

neither 

read nor 

write. 


Can read 
only. 


Can both 
read and 
write, a 




55,225 
3,446 

12,540 
6,279 


14,562 

625 

1,916 

1,270 


2,749 
183 
450 
215 


37,914 
2,638 

10,174 
4,794 


26.3 
18.1 
15.3 
20.2 


5.0 
5.3 
3.6 
3.4 


68.7 


Mixed parentage b 


76.6 
81.1 


Parentage unknown 


76.4 




77,490 

63,289 

1,496 


18,373 

15,453 

346 


3,597 

3,642 

70 


55,520 

44,194 

1,080 


23.7 
24.4 
23.1 


4.6 
5.8 
4.7 


71.7 




69.8 




72.2 






White 


142,275 


34,172 


7,309 


100,794 


24.0 


5.1 


70.9 






Negroes 


13,317 
253 
180 


8,540 
60 
97 


512 
2 
10 


4,265 
191 
73 


64.1 
23.7 
53.9 


3.9 

.8 

5.6 


32.0 
75.5 




40.5 








13,750 


8,697 


524 


4,529 


63.3 


3.8 


32.9 






Total 


156,025 


42,869 


7.S33 


105,323 


27.5 


5.0 


67.5 







a Including those not stated. 

b Hauing one parent native and the other foreign, or one parent unknown and the other either native 
or foreign. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



295 



Table 20. — Literacy of paupers 10 years of age or over in almshouses, during 1904, by 
otor 



color, nativity, race, and sex — Continued. 
MALE. 





Number. 


Per cent. 


Color, nativity, and race. 


Total. 


Can 

neither 

read nor 

write. 


Can read 
only. 


Can both 

read and 

write. 


Can 

neither 

read nor 

write. 


Can read 
only. 


Can both 

read and 

write. 




34,791 
2,410 
9,665 
4,421 


6,944 
345 

1,193 
637 


1,299 
97 
266 
123 


26,548 
1,908 
8,106 
3,661 


20.0 
14.3 
12.5 
14.4 


3.7 
4.0 
2.8 
2.8 


76.3 




81.7 




84.7 




82.8 








51,187 

47,160 

936 


9,119 

9,553 

171 


1,785 

2,128 

42 


40,283 

35,479 

723 


17.8 
20.3 
18.3 


3.5 
4.5 
4.5 


78.7 




75.2 




77.2 






White. .\ '. 


99,283 


18,843 


3,955 


76,485 


19.0 


4.0 


77.0 








8,313 
246 
125 


5,051 
58 
64 


343 
1 
6 


2,919 
187 
55 


60.8 
23.6 
51.2 


4.1 

.4 

4.8 


35.1 




76.0 




44.0 








8,684 


5,173 


350 


3,161 


59.6 


4.0 


36.4 






Total 


107,967 


24,016 


4,305 


79,646 


22.2 


4.0 


73.8 







FEMALE. 





20,434 
1,036 
2,975 
1,858 


7,618 
280 
723 
633 


1,450 
86 
184 
92 


11,366 

670 

2,068 

1,133 


37.3 
27.0 
24.3 
34.1 


7.1 
8.3 
6.2 
4.9 


55.6 




64.7 




69.5 




61.0 








26,303 

16,129 

560 


9,254 

5,900 

175 


1,812 

1,514 

28 


15,237 

8,715 

357 


35.2 
36.6 
31.3 


6.9 
9.4 
5.0 


57.9 




64.0 




63.7 






White 


42,992 


15,329 


3,354 


24,309 


35.7 


7.8 


56.5 








5,004 
7 
55 


3,489 

2 

33 


169 
1 
4 


1,346 
4 
18 


69.7 

m 


3.4 

m 
m 


26.9 




f« 










5,066 


3,524 


174 


1,368 


69.6 


3.4 


27.0 


Total 


48,058 


18,853 


3,528 


25,677 


39.2 


7.3 


53.5 







a Having one parent native and the other foreign, or one parent unknown and the other either native 
or foreign. 
& Per cent not shown, where base is less than 100. 



296 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 21. — Paupers in almshouses during 1904, by color, nativity, sex, and age. 

[From Paupers in Almshouses, Twelfth Census, 1900, p. 106. 

TOTAL. 



Age. 



White. 



Native. 






Colored. 



Under 5 years... 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years 

IS to 19 years 

20 to 24 years 

25 to 29 years 

30 to 34 years 

35 to 39 years 

40 to 44 years 

45 to 49 years 

SO to 54 years 

55 to 59 years 

60 to 64 years 

65 to 69 years 

70 to 74 years 

75 to 79 years 

SO to 84 years.... 
85 to 89 years 

90 to 94 years 

S5to 99 years 

100 years or over. 
Age unknown . . . 

All ages 



4,635 
2,516 
1,976 
3,730 
6,867 

6,968 
7,536 
8,866 
10, 264 
11,094 

13,503 
12,945 
16,311 
15,499 

15, 184 
11,053 
6,861 
2,854 

1,017 
327 
194 

2,976 



4,114 
2,274 
1,739 
3,046 
5,609 

5, 
6,680 
7,979 
9,444 
10,377 

12,619 
12,276 
15.280 
14,666 

14,273 
10,312 
6,209 
2,518 

778 

197 

82 

2,308 



4,001 
2,159 
1,626 
2,538 
4,149 

4,189 
4,656 
5,306 
6,107 
6,627 

7,412 
6,154 
6,348 
5,767 

6,961 
4,585 
3,018 
1,317 

456 

95 

39 

1,140 



2,668 
1,535 
1,230 
1,814 
2,897 

2,813 
3,002 
3,425 
3,788 
4,229 

4, 
4,346 
4,644 
4,452 

4,844 
3,827 
2,508 
1,113 

371 
79 
29 

834 



670 
395 
191 
332 

572 

758 

974 

1,159 

1,502 

1,579 

1,577 

1,090 

974 

693 

510 
297 
157 
65 

33 
3 
4 

70 



.546 
183 
91 
138 
226 

217 

254 
245 
290 
288 

308 
285 
238 
226 

227 
188 
111 
58 

17 
5 
3 

31 



217 
146 
114 
254 

454 

401 
426 
477 
527 
531 

547 
433 
492 
396 

3S0 
273 
242 
81 



205 



53 

92 

103 

490 

1,420 

1,657 
1,975 
2,619 
3,262 



5,121 
6,047 
8,853 
8,815 

8,242 
5,664 
3,143 
1,181 

316 
100 
43 
569 



2 
'599 



521 
242 
237 
684 
1,258 

1,075 
856 

887 
820 

717 



1,031 
843 

911 
741 

t;:.2 

336 

239 
130 
112 



514 
237 
226 
661 
1,198 

1,023 
808 

847 
774 
092 

857 

654 

1,014 

830 

S99 
732 
643 
329 

236 
128 
108 
658 



7 
5 
10 
13 
16 

16 
12 
16 
14 
5 

11 
6 

11 
7 

9 
5 



83,650 



4,175 



6,642 



14, 513 



14,068 



MALE. 



Under 5 years . . . 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years 

15 to 19 years 

20 to 24 years 

25 to 29 years 

30 to 34 years 

35 to 39 years 

40 to 44 years 

45 to 49 years 

50 to 54 years 

55 to 59 years 

60 to 64 years 

65 to 69 years 

70 to 74 years 

75 to 79 years 

80 to 84 years 

85 to 89 years 

90 to 94 years 

95 to 99 years 

100 years or over. 
Age unknown... 

All ages... 



2,426 
1,424 
1,143 
1,919 
4,034 

4,437 
4,913 
6,117 
7,307 
8,045 

9,958 
9,676 
11,802 
11,284 

10,808 
7,727 
4,480 
1,755 

601 

183 

100 

1,678 



2,151 
1,305 
994 
1,548 
3,258 

3,758 
4,364 
5,525 
6,761 
7,576 

9,379 
9,222 
11,127 
10,728 

10,239 
7,242 
4,089 
1,550 

464 

103 

36 

1,320 



102,739 



2,101 
1,242 
926 
1,273 
2,331 

2,544 
2,885 
3,489 
4,197 
4,653 

5,368 
4,428 
4,314 
3,955 

4,081 

3,060 

1,972 

7% 

274 
42 
15 

584 



54,530 



1,339 
872 
693 
880 

1,552 

1,606 
1,733 
2,087 
2,411 
2,755 

3,418 
2, 
3, 
2,956 

3,250 

2,497 

1,634 

658 

219 
34 
11 

410 



37,002 



355 

168 
117 
172 
357 

511 



1,190 
1,288 

1,292 
891 

776 
554 

393 

218 

101 

43 

22 
2 
2 

51 



10,088 



114 

48 
65 
126 

148 
169 

174 
224 
200 

233 
222 
176 
162 

171 
139 
75 
42 

11 
3 
2 

14 



2,812 



156 
296 

279 
284 
342 
372 
404 

425 
332 
364 
283 

207 

206 

102 

53 

22 
3 



103 



24 
55 
59 
269 
900 

1,183 
1,450 
2,001 
2,513 

2, 

3,955 
4,754 
6,760 
6,727 

6,114 

4,148 

2,095 

744 

187 
59 
21 

353 



31 
29 
35 
51 
55 

56 
40 
53 
46 

44 
34 
22 
10 

3 

2 



383 



275 
119 
149 

371 
776 

679 
549 
592 
546 



579 
454 
675 
556 

569 
4S5 
391 
205 



64 
358 



271 
116 
142 
353 
718 

633 
509 
557 
502 
444 

556 
444 
664 
545 

558 
478 
382 
201 

136 
79 
62 

350 



246 



15 

12 
6 
11 
12 
5 

7 
2 
5 
5 



132 



Having one parent native and the other foreign, or one parent unknown and the other either native or 
foreign. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



297 



Table 21 . — Paupers in almshouses during 1904, by color, nativity, sex, and age — Cont'd. 

FEMALE. 



Age. 



White. 



Native. 



2 b 



Colored. 



Under 5 years. 
6 to 9 years.. 
10 to 14 years.. 
15 to 19 years.. 
20 to 24 years.. 
25 to 29 years.. 

30 to 34 years.. 
35 to 39 years.. 
40 to 44 years.. 
45 to 49 years.. 

50 to 54 years.. 
55 to 59 years.. 
60 to 64 years.. 
65 to 69 years.. 

70 to 74 years.. 
75 to 79 years.. 
80 to 84 years.. 
85 to 89 years.. 



90 to 94 years. 

95 to 99 years 

100 years or over. . 
Age unknown 



2,209 
1,092 
833 
1,811 
2,833 
2,531 

2,623 
2,749 
2,957 



3,545 
3,269 
4,509 
4,215 

4,376 
3,326 
2,381 
1,099 

416 
144 
94 



1,963 
969 
745 
1,498 
2,351 
2,135 

2,316 
2,454 
2,683 
2,801 

3,240 
3,054 
4,153 
3,928 

4,034 

3,070 

2,120 

968 

314 



1,900 
917 
700 
1,265 
1,818 
1,645 

1,771 
1,817 
1,910 
1,974 

2,044 
1,726 
2,034 
1,812 

1,880 

1,525 

1,046 

521 

182 
53 
24 

556 



1,229 

663 

537 

934 

1,345 

1,207 

1,269 
1,'" 
1,377 
1,474 

1,562 
1,363 
1,646 
1,496 

1,594 

1,330 

874 

455 

152 
45 
18 

418 



315 

127 
74 
160 
215 
247 

275 
273 
312 
291 

285 
199 
198 
139 

117 
79 
56 
22 



1 
2 
19 



43 
73 
100 



17 



158 
122 

142 
135 
155 

127 

122 
101 
128 
113 

113 
67 
80 
28 



29 
37 
44 
221 
520 
474 

525 
618 
749 
801 

1,166 

1, 

2,093 

2, 

2,128 

1,516 

1,048 

437 

129 
41 
22 

216 



246 
123 
88 
313 
482 
396 

307 
295 
274 
248 

305 
215 
356 
287 

342 
256 
261 
131 

102 
50 
48 

310 



243 
121 
84 
308 
480 
390 

299 
290 
272 
248 

301 
210 
350 
285 

341 
254 
261 
128 

100 
49 
46 

308 



All ages.. 



51,359 



22,326 



3,417 1,363 



16,195 



5,435 



5,368 



65812°— vol 34—11- 



-20 



298 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 22. — Conjugal condition of paupers in almshouses during 1904, by color, nativity, 

race, and sex. 

[Compiled from Paupers In Almshouses, Twelfth Census, 1904, pp. 152 to 154.] 
TOTAL. 



Color, nativity, and race. 



Number. 



Per cent. 



White 

Native 

Native parentage 

Foreign parentage . . . 

Mixed parentage a. . . 

Parentage unknown. 

Foreign-bom 

Nativity unknown . . . 

Colored 

Negro 

Mongolian 

Indian 

Aggregate 



148, 663 

83,650 

59,328 

13,505 

4,175 

6,642 

63,434 

1,579 

14, 513 

14,068 

253 

192 



77, 470 

49,260 

33,924 

8,988 

2,695 

3,653 

27,724 

486 

7,581 

7,332 

137 

112 



23,759 

12,740 

9,575 

1,757 

543 

865 

10, 908 

111 

2,310 

2,258 

19 

33 



41,736 

18, 611 

14,133 

2,526 

840 

1,112 

22,872 

253 

3,644 

3,599 

5 

40 



1,943 

1,417 

,123 

166 



519 

7 

113 

113 



3,755 

1,622 

573 

68 

38 

943 

1,411 

722 

865 

766 

92 

7 



52.1 
58.9 
57.2 
66.6 
64.6 
55.0 
43.7 
30.8 
52.2 
52.1 
54.1 
58. 3 



16.0 
15.2 
16.1 
13.0 
13.0 
13.0 
17.2 

7.0 
15.9 
16.1 

7.5 
17.2 



28.1 
22.3 
23.8 
18.7 
20.1 
16.8 
36.1 
16.0 
25.1 
25.6 
2.0 
20.8 



163, 176 



85,051 



26,069 



45,380 2,056 



4,620 



52.1 



16.0 



27.8 1.3 



2.6 
1.9 
1.0 
.5 

.9 
14.2 

2.2 
45.7 

6.0 

5.4 
36.4 

3.7 



2.8 



MALE. 



White 

Native 

Native parentage . . . 

. Foreign parentage . . 

/ Mixed parentage a. . 

Parentage unknown 

Foreign-born 

Nativity unknown 

Colored 

Negro 

Mongolian 

Indian 

Aggregate 



102, 739 


57, 678 


15,067 


25,690 


1,340 


2,964 


56.1 


14.7 


25.0 


1.3 


54,530 


33,837 


7,494 


11,001 


916 


1,282 


62.1 


13.7 


20.2 


1.7 


37,002 


22, 184 


5,514 


8,131 


720 


453 


60.0 


14.9 


22.0 


1.9 


10,088 


7,053 


1,145 


1,718 


110 


62 


69.9 


11.4 


17.0 


1.1 


2,812 


1,883 


333 


530 


35 


31 


67.0 


11.8 


18.9 


1.2 


4,628 


2,717 


502 


622 


51 


736 


58.7 


10.9 


13.4 


1.1 


47,239 


23, 556 


7,514 


14, 554 


420 


1,195 


49.9 


15.9 


30.8 


.9 


970 


285 


59 


135 


4 


487 


29.4 


6.1 


13.9 


.4 


9,078 


4,907 


1,485 


2,012 


75 


599 


54.1 


16.3 


22.2 


.8 


8,700 


4,684 


1,453 


1,988 


75 


500 


53.8 


16.7 


22.9 


.9 


246 


135 


15 


4 




92 


54.9 


6.1 


1.6 




132 


88 


17 


20 




7 


66.7 


12.9 


15.1 




111,817 


62,585 


16, 552 


27, 702 


1,415 


3,563 


56.0 


14.8 


24.8 


1.2 



2.9 
2.3 
1.2 
.6 
1.1 

15.9 
2.5 

50.2 
6.6 
5.7 

37.4 
5.3 



3.2 



FEMALE. 



White 

Native 

Native parentage 

Foreign parentage . . . 

Mixed parentage a. . . 

Parentage unknown. 

Foreign-born 

Nativity unknown 

Colored 

Negro 

Mongolian 

Indian 



Aggregate 51,359 



45, 924 

29, 120 

22, 326 

3,417 

1,363 

2,014 

16, 195 

609 

5,435 

5,368 

7 

00 



19,792 

15,423 

11, 740 

1,935 

812 

936 

4,168 

201 

2,674 

2,648 

2 

24 



22, 466 



8, 692 

5,246 

4,061 

612 

210 

363 

3,394 

52 

S25 

SI 15 

4 

16 



9,517 



16, 046 

7,610 

6,002 

808 

310 

490 

8,318 

118 

1,632 

1,611 

1 

20 



17, 678 



501 
403 
56 
24 
IS 
99 
3 
3S 
3S 



791 
340 
120 
6 
7 
207 
216 
235 
266 



641 1,057 



43.1 
53.0 
52. 6 
56.6 
59.6 
46.5 
25.7 
33.0 
49.2 
49.3 

C) 

CO 



43. 



18.9 

18.0 
18.2 
17.9 
15.4 
18.0 
21.0 

S. 5 
1.5.2 
15.0 

(M 



18.5 



35.0 
26.1 
26.9 
23.7 
22.7 
24.3 
51.4 
19.4 
30.0 
30.0 
(t>) 



34.4 



1.2 



1.7 
1.2 
.5 
.2 
.5 
10.3 
1.3 
38.6 
4.9 
5.0 



i Having one parent native and the other foreign, or one parent unknown and the other either native 
or foreign. 
G Per cent not shown when base is less than 100. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



299 



Table 23. — Foreign-born paupers admitted to almshouses during 1904, by sex, race, 
years in the United States, and main geographic divisions. 

[From Paupers in Almshouses, Twelfth Census, 1904, pp. 103-104.] 





$ 
o 

E-i 


Years of residence in the United States. 


Division, sex, and race. 


flg, 

P 




CI 


CTj 


to 

s 


i 

10 


1 
to 


>> 


i 

00 


i 

as 


o 

is 

Is 

o 


i 

1 


CONTINENTAL UNITED 
STATES. 

North Atlantic division. 
White 


17, 678 
87 

15 
2 


336 
4 


346 

10 


330 
5 
1 


257 
1 


203 
1 
1 


203 
2 


135 


117 


123 
1 


102 
1 
1 


13,311 
27 

10 
2 


2,215 




35 








2 










































Total 


17,782 


340 


356 


336 


258 


205 


205 


135 


117 


124 


104 


13,350 


2,252 






White 


12,523 

66 

15 

2 


251 
3 


246 

10 


235 
3 
1 


180 

1 


125 


132 


86 


76 


87 

1 


67 
1 


9,538 
14 

10 
2 


1,500 




34 




1 








2 












































12,606 


254 


256 


239 


181 


126 


132 


86 


76 


88 


68 


9,564 


1,536 






White 


5,155 
21 


85 

1 


100 


95 
2 


77 


78 
1 


71 
2 


49 


41 


36 


35 

1 


3,773 
13 


715 




1 






































































5,176 


86 


100 


97 


77 


79 


73 


49 


41 


36 


36 


3,786 


716 






South Atlantic division. 
White 


694 
8 
1 


8 


8 


8 


10 


9 


12 


5 


5 

1 


5 
1 


4 


538 
5 


82 




1 










1 






























































Total 


703 


8 


8 


8 


11 


9 


12 


5 


6 


6 


4 


543 


83 






White 


578 
7 
1 


6 


7 


5 


10 


8 


11 


4 


5 
1 


3 

1 


2 


443 
4 


74 




1 










1 
































































586 


6 


7 


5 


11 


8 


11 


4 


6 


4 


2 


447 


75 






White 


116 
1 


2 


1 


3 




1 


1 


1 




2 


2 


95 
1 


8 
























































































117 


2 


1 


3 




1 


1 


1 




2 


2 


96 


8 






North Central division. 
White 


7,655 

17 

1 


46 


144 

1 


247 
2 


113 
1 


85 


90 

1 


61 


46 


60 
1 


30 


4,915 
8 


1,818 




3 








1 
























































Total 


7,673 


46 


145 


249 


114 


85 


91 


61 


46 


61 


30 


4,923 


1,822 






White 


~~ 6, 321 

13 

1 


40 


106 


193 
1 


89 


68 


68 


50 


37 


55 
1 


28 


,4,063 
8 


1,524 




3 


















1 


























































6,335 


40 


106 


194 


89 


68 


68 


50 


37 


56 


28 


4,071 


1,528 






White 


1,334 
4 


■ 6 


38 
1 


54 
1 


24 
1 


17 


22 
1 


11 


9 


5 


2 


852 


294 














































































1,338 


6 


39 


55 


25 


17 


23 


11 


9 


5 


2 


852 


294 







300 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 23. — Foreign-born paupers admitted to almshouses during 1904, by sex, race, 
years in the United States, and main geographic divisions — Continued. 





•2 

o 


Years of residence In the United States. 


Division, sex, and race. 


SB 

a >*• 

D 


& 

oj 


9 

>> 


w 

as 
oj 
>. 
CO 




E 

aj 


I 

OJ 


E 

03 
OJ 
>> 


to 

u 

00 


E 

03 
OJ 
>• 

as 


M 
O 

03 OJ 
OJ > 

o 


1 


CONTINENTAL UNITED 

states — 'continued . 

South Central division. 

White 


490 
4 


4 


53 


11 


4 


6 


8 


5 


3 


6 


1 


275 
2 


114 






















































































Total 


494 


4 


53 


11 


4 


6 


8 


5 


3 


6 


1 


277 








White 


425 
4 


2 


46 


10 


3 


6 


7 


5 


3 


6 


1 


236 
2 


























































































429 


2 


46 


10 


3 


6 


7 


5 


3 


6 


1 


238 








White 


65 


2 


7 


1 


1 




1 










39 


14 




































































































65 


2 


7 


1 


1 




1 










39 


14 














Western division. 
White 


4,781 
16 
187 
28 


27 
1 
2 


103 
1 
9 
2 


86 

8 
2 


73 
1 
9 
3 


58 


53 


49 
1 


48 


37 


28 


2,328 

6 

22 

4 


1,891 
6 






3 

2 


3 
1 


3 






128 






2 


12 












Total 


5,012 


30 


115 


96 


86 


63 


57 


50 


51 


37 


30 


2,360 


2,037 




White 


4,356 
15 
182 
27 


26 
2 


99 

1 
7 
2 


75 

7 
2 


65 
1 
9 
3 


52 


51 


48 
1 


42 


33 


27 


2,117 
6 
22 
4 


1,721 








3 

1 


3 

1 


3 






126 






2 


12 














4,580 


28 


109 


84 


78 


56 


55 


49 


45 


33 


29 


2,149 


1,865 




White 


425 
1 
5 

1 


1 
1 


4 


11 


8 


6 


2 


1 


6 


4 


1 


211 


170 








2 


1 


















2 






1 










































432 


2 


6 


12 


8 


7 


2 


1 


6 


4 


1 


211 


172 






recapitulation. 
White 


31,298 

132 

204 

30 


421 
5 
2 


654 
12 
9 
2 


682 
7 
9 
2 


457 
3 
10 
3 


361 
1 
4 
2 


366 
3 
3 
1 


255 
1 


219 
1 
3 


231 
3 


165 
1 
1 
2 


21, 367 
48 
32 
6 


6,120 
47 






131 




12 












Total 


31,664 


428 


677 


700 


473 


368 


373 


256 


223 


234 


169 


21,453 


6,310 




White 


24,203 
105 
199 
29 


325 
3 
2 


504 
11 
7 
2 


518 
4 
8 
2 


347 
2 

10 
3 


259 


269 


193 
1 


163 
1 
3 


184 
3 


125 

1 
2 


16,397 

34 

32 

6 


4,919 




46 




4 
1 


3 

1 


129 




12 














24, 536 


330 


524 


532 


362 


264 


273 


194 


167 


187 


128 


16,469 


5,106 




White 


7,095 

27 

5 

1 


96 
2 


150 

1 
2 


164 
3 
1 


110 
1 


102 
1 


97 
3 


62 


56 


47 


40 
1 


4,970 
14 


1,201 
1 












2 






1 










































7,128 


98 


153 


168 


111 


104 


100 


62 


56 


47 


41 


4,984 


1,204 





Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



301 



Table 24. — Inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, nativity, race and sex, States 
and Territories, and geographical divisions, June 1, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, 1890, Part II, pp. 879, 880, and 881.] 

BOTH SEXES. 





1 


White. 


Colored. 




"3 
o 


Native. 


e 

o 

.1 

£ 
o 

ft 


i 

o 
as 

55 


3 

o 


i 


6 
% 
.9 

3 


I 
1 
& 

r-» 




States and Territories. 


"a 

o 


1 

a 

3 
a 

e 

a 


<v a 

i- be 

8 

o 


£ 

S 
a 
£ 

OS 

FN 


5 E< 

p 

as 


§ 
a 




333 

367 

243 

5,931 

918 

1,234 

36,661 

2,941 

13,767 


330 

367 

241 

5,796 

873 

1,171 

35,634 

2,924 

12,739 


286 

311 

213 

4,044 

536 

908 

24,419 

1,997 

9,400 


191 
131 
92 

1,293 
193 
290 

6,234 
548 

4,171 


8 

15 

9 

443 

26 

46 

1,649 

117 

879 


9 

86 

57 

1,424 

59 

331 

10,309 

896 

2,479 


78 


35 


9 

5 

9 

171 

64 

79 

932 

93 

466 


3 


3 










80 51 
■» 55 19 
884 1,581 
258 273 
24l! 184 
6,22710,283 
436 834 










2 

135 

45 

63 

1,027 

17 

1,028 


2 

132 

45 

56 

1,011 

17 

457 














3 












6 
8 
















1,871 


2,873 


2 




■>f>9 






North Atlantic divi- 


62,395 


60,075 


42,114 


13,143 


3,192 


15, 649 


in.ian 


16, 133 


1,828 


2,320 


1,723 


16 














213 

3,274 

1,725 

648 

82 

254 

723 

738 

92 


210 

2,991 

1,419 

599 

82 

247 

598 

716 

47 


187 

2,209 

1,147 

489 

49 

242 

556 

636 

33 


55 
873 
392 
347 

29 
212 
123 
376 

20 


4 

119 

43 

4 

2 

9 

22 

1 


29 
560 
156 

13 
5 

3 

27 


99 
657 
556 
125 

15 

28 
421 
211 

12 


12 

673 

207 

93 

33 

5 

19 

63 

14 


11 
109 
65 
17 


3 

283 

306 

49 


3 

283 

306 

49 










































23 

17 


7 
125 
22 
45 


7 
125 
22 
45 
























Plorida 
















South Atlantic divi- 


7,749 


6,909 


5,548 


2,427 


204 


793 


2,124 


1,119 


242 


840 


840 
















Ohio 


8,588 

2,642 

6,336 

1,933 

1,787 

1,497 

828 

3,928 

13 

5 

318 

374 


8,204 

2,426 

6,257 

1,874 

1,738 

1,380 

826 

3,837 

12 

6 

317 

359 


6,695 

1,981 

3,591 

1,089 

1,159 

877 

688 

2,565 

6 

2 

234 

237 


2,160 
468 
891 
300 
151 
118 
63 
666 
2 
2 
56 
39 


404 
48 

163 
58 
34 
48 
18 

215 


1,689 
189 
899 
252 
537 
295 
120 
963 
2 


2,442 

1,276 

1,638 

479 

437 

416 

487 

721 

2 


1,284 

310 

2,253 

579 

341 

435 

115 

1,050 

6 

3 

64 

96 


225 
135 
413 
206 
238 
68 
23 
222 


384 

216 

79 

59 

49 

117 

2 

91 

1 


368 
145 
72 
37 
14 
12 
2 
91 


16 










71 




7 










90 








3>> 








105 










Miwmiri 














1 














10 
1 


46 
24 


122 
173 


19 
26 


i 

15 


1 
15 
























North Central divi- 


28,249 


27,235 


19,124 


4,916 


999 


5,016 


8,193 


6,536 


1,575 


1,014 


757 


23 




■>34 








1,627 
881 
316 
230 

3,350 
.705 


1,541 
685 
305 
183 

3,018 
658 


1,166 
622 
210 
172 

2,101 
474 


526 
284 
51 
60 
712 
192 


56 
16 
10 
8 
167 
18 


288 

83 

9 

17 

467 
70 


296 
239 
140 
87 
765 
194 


336 

43 

24 

7 

731 

102 


39 
20 
71 
4 
186 
82 


86 
196 

11 

47 
332 

47 


86 
196 

10 

46 
331 

45 






















1 








1 




1 










? 












40 


40 


20 


11 


1 


2 


6 


20 




























South Central dfvi- 


7,149 


6,430 


4,765 


1,836 


266 


936 


1,727 


1,263 


402 


719 


714 


1 




■1 








66 
20 
• 731 
131 
16 
36 
49 


65 
20 
686 
106 
16 
36 
47 


33 
10 
513 
91 
8 
14 
44 


7 
5 
133 
53 
6 
7 


4 
2 
48 
1 

4 
6 


13 
2 
122 
2 
2 
3 

16 


9 
I 

210 
35 

22 


32 
10 
146 
14 
8 
9 
3 




1 


1 


















27 
1 


45 
25 


8 






37 








•>■) 












Utah 


13 














2 








? 














341 

163 

4,815 


334 

162 

4,715 


195 

101 

3,710 


38 
28 

885 


12 

1 
317 


34 

22 

1,557 


111 

50 

951 


100 

47 

902 


39 
14 
103 


7 

1 

100 


4 
1 
54 




2 


1 








1 


6 


39 






Western division .. 


6,368 


6,187 


4,719 


1,162 


395 


1,773 


1,389 


1,271 


197 


181 


68 


1 


8 


104 


The United States . 


111,910 


106,836 


76,270 


23,484 


5,056 


24, 167 


23,563 


26,322 


4,244 


5,074 


4,102 


41 


8 


923 



302 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 24.— Inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, nativity, race and sex, States and 
Territories, and geographical divisions, June 1, 1890 — Continued. 

MALE. 







White. 


Colored. 




13 
o 

Eh 


Native. 


B 

O 

-a 

a 

o 
Ph 


i 

o 


la 
o 
Eh 


■r. 


ID 

s 

1 

o 


I 




States and Territories. 


3 
o 


1 



S 

a 

g 

Ph 


a 
o 


s 

Ph 


u 

.a p 

°J 

as 


a 




106 

182 

129 

2,858 

478 

666 

18,183 

1,348 

7,426 


105 

182 

128 

2^95 

461 

628 

17,629 

1,335 

6,890 


90 

152 

111 

1,944 

284 

484 

12,273 

897 

5,312 


63 
43 
47 
539 
77 
116 
3,397 
267 
2,561 


3 

13 

3 

214 

10 

25 

768 

52 

605 


3 

59 

28 

683 

33 

185 

4,827 

383 

1,315 


21 

37 

33 

508 

164 

158 

3,281 

195 

831 


16 

28 

9 

757 

133 

93 

4,853 

403 

1,425 


2 
8 
94 
44 
51 
503 
35 
153 


1 


l 


















1 
63 
17 
38 

654 
13 

536 


l 

61 
17 
31 

541 
13 

233 














? 












6 
7 

"i 








6 








301 






North Atlantic divi- 


31,376 


30,153 


21,547 


7,110 


1,693 


7,516 


5,228 


7,716 


890 


1,223 


898 


16 




110 








107 

1,226 

717 

147 

22 
110 
309 
313 

40 


106 

1,153 

574 

124 

22 
103 
244 
301 

26 


96 
816 
445 

64 

22 
100 
230 
272 

17 


20 

256 
127 
43 
7 
91 
34 
147 
9 


2 

42 

8 

1 


9 

206 

41 

3 

5 


64 

312 

269 

7 

10 

9 

193 

108 

7 


4 

321 

106 

55 


7 
16 
23 
15 


1 

73 
143 
23 


1 
73 
143 
23 










































3 
13 
20 

9 


1 
9 


7 
65 
12 
14 


7 
66 
12 
14 










2 
4 
1 


1 

13 
































South Atlantic divi- 


2,991 


2,653 


2,051 


734 


60 


278 


979 


531 


71 


338 


338 
















Ohio 


4,422 

1,430 

3,220 

855 

919 

786 

427 

1,924 

7 

3 

153 

229 


4,205 

1,294 

3,180 

815 

907 

675 

427 

1,869 

7 

3 

152 

220 


3,485 
995 

1,824 
388 
556 
446 
353 

1,129 
1 


1,191 
238 
434 
69 
58 
33 
23 
263 
1 


188 
26 
83 
20 
10 
16 
6 
74 


697 
103 
397 

77 
240 
127 

51 
478 


1,409 
628 
910 
222 
248 
270 
273 
314 


561 

193 

1,130 

263 

183 

193 

62 

607 

6 

3 

29 

73 


159 
106 
226 
164 
168 
36 
12 
133 


217 
136 
40 
40 
12 
111 


205 
106 
36 
29 
10 
6 


12 
4 










10 








11 








? 








105 








66 


55 






































111 
137 


19 
26 


3 


24 
12 


65 
99 


12 
10 


1 
9 


1 
9 
























North Central divi- 


14,375 


13,754 


9,425 


2,355 


426 


2,206 


4,438 


3,303 


1,026 


621 


457 


16 




148 








658 
449 
139 
116 
1,377 
379 


611 
328 
135 
85 
1,232 
340 


395 
293 
100 
75 
828 
244 


135 
133 
34 
42 
332 
102 


24 
10 
10 


80 

45 

6 


156 
105 
60 
33 
192 
98 


195 
31 
12 
7 

383 
90 


21 
4 

23 
3 

21 
6 


47 

121 

4 

31 
145 

39 


47 

121 

4 

31 
144 

39 


































45 
9 


259 
35 


1 




















28 


28 


16 


9 


1 


2 


4 


12 




























South Central divi- 


3,146 


2,759 


1,951 


787 


99 


427 


638 


730 


78 


387 


386 


1 












51 
18 
317 
40 
15 
28 
28 


51 
18 
314 
23 
15 
28 
26 


23 

8 

206 

10 
8 

14 

25 


7 
3 

58 
6 
6 
7 


4 
2 
12 
1 

4 
4 


10 
2 

23 
2 
2 
3 
8 


2 

1 

113 

1 

13 


28 
10 
104 
13 
7 
9 
1 






























4 


3 

17 


3 














17 












Utah 


5 














2 








?. 








216 

82 

2,562 


211 

81 

2,471 


100 

44 

1,902 


23 

14 

373 


8 

1 

176 


19 

5 

782 


50 
24 
571 


92 
32 
500 


19 

5 

69 


S 

1 

91 


3 

1 

49 




2 










1 


6 


35 






Western division. . . 


3,357 


3,238 


2,340 


497 


212 


856 


775 


796 


102 


119 


56 


1 


8 


54 


The United States.. 


55,245 


62,657 


37,314 


11,483 


2,490 


11,283 


12,058 


13,076 


2,167 


2,688 


2,136 


33 


8 


512 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



303 



Table 24. — Inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, nativity, race andsex, Statesand 
Territories, and geographical divisions, Junel, 1890 — Continued. 



FEMALE. 





1 

I 


White. 


Colored. 


- 


o 


Native. 


a 

o 

a 
s 

o 


i 

03 


o 


CO 

1 
to 


I 
.9 
a 
o 


i 




States and Territories. 


1 
o 


I 
a 
a 

3 

a 
£ 
Ph 


1 

CD 

■2 

1 

OS 

P. 

□ 

O 


a 

e 
a 
a 

03 
Ph 


8 
a 

§. 

!§ 

o fl 

O ^ 
03 

a 
O 


a 

l-H 




227 

185 

114 

3,073 

440 

668 

18,478 

1,593 

6,341 


225 

185 

113 

3,001 

412 

543 

18,005 

1,589 

5,849 


196 

159 

102 

2,100 

252 

424 

12,146 

1,100 

4,088 


128 

88 

45 

754 

116 

174 

2,837 

281 

1,610 


5 

2 

6 

229 

16 

21 

881 

65 

274 


6 

26 

29 

741 

26 

146 

5,482 

513 

1,164 


57 

43 

22 

376 

94 

83 

2,946 

241 

1,040 


20 

23 

10 

824 

140 

91 

5,430 

431 

1,448 


9 

3 

1 

77 

20 

28 

429 

58 

313 


2 


2 








New Hampshire 










1 

72 
28 
25 

473 
4 

492 


1 
71 

28 
25 

470 
4 

224 














1 














l 




2 










268 




North Atlantic di- 


31,019 


29, 922 


20,567 


6,033 


1,499 


8,133 


4,902 


8,417 


938 


1,097 


825 


l 




271 






106 

2,048 

1,008 

501 

60 

144 

414 

425 

52 


104 

1,838 

845 

475 

60 
144 
354 
415 

21 


92 

1,393 

702 

435 

27 
142 
326 
364 

16 


35 
617 
265 
304 

22 
121 

89 
229 

11 


2 

77 
35 
3 


20 
354 
115 

10 


35 

345 

287 

118 

5 

19 

228 

103 

5 


8 

352 

101 

38 

33 

2 

6 

43 

5 


4 
93 
42 

2 


2 

210 

163 

26 


2 
210 
163 
26 
















Distriet of Columbia 


























2 
7 
18 


2 

14 
















22 
8 


60 
10 
31 


60 
10 
31 




































South Atlantic di- 


4,758 


4,256 


3,497 


1,693 


144 


515 


1,145 


588 


171 


502 


502 


















4,166 

1,212 

3,116 

1,078 

868 

711 

401 

2,004 

6 

2 

165 

145 


3,999 

1,132 

3,077 

1,059 

831 

705 

399 

1,968 

5 

2 

165 

139 


3,210 
986 

1,767 
701 
603 
431 
335 

1,436 

5 

2 

123 

100 


969 

230 

457 

231 

93 

85 

40 

403 

1 

2 

37 

13 


216 
22 
80 
38 
24 
32 
12 

141 


992 
86 
502 
175 
297 
168 
69 
485 
2 


1,033 
648 
728 
257 
189 
146 
214 
407 
2 


723 
117 
1,123 
316 
158 
242 
53 
443 


66 
29 
187 
42 
70 
32 
11 
89 


167 
80 
39 
19 
37 
6 
2 
36 
1 


163 
39 
36 
8 
4 
6 
2 
36 


4 
3 




















































1 


















7 
1 


22 
12 


57 
74 


35 
23 


7 
16 














6 


6 
















North Central divi- 


13,874 


13,481 


9,699 


2,561 


573 


2,810 


3,755 


3,233 


549 


393 


300 


7 




86 








969 
432 
177 
114 
1,973 
326 


930 
357 
170 
98 
1,786 
318 


771 
329 
110 
97 
1,273 
230 


391 

151 

17 

18 

380 

90 


32 
6 

8 

112 

9 


208 

38 

3 

17 

208 
35 


140 
134 
90 
54 
573 
96 


141 
12 
12 

348 
12 


18 
16 
48 
1 
165 
76 


39 
75 
7 
16 
187 
8 


39 
75 

6 
15 
187 

6 






















1 




1 












■?. 












12 


12 


4 


2 






2 


8 
































Sou th Central divi- 


4,003 


3,671 


2,814 


1,049 


167 


509 


1,089 


533 


324 


332 


328 






4 








15 

2 

414 

91 
1 
8 

21 


14 

2 

372 

83 
1 
8 

21 


10 

2 

307 

81 






3 


7 


4 




1 


1 










2 

75 
47 












36 


99 


97 
34 


42 
1 
1 


23 
1 


42 
8 


5 






37 




8 
















Utah 












8 














19 




2 


8 


9 


2 




























125 

81 

2,253 


123 

81 

2,-244 


95 

57 

1,808 


15 

14 

512 


4 
141 


15 

17 

775 


61 
26 
380 


8 
15 
402 


20 

9 

34 


2 


1 






1 








9 


5 






4 






Western division. . . 


3,011 


2,949 


2,379 


665 


183 


917 


614 


475 


95 


62 


12 






50 


The United States. 


56,665 


64,279 


38,956 


12,001 


2,566 


12,884 


11,505 


13,246 


2,077 


2,386 


1,967 


8 


... 


411 



304 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 25. — Foreign-born white inmates of benevolent institutions, by nationality, with 
corresponding figures for population at large, and number of inmates to each million of 
population for the same race and nationality, June 1, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I, p. 325.] 



Nationalities. 


Population. 


Inmates. 


Number. 


Ratio. 




973,488 

76, 457 

1,046 

4,619 

15, 809 


1,211 
78 
6 
19 
79 


1,244 




1,020 




5,736 




4,113 




4,997 








1,071,419 


1,393 


1,300 








907, 259 

242,197 

100,065 

946 

1,871,339 

123,185 
22, 629 
118,097 
132,523 
113,028 

2,784,693 

1,877 

81,821 

62,409 

183,342 

2,881 

322,660 

147,416 

15,654 

182,614 


2,424 
666 
108 


2,672 




2,750 




1,079 








11,148 

321 
46 
71 
164 
510 

5,704 

9 

102 

238 

941 


5,957 




2,605 




2,033 




601 




1,238 




4,512 




2,048 




4,795 


Holland 


1,247 




3,814 


Italy 


5,161 








319 
265 
22 

614 

27 
20 
646 

277 
9 
13 
98 


989 




1,798 




1,405 




3,362 








6,020 
478,024 

104,060 
1,823 
9,170 
12,544 


3,322 




1,351 




2,662 




4,937 




1,418 




7,813 








8,027,276 


24,762 


3,085 








2,070 

2,045 

379 

2,186 


4 
14 

4 
51 


1,932 




- 6,846 




10,554 




23,330 








6,680 


73 


10,928 








1,535 
5,938 


9 
43 


6,863 




7,241 




1,958 
1,112 


16 
2 


8,172 




1,799 








3,070 


18 


5,863 








5,484 
465 


24 


4,376 














9,121,867 


26,322 


2,886 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



305 



Table 26. — Native-horn white inmates of benevolent institutions of foreign father ot 
mother by nationalities, June 1, 1890. 

[Frbm Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I, p. 326.] 



Birthplaces of foreign parents'. 


Total. 


Foreign 
fathers. 


Foreign 
mothers. 


Canada (English} 


308 
14 
17 
29 


174 
11 
12 
14 


134 




3 




5 




15 








368 


211 


157 








731 

195 

49 

2,012 

4 

2 

6 

15 

171 

1,112 

2 

1 

18 

1 

212 

6 

3 

8 

18 

19 

43 

39 

6 


484 

126 

25 

1,222 

4 

2 

3 

11 

143 

851 

2 
1 

11 
1 

41 


247 




69 


Wales 


24 




790 












3 




4 




28 




261 










Holland 


7 






Italy 


171 




6 




1 
6 
17 

14 
22 
34 
6 


2 




2 




1 




5 




21 




5 












4,673 


3,027 


1,646 








2 
1 


2 
1 














3 


3 










1 




1 










1 
2 
1 


1 






2 






1 










4 


1 


3 








7 


3 


4 




5,056 


3,245 


1,81* 







306 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 27. — Political condition of foreign-born males tl years of age and over who are 
inmates of benevolent institutions, by color and race, June 1, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Parti, p. 332.J 





Number. 


Per cent.o 


Color. 


Total. 


Aliens. 


Natu- 
ralized. 


Natu- 
raliza- 
tion 
papers 
fifed. 


Not 
stated. 


Aliens. 


Natu- 
ralized. 


Natu- 
raliza- 
tion 
papers 
filed. 


White 


13,076 

47 


5,145 
37 


5,225 
10 


191 


2,515 


48.72 
78.72 


49.47 
21.28 


1.81 
















13,123 


5,182 


5,235 


191 


2,515 


48.85 


49.35 


1.80 







a The percentages are calculated on the total basis of 10,608 reported, omitting 2,515 not stated. 



Table 28.— Ability to speak English of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, 
nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, Part I, p. 334.] 
BOTH SEXES. 





Number. 


Per cent.a 


Color, nativity, and race. 


Total. 


Speak 
English. 


Do not 

speak 

English. 


Not 
stated. 


Speak 
English. 


Do not 

speak 

English. 




23,484 

5,056 

24,167 

23,563 


23,220 
4,939 
23, 670 
22,504 


45 
15 
99 
33 


219 

102 

398 

1,026 


99.81 
99.70 
99.58 
99.85 


0.19 




.30 




.42 




.15 








76,270 


74,333 


192 


1,745 


99.74 


.26 








26,322 
4,244 


23,125 
3,386 


2,498 
40 


699 
818 


9Q.25 
98.83 


9.75 




1.17 






White 


106,836 


100,844 


2,730 


3,262 


97.36 


2.64 








4,102 

41 

8 

923 


4,034 

38 

3 

902 


6 
2 
5 

4 


62 

1 


99.85 
95.00 
37.50 
99.56 


.15 




5.00 




62.50 




17 


.44 








5,074 


4,977 


17 


80 


99.66 


.34 






Total 


111,910 


105,821 


2,747 


3,342 


97.47 


2.53 









a The percentages are calculated on the total basis of 108,568 reported, omitting 3,342 not stated. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



307 



Table .28. — Ability to apeak English of in/mates of benevolent institutions, by color^ 
nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890 — Continued. 

MALE. 



- - - 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Color, nativity, and race. 


Total. 


Speak 
English. 


Do not 

speak 
English. 


Not 
stated. 


Speak 
English. 


Do not 

speak 
English. 




11,483 
2,490 
11,283 
12,058 


11,385 
2,461 
11,062 
11,503 


18 
7 
47 
13 


80 
22 
174 
542 


99.84 
99.72 
99.58 
99.89 


0.16 




.28 




.42 




.11 








37,314 


36,411 


85 


818 


99.77 


.23 








13,076 
2,167 


11,345 
1,573 


1,265 
25 


466 
569 


89.97 
98.44 


10.03 




1.56 






White 


52,657 


49,329 


1,375 


1,853 


97.29 


2.71 








2,135 

33 

8 

512 


2,102 

31 

3 

497 


3 
2 
5 
3 


30 


99.86 
93.94 
37.50 
99.40 


.14 




6.06 






62.50 




12 


.60 








2,688 


2,633 


13 


42 


99.51 


.49 








55,245 


51,962 


1,388 


1,895 


97.40 


2.60 







FEMALE. 





12,001 
2,566 
12,884 
11,505 


11,835 
2,478 
12,608 
11,001 


27 
8 
52 
20 


139 

80 
224 
484 


99.77 
99.68 
99.59 
99.82 


0.23 




.32 




.41 




.18 








38,956 


37,922 


107 


927 


99.72 


.28 








13,246 
2,077 


11,780 
1,813 


1,233 
15 


233 
249 


90.52 
99.18 


9.48 




.82 






White 


54,279 


51,515 


1,355 


1,409 


97.44 


2.56 








' 1,967 

8 

411 


1,932 

7 

405 


3 


32 
1 
5 


99.84 
100.00 
99.75 


.16 








1 


.25 








2,386 


2,344 


4 


38 


99.83 


.17 






Total 


56,665 


53,859 


1,359 


1,447 


97.54 


2.46 







308 



The Immigration Commission. 



-Table 29. — Literacy of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, nativity, race, and 

sex, June 1, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I, p. 347.J 
BOTH SE^ES. 





Number. 


Per cent. 


Color, nativity, and race. 


Total. 


Can 

neither 

read nor 

write. 


Can read 
only. 


Can both 
read and 
write." 


Can 

neither 

read nor 

write. 


Can read 
only. 


Can both 

read and 

write.a 




23,484 

5,056 

24, 167 

23, 563 


1,800 

515 

2,321 

4,671 


231 

53 

205 

156 


21,453 
4,488 
21,641 
18,736 


7.67 
10.18 

9.60 
19.82 


0.98 
1.05 
.85 
.66 












One or both parents unknown. . 


79.52 




76, 270 


9,307 


645 


66,318 


12.20 


.85 


86.95 








26,322 
4,244 


4,722 
843 


1,609 
47 


19.991 
3,354 


17.94 
19.86 


6.11 
1.11 












White 


106,836 


14,872 


2,301 


89,663 


13.92 


2.15 










4,102 

41 

8 

923 


1,223 
3 


220 


2,659 

38 

8 

911 


29.82 
7.32 


5.36 


64.82 




92.68 










tnnians 


12 




1.30 
















5,074 


1,238 


220 


3,616 


24.40 


4.34 


71.26 






Total 


111,910 


16, 110 


2,521 


93,279 


14.40 


2.25 









MALE. 





11,483 
2,490 
11,283 
12,058 


793 

239 

1,042 

2,500 


64 
10 
32 
46 


10,626 
2,241 

10,209 
9,512 


6.90 
9.60 
9.24 
20.73 


0.56 
.40 

.28 
.38 


92.54 




90.00 






One or both parents unknown. . 


78.89 




37,314 


4,574 


152 


32,588 


12.26 


.41 


87.33 








13,076 
2,167 


2,037 
502 


629 
25 


10,410 
1,640 


15.58 
23.17 


4.81 
1.15 


79.61 




75.68 






White 


52,557 


7,113 


B06 


44,638 


13.53 


1.53 


84.94 








2,135 

33 

8 

512 


663 
3 


87 


1,385 
30 
8 

505 


31.05 
9.09 


4.08 


64.87 




90.91 








100.00 




7 




1.37 




98.63 












2,688 


673 


87 


1,928 


25.04 


3.24 


71.72 






Total 


55, 245 


7,786 


893 


46,566 


14.09 


1.62 


84.29 







FEMALE. 





12,001 
2,566 
12,884 
11,505 


1,007 

276 

1,279 

2,171 


167 

43 

173 

110 


10,827 
2,247 

11,432 
9,224 


8.39 
10.76 

9.93 
18.87 


1.39 
1.68 
1.34 
.96 


90.22 




87.56 




88.73 


One or both parents unknown. . 


80.17 




38,956 


4,733 


493 


33,730 


12.15 


1.27 


86.58 








13,246 
2,077 


2,685 
341 


980 
22 


9,581 
1,714 


20.27 
16.42 


7.40 
1.06 


72.33 




82.52 






White 


54,279 


7,759 


1,495 


45,025 


14.29 


2.75 


82.96 








1,967 

8 

411 


560 


133 


1,274 

8 

406 


28.47 


6.76 


64.77 




100.00 




5 




1.22 




98.78 












2.3S6 


565 


133 


1,688 


23.68 


5.57 


70.75 






Total 


56,665 


8,324 


1,628 


46,713- 


14.69 


2.87 


82.44 







a Including those not stated. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



309 



Table 30. — Age of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, nativity, race, and sex, 

June 1, 1890. 

[From Crimes, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I, p. 337.] 
BOTH SEXES.0 



Decennial periods. 



White. 



Native born. 



"I 



Colored. 



Under 10 years 

10-19 years 

20-29 years 

30-39 years 

40-49 years 

50-59 years 

60-69 years 

70-79 years 

80-89 years 

90-99 years 

Total.... 



35, 462 
39,251 
8,358 
5,193 
3,918 
3,352 
5,572 
6,591 
2,742 
444 



33,976 
37,247 
7,872 
5,002 
3,783 
3,208 
5,393 
6,371 
2,614 
394 



29,837 
32,007 
4,244 
2,524 
1,429 
1,080 
1,531 
2,052 
961 
147 



1,576 

1,025 

729 

675 

1,121 

1,558 

708 

116 



1,804 

2,385 

272 

143 

68 

CI 

95 

135 

59 

6 



,9,110 

11,278 

1,673 

1,036 

425 

204 

144 

155 

51 

10 



11,720 
9,668 
723 
320 
207 
140 
171 
204 
143 
15 



2,195 
3,083 
3,504 
2,400 
2,314 
2,107 
3,842 
4,245 
1,636 
245 



1,944 

1,557 

124 

78 
40 
21 
20 

74 
17 
2 



1 

2,004 
486 
191 
135 

144 
179 
220 
128 
50 



1,371 

1,277 
378 

182 
131 
144 
176 
218 
128 
50 



110,883 



105,860 



75,812 



23,387 



5,028 



24,086 



23,311 



26,171 



3,877 



5,023 



4,055 



102 

707 

101 

3 

2 



919 



MALE. 



Under 10 years 

10-19 years 

20-29 years 

30-39 years 

40-49 years 

50-59 years 

60-69 years 

70-79 years 

80-89 years 

90-99 years 

Total.... 



19,700 
18,758 
3,317 
2,619 
2,166 
1,893 
2,C28 
2, 626 
897 
107 



54, 711 



18,843 
17, 713 
3,018 
2,500 
2,090 
1,812 
2,554 
2,554 
864 
97 



52,045 



16,527 

15,241 

1,421 

1,167 

723 

570 

592 

603 

222 

25 



4,091 

4,434 

600 

474 
383 
363 
449 
475 
159 
21 



37,09111,449 



1,011 
1,177 
93 
62 
32 
25 
24 
27 
21 



2,475 



4,983 
4,901 
448 
450 
198 
109 
63 
59 
20 
1 



6,442 

4,729 

280 

181 
110 
73 
56 
42 
22 



11,23211,935 



1,189 
1,769 
1,566 
1,310 
1,354 
1,235 
1,951 
1,916 
636 
72 



12,9981,956 



1,127 

703 

31 

23 

13 

7 

11 

35 

6 



857 

1,045 

299 

119 
76 
81 
74 
72 
33 
10 



2,666 



787 
652 
227 
111 
74 
81 
71 
70 
33 
10 



2,116 



59 
379 

65 
2 



FEMALE. 



Under 10 years 

10-19 years 

20-29 years 

30-39 years 

40-49 years 

50-59 years 

60-69 years 

70-79 years 

80-89 years 

90-99 years 

Total.... 



15,762 
20,493 
5,041 
2,574 
1,752 
1,459 
2,944 
3,965 
1,845 
337 



56,172 



15,133 
19,534 
4,854 
2,502 
1,1 
1,396 
2,839 
3,817 
1,750 
297 



53,815 



13,310 

16,766 

2,823 

1,357 

706 

510 

939 

1,449 

739 

122 



38,721 



3,112 
4,242 
976 
551 
346 
312 
672 
1,083 
549 
95 



11,938 



793 

1,208 

179 

81 
36 
36 
71 
108 
38 



2,553 



4,127 

6,377 

1,225 

586 

227 
95 
81 



12,854 



5,278 
4,939 
443 
139 
97 
67 
115 
162 
121 
15 



11,376 



1,006 

1,914 

1,938 

1,090 

960 

872 

1,891 

2,329 

1,000 

173 



13,173 



817 
854 
93 
55 
27 
14 
9 
39 
11 
2 



629 

959 
187 
72 
59 
63 
105 
148 
95 
40 



2,357 



584 
625 
151 
71 
57 
63 
105 
148 
95 



1,939 



43 

328 

36 

1 

2 



410 



o Omitting 986 not stated and 41 aged 100 years or over. 



310 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 31. — Conjugal condition of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, nativity, 
race, and sex, June 1, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I.] 

BOTH SEXES. 





Number. 


Per cent.o 


Color, nativity, and race. 


$ 

o 


a 


•6 


•6 
® 

IS 
o 

■d 


T3 

O 

> 

5 


■d 

m 
o 


"bo 

a 
55 


•6 

IB 

i 

a 


1 

o 


T3 

8 

O 
> 

5 




23,484 
5,056 
24, 167 
23,563 


19,437 
4,712 
23,067 
22,636 


1,359 
137 
599 
305 


2,535 
193 
441 
426 


64 
8 

15 
5 


89 

6 

45 

191 


83.08 
93.31 
95.63 
96.85 


5.81 
2.71 
2.48 
1.31 


10.84 
3.82 
1.83 
1.82 


0.27 




.16 




.06 




.02 








76,270 


69,852 


2,400 


3,595 


92 


331 


91.99 


3.16 


4.73 


.12 








26,322 
4,244 


14, 126 
3,882 


3,954 
93 


7,658 
67 


59 
5 


525 
197 


54.76 
95.92 


15.33 
2.30 


29.68 
1.66 


.23 




.12 






White 


106,836 


87,860 


6,447 


11,320 


156 


1,053 


83.06 


6.09 


10.70 


.15 








4,102 

41 

8 

923 


3,174 

39 

8 

916 


314 
1 


509 


6 


99 
1 


79.29 
97.50 
100.00 
99.35 


7.84 
2.50 


12.72 


.15 


















5 


1 




1 


.54 


.11 










5,074 


4,137 


320 


510 


6 


101 


83.19 


6.43 


10.26 


.12 






Total 


111,910 


91, 997 


6,767 


11,830 


162 


1,154 


83.06 


6.11 


10.68 


.15 







MALE. 





11,483 
2,490 
11,283 
12,058 


10,052 
2,393 
10,929 
11,725 


694 
47 
200 
122 


664 
46 

138 
76 


30 
3 
4 


43 

1 

12 

135 


87.87 
96.14 
96.97 
98.34 


6.07 
1.89 
1.77 
1.02 


5.80 
1.85 
1.22 
.64 


0.26 




.12 




.04 


One or both parents unknown 






37,314 


35,099 


1,063 


924 


37 


191 


94.55 


2.86 


2.49 


.10 








13,076 
2,167 


7,481 
1,990 


2,324 
11 


2,917 
12 


30 


324 
154 


58.67 
98.86 


18.22 
.55 


22.87 
.59 


.24 










White 


52,557 


44,570 


3,398 


3,853 


67 


669 


85.90 


6.55 


7.42 


.13 








2,135 

33 

8 

512 


1,772 

31 

8 

508 


171 
1 


115 


5 


72 
1 


85.89 
96.88 
100.00 
99.22 


8.29 
3.12 


5.5S 


.24 


















3 


1 






.59 


.19 














2,688 


2,319 


175 


116 


5 


73 


88.68 


6.69 


4.44 


.19 






Total 


55,245 


46,889 


3,573 


3,969 


72 


742 


86.03 


6.56 


7.28 


.13 







FEMALE. 





12,001 
2,566 
12,884 
11,505 


9,385 
2,3l9 
12, 138 
10,911 


665 
90 
399 
183 


1,871 
147 
303 
350 


34 
5 

11 
5 


46 
5 

33 
56 


78.50 
90.55 
94.45 
95.30 


5.56 
3.51 
3.10 
1.60 


15.65 
5.74 
2.36 
3.06 


0.29 




.20 




.09 




.04 








38, 956 


34, 753 


1,337 


2,671 


55 


140 


89.53 


3.45 


6.88 


.14 








13,246 
2,077 


6,645 
1,892 


1,630 
82 


4,741 
55 


29 
5 


201 
43 


50.94 
93.02 


12.50 
4.03 


36.34 
2.70 


.22 




.25 






White 


54,279 


43,290 


3,049 


7,467 


89 


384 


80.32 


5.66 


13.85 


.17 








1,967 

8 

411 


1,402 

8 

408 


143 


394 


1 


27 


72.27 
100.00 
99.51 


7.37 


20.31 


.05 








2 






1 


.49 


















2,386 


1,818 


145 


394 


1 


28 


77.10 


6.15 


16.71 


.04 






Total 


56,665 


45,108 


3,194 


7,861 


90 


412 


80.19 


5.68 


13.97 


.16 







a The percentages are calculated on the total basis ol 110,756 reported, omitting 1,154 not stated. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



311 



Table 32. — Number and per cent of foreign-born male inmates of benevolent institutions 
who have been in the United States each specified number of years, by color, Junel, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I, p. 353.] 



Color. 



Number. 



Per cent.t 



White 

Colored 

Total 



13,076 
47 



111 



156 



6,704 
15 



4,570 
15 



1.31 

9.37 



1.94 
15.63 



3.13 
9.37 



2.45 
25 



2.28 
3.13 



8.25 
9.37 



78.81 



13,123 



114 



170 



210 



195 



6,719 



4,585 



3.15 



2.28 



78.70 



o The percentages are calculated on the total basis of 8,538 reported, omitting 4,585 not reported. 

Table 33. — Number and per cent of causes of dependence of inmates of benevolent 
institutions, by geographical divisions, June 1, 1890. 

[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I, p. 356.] 

BOTH SEXES. 





Number, a 


Per cent. 




1 

CO 

I 
i 


Geographical divisions. 


Geographical divisions. 


Causes of dependence. 


© 

1 

! 


1 

a 

o 
m 


1 


u 

1 
O 




1 


d 

■§ 
CO 
+a 
■< 

3 
o 
OB 


i 
! 

I 


6 

3 
O 


s 

1 
is 




190 

908 
9,763 
1,117 
1,305 
3,541 

992 
1,399 

665 

3,197 

1,953 

81,484 

144 
24, 149 


63 

716 

5,252 

578 

708 

2,230 

299 

788 

295 

1,923 

1,266 

45,537 

57 

13,546 


4 

31 

1,005 

74 

87 

247 

42 

103 

67 

218 

69 

5,921 

23 

1,362 


90 

112 

2,539 

361 

404 

607 

602 

294 

191 

718 

524 

20, 188 

52 

6,128 


29 

19 
726 

52 

60 
288 

43 
139 

83 
227 

61 
5,322 

11 
1,436 


4 

30 

241 

52 

46 

169 

6 

75 

29 

111 

33 

4,516 

1 

1,677 


33.16 
78.86 
53.79 
51.75 
54.25 
62.98 
30.14 
56.33 
44.36 
60.15 
64.82 
55.88 
39. .58 
56.09 


2.11 
3.41 

10.29 
6.62 
6.67 
6.98 
4.23 
7.36 

10.08 
6.82 
3.53 
7.27 

15.97 
5.64 


47.37 
12.34 
26.01 
32.32 
30.96 
17.14 
60.69 
21.01 
28.72 
22.46 
26.83 
24.78 
36.11 
25.38 


15.26 
2.09 
7.44 
4.66 
4.60 
8.13 
4.33 
9.94 

12.48 
7.10 
3.13 
6.53 
7.64 
5.95 


2.10 




3.30 




2.47 




4.65 




3.52 




4.77 




.61 




5.36 




4.36 




3.47 




1.69 




5.54 




.70 




6.94 


Total 


111,910 


62,395 


7,749 


28,249 


7,149 


6,368 


55.76 


6.92 


25.24 


6.39 


5.69 







o The figures showing assigned causes of dependence do not, when added, form the total number of 
inmates, for the reason that many inmates may be classed under more than one of these subdivisions; 
the same person may be a tramp, a drunkard, crippled, old and infirm, and rheumatic. 



312 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 33. — Number and per cent of causes of dependence of inmates of benevolent 
institutions, by geographical divisions, June 1, 1890 — Continued. 

MALE. 





Number. 




Per cent. 


- 




i 

$ 

GQ 

I 

P 


Geographical divisions. 


Geographical divisions. 


Cause of dependence. 


.2 
1 

% 

t 

o 


! 

% 

3 
a 
o 


•a 

a 
S 

! 


•a 

3 

a 
o 
w 


i 


a 
•a 

% 

s 

o 
55 


i 

< 
3 

3 
o 

H3 


i 

a 
& 

o 


■a 
a 

<s 

U 

a 

a 
o 


a 

a) 
1 
PS 




100 

426 

3,791 

601 

725 

1,919 

680 

727 

347 

1,561 

39, 122 

63 

13,296 


41 

282 

1,935 

269 

357 

1,307 

118 

391 

128 

860 

22,547 

22 

7,492 


2 
25 

345 
36 
38 

130 
14 
48 
40 
84 
2,303 
14 

476 


24 

82 

1,136 

228 

279 

220 

525 

169 

116 

430 

10,102 

23 

3,355 


29 

18 

329 

32 

36 

174 

19 

85 

. 53 

136 

2,059 

3 

854 


4 
19 
46 
36 
15 
88 

4 

44 

10 

51 

2,111 

1 
1,119 


41.00 
66.20 
51.04 
44.76 
49.24 
68.11 
17.35 
53.79 
36.89 
55.09 
57.63 
34.92 
56.35 


2.00 
5.87 
9.10 
5.99 
5.24 
6.77 
2.06 
6.60 

11.53 
5.38 
5.89 

22.22 
3.68 


24.00 
19.25 
29.97 
37.94 
38.48 
11.46 
77.21 
21.87 
33.43 
27.55 
25.82 
36.51 
25.23 


29.00 
4.22 
8.68 
5.32 
4.97 
9.07 
2.79 
11.69 
15.27 
8.71 
5.26 
4.76 
6.42 






4.46 


Olrl n.Tir? infirm 


1.21 


Bedridden 


5.99 




2.07 




4.59 




.59 




6.05 




2.88 




3.27 




5.40 




1.59 




8.42 






Total 


55,245 


31,376 


2,991 


14,375 


3,146 


3,357 


56.79 


5.41 


26.02 


5.70 


6.08 









90 

482 

5,972 

516 

580 

1,622 

312 

672 

318 

1,636 

1,953 

42,362 

81 

10,853 


22 

434 

3,317 

309 

351 

923 

181 

397 

167 

1,063 

1,266 

22,990 

35 

6,054 


2 

6 

660 

38 

49 

117 

28 

55 

27 

134 

69 

3,618 

9 

886 


66 

30 

1,403 

133 

125 

387 

77 

135 

75 

288 

524 

10, 086 

29 

2,773 






24.45 
90.04 
55.54 
59.88 
60.52 
56.91 
58.01 
59.08 
52.52 
64.98 
64.82 
54.27 
43.21 
55. 78 


2.22 
1.25 

11.05 
7.36 
8.45 
7.21 
8.98 
8.18 
8.49 
8.19 
3.53 
8.54 

11.11 
8.17 


73.33 
6.22 
23.49 
25.78 
21.55 
23.86 
24.68 
20.09 
23.59 
17.60 
26.83 
23.81 
35.80 
25.55 








1 

397 

20 

24 

114 

24 

54 

30 

91 

61 

3,263 

8 

582 


11 
195 
16 
31 
81 
2 
31 
19 
60 
33 
2,405 

558 


0.21 
6.65 
3.88 
4.14 
7.03 
7.69 
8.04 
9.43 
5.56 
3.13 
7.70 
9.88 
5.36 


2.28 




3.27 




3.10 




5.34 




4.99 




.64 




4.61 




5.97 




3.67 




1.69 




5.68 








5.14 






Total 


56,665 


31,019 


4,758 


13, 874 


4,003 


3,011 


54.74 


8.40 


24.48 


7.07 


5.31 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



313 



Table 34. — Causes of dependence of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, nativity, 

race, and sex, Junel, 1890. 
[From Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence, Eleventh Census, 1890, Part I, p. 357.] 
BOTH SEXES.o 



Color, nativity, and race. 



Parents native 

One parent foreign 

Parents foreign 

One or both parents un- 
known 



Native-born. 



Foreign-born 

Nativity unknown . 



White. 



Negroes.. 
Chinese. . 
Japanese. 
Indians.. 



Colored. 
Total... 



2 
o 
E-i 



23,484 
5,056 
2i, 167 

23,563 



76, 270 



26, 322 
4,244 



106,836 



4,102 

41 



2,051 
144 
193 

200 



14 



6,586 
42 



487 
9,763 



217 
31 

106 



607 
14 



65 
1,117 



35 

198 



718 



485 
34 



854 
76 
420 



1,782 



1,493 
54 



68 
1,305 



212 
3, 541 



953 



394 
27 

132 

119 



610 
18 



1,300 



609 
61 
194 

107 



1,975 
16 



573 2 



665 



234 



3,197 



257 

45 

221 

141 



17, 409 
3,872 
18,741 

18,997 



664 59,019 



494 
702 



16,226 
2,595 



1,86077,840 



93 



1,953 



2,894 
32 

1 
717 



3,644 



81,484 



136 



5,042 
1,037 
4,508 

4,038 



7,668 
781 



23,074 



859 
5 
7 

204 



1,075 



24, 149 





11,483 
2,490 
11,283 

12,058 


19 
4 
14 

5 


134 
13 
88 

7 


538 
37 
43 

75 


98 
14 
46 

28 


165 
15 

72 

108 


435 
41 
194 

253 


148 
20 
105 

71 


200 
16 
60 

62 


71 

4 

31 

39 


265 
29 
93 

46 




8,415 
1,907 
8,634 

9,683 


16 
... ... 

24 


2,526 

514 

2,306 

2,107 


One parent foreign 


One or both parents un- 




Native-born 


37, 314 


42 


242 


693 


186 


360 


923 


344 


338 


145 


433 




28,639 


47 


7,453 




13, 076 
2,167 


53 
1 


175 
4 


2,950 
20 


369 
11 


305 
20 


850 
28 


288 
26 


330 

7 


140 
4 


1,045 
6 




7,002 
1,674 


8 
2 


4,687 
447 


Nativity unknown 


White 


52,557 


96 


421 


3,663 


566 


685 


1,801 


658 


675 


289 


1,484 




37, 315 


57 


12,587 






2,135 

33 

8 

512 


4 


5 


127 


34 
1 


39 


117 


21 


51 
1 


55 
3 


76 




1,423 

24 

1 

359 


6 






5 




















7 








1 




1 


1 


1 






1 




152 
















2,688 


4 


5 


128 


35 


40 


118 


22 


52 


58 


77 




1,807 


6 


709 






Total 


55,245 


100 


426 


3,791 


601 


725 


1,919 


680 


727 


347 


1,561 




39, 122 


63 


13,296 





FEMALE. 





12.001 
2,566 
12,884 

11,505 


7 

2 

23 

20 


58 


1,513 


119 
17 
60 

49 


133 
20 
126 

79 


419 

35 

226 

179 


78 

4 

91 

27 


194 
11 

72 

57 


83 
15 
62 

38 


344 
32 
101 

61 


257 

45 

221 

141 


8,994 

1,965 

10, 107 

9,314 


28 
2 
16 

14 


2,516 


One parent foreign 


15 
134 

23 


107 
150 

185 


523 
2,202 

1,931 


One or both parents un- 






Native-born 


38,956 


52 


230 


1,955 


245 


358 


859 

643 
26 


200 


334 


198 


538 


664 


30,380 


60 


7,172 




13,246 
2,077 


22 
13 


240 3.636 


238 
3 


180 
14 


86 
9 


280 
11 


78 
8 


930 
10 


494 
702 


9,224 
921 


18 
1 


2,981 
334 




3 


22 


White 


54, 279 


87 


473 


5,613 


486 


5521,528 


295 
17 


625 

47 


284 
33 


1,478 


1,860 


40,525 


79 


10,487 








1,967 

8 

411 


1 


9 


359 


29 


28 


93 


158 


93 


1,471 

8 

358 


2 


314 








2 






1 




1 






1 








52 




















2,386 


3 


9 


359 


30 


28 


94 


17 
312 


47 
672 


34 
318 


158 


93 


1,837 


2 
81 


366 






Total 


56,665 


90 


482 


5,792 


516 


5801.622 


1,636 


1,953 


42,362 


10,853 











i The figures showing assigned causes of dependence do not, when added, form the total number of inmates, 
for the reason that many inmates maj; be classed under more than one of these subdivisions, the same 
person may be a tramp, a drunkard, crippled, old and infir m, and rheumatic. 



65812°— vol 34—11- 



-21 



314 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 35. — General summary of all benevolent institutions, public and private (exclusive 
of prisons, hospitals for insane, almshouses, schools for the feeble-minded, and schools 
and homes for the deaf and blind), 1904. 

[From Benevolent Institutions, Twelfth Census, 1904, p. 13.) 















o 


! 
1 




Number of in- 




Number of insti- 
tutions. 


Number of inmates— 


P. 


§ 


mates per 
100,000 of 














a 


'"J, 


population — 














"8 




3 




State or Terri- 













bo 


4 


a 


bo 


tory. 








i 


S 

OS 


9 
13 O 


s 

at 


■go 


r 


§ 

3 


3 

OS 


D 

■a o 










$ 

"5 
8 


^ 


13 "* 


CO 


m 




a 


GO 


■S3 




*ca 


3 


3 

> 


I 

a 


r 


o 

o 

a 


•a 


1 

a 


1 


o 

V 


a 


S3 
S 




H 


Ph 


Ph 


M 


o 


< 


o 


^ 


u 


o 


«S 




?,?, 


3 


7 


12 


877 


4,992 


910 


SIS, 400 


$33,853 


$115,626 


46.1 


255.0 




11 


2 


fi 


3 


187 


2,295 


169 


11, 171 


32,380 


91,536 


121.7 


1, 674.0 




25 


4 


13 


8 


1,269 


3,587 


699 


3,348 


31,330 


102, 175 


60.1 


258.7 




ISO 


18 


84 


48 


13,643 


54,450 


13,829 


309,675 


1,002,204 


2,721,152 


859.2 


3,411.7 


Colorado 


58 


7 


34 


17 


2,949 


15,029 


2,679 


13,812 


304,664 


734,717 


448.3 


2,541.5 




82 


10 


49 


23 


3,906 


41,475 


4,026 


111,985 


298,232 


957,139 


409.7 


4,255.4 




16 


(1 


11 


fi 


568 


1,198 


590 


500 


14,185 


80,577 


307.0 


626.0 


Dist. Columbia. 


55 


6 


30 


19 


3,619 


37,901 


3,780 


140,412 


125,376 


763,809 


1,256.4 


.2,699.2 




32 


9 


17 


fi 


353 


1,976 


360 


3,274 


21,370 


83,988 


60.9 


338.0 


Georgia 


57 


8 


34 


15 


2,237 


8,206 


1,943 


45,277 


61,465 


284,195 


81.3 


346.1 




7 

252 

6 


1 

17 

1 


2 

116 
2 


4 

119 

3 


226 

19,598 

222 


1,557 

122,687 

1,123 


232 

19,280 

265 




83,378 

8,250 


21,979 

1,565,313 

13,860 


51,218 

3, 549, 135 

44,690 


118.8 
365.3 
54.2 


812.3 




2,34fi.7 




234.7 




115 


34 


47 


34 


7,800 


17,552 


7,720 


81,054 


190,247 


971, 161 


289.7 


662.6 




81 

48 


9 
3 


38 
29 


34 
Ifi 


3,743 
6,253 


22,724 
11,440 


3,667 
6,117 


15,596 
14,450 


284,573 
104,922 


683,018 
698,311 


154.2 
410.6 


961.9 




768.9 




80 


7 


43 


30 


4,213 


14,917 


3,983 


39,180 


107,332 


507, 216 


174.7 


658.6 




53 


6 


23 


24 


5,110 


21,830 


4,102 


35,380 


76,809 


502,648 


273.1 


1,466.1 




42 
113 


3 
3 


32 

75 


7 
35 


4,017 
5,441 


7,630 
35,853 


3,920 
5,287 


45,650 
239,475 


147,559 
350, 196 


681,824 
1,104,873 


652.3 
421.3 


1,077.5 


Maryland 


2,873.9 




?98 


18 


222 


58 


13,030 


212,409 


13,432 


75,426 


1,225,996 


4,009,315 


438.2 


6,994.9 




114 


8 


71 


35 


5,609 


30, 177 


5,395 


18,366 


530,443 


1,040,958 


211.9 


1,191.7 




84 


1(1 


28 


45 


3,984 


35,331 


3.80C 


7,472 


502,996 


936, 141 


194.5 


1,829.2 




15 


2 


7 


fi 


766 


2,614 


466 


4,030 


8,153 


58,340 


27.9 


157.6 




135 


13 


65 


57 


8,824 


58,068 


8,588 


21,043 


520,912 


1,429,834 


260.0 


1,769.7 




n 


3 


6 


13 


947 


5,572 


943 


7,287 


151,846 


363,921 


325.9 


1,959.7 




34 


5 


15 


14 


1,770 


8,038 


1,741 


1,774 


164,711 


341,807 


163.0 


762.8 


Nevada 

N. Hampshire . 










63 


6 


58 




709 


16,200 


132.3 


21.3 


50 


2 


34 


14 


1,665 


5,677 


1,653 


16,604 


112,925 


249, 415 


386.5 


1,332.9 


New Jersey 


160 


11 


103 


46 


8,177 


247,375 


7,901 


113,064 


369,895 


1,508,042 


379.0 


11,992.1 




13 


2 


6 


5 


661 


2,308 


791 


15, 157 


71,367 


276, 598 


374.2 


1, 101. 1 




643 


3f 


394 


211 


57, 13C 


814,015 


58,754 


2,664,214 


2,721,545 


12.933,671 


748.6 


6,502.0 


North Carolina. 


46 


4 


25 


17 


1,634 


4, 80S 


1,726 


38,633 


40,159 


181,444 


85.4 


239.7 


North Dakota. . 


1? 


2 


b 


6 


271 


2,231 


242 


95C 


49,068 


71,832 


64.0 


600.6 


Ohio 


262 
5 


60 



131 
1 


71 
3 


25,057 
107 


128,731 
98 


24,324 
56 


54,161 



710,432 
3,919 


3,555,159 
9,097 


555.4 
10.3 


2,955.5 




18.5 




20 


1 


a 


13 


931 


37, 577 


987 


6,091 


92,886 


122,265 


215.8 


8,301.2 


Pennsylvania. . 


401 


2( 


267 


lot 


25,62; 


190, 117 


28,926 


826, 001 


1,304,422 


6, 157, 130 


426.6 


2,825.6 


Rhode Island . . 


40 


.' 


21 


( 


1,92! 


10, 696 


1,810 


44,682 


74,647 


415, 014 


387.9 


2,312.8 


South Carolina. 


26 


3 


11 


12 


1,067 


1,627 


1,027 


7,900 


21,128 


127,318 


72.0 


114.8 


South Dakota. . 


11 


? 


a 


(• 


435 


1,921 


41C 


500 


43,667 


103,313 


96.3 


453.9 




47 


11 


2f 


v 


2,0ft 


12,63! 


2,781 


7,168 


83,825 


258,589 


130.3 


595.1 




73 
11 
23 


11 

2 
1 


36 

e 
is 


2e 

3 
4 


3,338 
422 
665 


24,366 
3,623 
3,275 


3,507 
42S 
678 


9,644 

300 

8,319 


217,058 
93,034 
46,367 


600, 759 
87,866 
143,716 


102.5 
139.7 
194.7 


720.7 


Utah 


1,193.0 


Vermont 


940.5 




7f 


4 


45 


% 


6,164 


15, 46C 


5,964 


11,725 


126,080 


721, 122 


306.6 


799.2 




4f 


f 


If 


2i 


2,05S 


14,128 


2,011 


14,47< 


235,158 


386,054 


341.0 


2,420.0 




35 


f 


?f 


' 


848 


6,46C 


70. 


7, ax 


71, 146 


169, 641 


67.2 


621.8 




8f 


If 


28 


4; 


7,14/ 


24,561 


6,841 


4,36; 


344, 16C 


1,015,832 


305.5 


1, 105. 1 


Wyoming 


C 


4 


! 


( 


12C 


1,008 


11' 


340 


21,419 


34,548 


107. 3 


962.1 


United States 


4,095 


41! 


2,32, 


1,348 


268, 65S 


2,033,34" 


269,63 


5,204,454 


14,747,815 


52,053,950 


329.0 


2,501.0 



a Exclusive of dispensaries and nurseries. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



315 



Table 36. — Aliens detained in charitable institutions, public and private, by sex, age, 
probable period of detention, and jurisdiction of institutions, classified by States and 
Territories and by geographical divisions (charitable institutions include almshouses, 
homes, juvenile asylums, hospitals, institutions for the feeble-minded, and all other 
institutions in which people dependent upon charity are confined, except institutions for 
the insane), 1904. 



[Compiled from Report of Commissioner-General of Immigration, 1904, chart 6 and p. 


782.] 






Sex. 


Age. 


Probable period 
of detention. 


Jurisdiction of 
institution. 


Geographical divisions, States and 
Territories. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Un- 
der 21 
years. 


21 years 
or over. 


Un- 
der 2 
years. 


2 
years 

or 
over. 


Life. 


State. 


Coun- 
ty. 


Pri- 
vate. 


North Atlantic: 


50 

40 

19 

956 

120 

154 

2,195 

387 

1,964 


34 

38 
17 
800 
148 
130 
2,010 
316 
1,020 


3 

100 
21 
20 
1,792 
102 
467 


84 

75 

36 

1,656 

247 

264 

2,413 

601 

2,517 


25 

10 

2 

570 

39 

86 

1,316 

329 

1,480 


1 

34 

7 

9 

1,367 

97 

235 


58 

68 

34 

1,152 

222 

189 

1,522 

277 

1,269 


6 

695 
175 

7 
84 

7 
249 


61 

78 

35 

800 

208 
1,947 

288 
1,445 


17 








1 




261 




93 




69 




2,174 




408 




1,290 




5,885 


4,513 


2,505 


7,893 


3,857 


1,750 


4,791 


1,223 


4,862 


4,313 


North Central: 

Ohio 


276 
431 
410 
185 
420 
175 

52 
135 

11 
7 

19 

44 


125 

107 

244 

56 

102 

63 

19 

41 

15 

2 

15 

9 


41 
7 
37 
30 
28 
35 
11 
10 
9 

2 
3 


360 
531 
617 
211 
494 
203 

60 
166 

17 
9 

32 

50 


171 
50 
194 

6 
24 
14 

5 
44 
18 

1 

7 
12 


19 
9 
49 
38 
1 
7 
1 
3 
4 


211 

479 

411 

197 

497 

217 

65 

129 

4 

8 

27 

41 


5 
17 
12 
26 
41 
109 
24 

1 

6 
6 


272 
375 
612 
199 
481 
129 

45 
163 

24 
9 

26 

37 


124 




146 




30 




16 












2 




12 




2 








2 




10 




2,165 


798 


213 


2,750 


546 


131 


2,286 


247 


2,372 


344 


South Atlantic: 


2 

363 

27 

7 






2 

607 
39 
8 






2 

261 

31 

3 


39 


2 
414 

5 






262 

17 

1 


18 
5 


131 
7 
5 


233 
6 


211 




5 




3 






























2 


1 


3 






3 








3 


















4 


4 




8 


3 




5 




2 


6 


Total 


405 


285 


26 


664 


146 


242 


302 


39 


423 


228 






South Central: 


31 

2 


71 


19 
2 


83 


22 


24 
2 


56 


1 
2 


30 


71 


















4 
70 
55 






4 
90 
80 


2 
3 

10 


16 
3 


2 
88 
62 


6 


4 
25 
62 






21 
33 
3 


1 
8 
3 


66 




20 




3 








































Total 


162 


128 


33 


257 


37 


45 


208 


9 


121 


160 


Western : 


20 
2 
38 


9 
18 


5 
1 
9 


24 
1 
47 


20 

1 

29 


5 
8 


4 
1 
19 


3 


24 
2 
33 


2 








23 








26 
17 
8 
4 
79 
1 
519 


3 

1 

18 


2 
1 
17 


24 
20 
7 
5 
80 
1 
566 


13 
1 
2 
2 

37 


1 

17 


13 

19 
5 
3 
43 
1 
502 


1 
61 


26 
20 
8 
5 
54 




Utah 














43 








221 


174 


81 


157 


517 


162 


Total 


714 


270 


209 


775 


186 


188 


610 


65 


689 


230 




54 
6 


8 
3 


6 


56 
9 


63 

7 


1 


8 
2 






62 


Porto Rico 




7 


2 




9,391 


6,005 


2,992 


12, 404 


4,832 


2,357 


8,207 


1,583 


8,474 


5,339 







316 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 37. — Aliens detained in charitable institutions, by race, sex, age, probable period 
of detention, and jurisdiction of institution, 1904. 

[Compiled from Report of Commissioner-General of Immigration, 1904, p. 786.] 



Subdivision of races. 



Sex. 



Age. 



Probable period of 
detention. 



op. 



n 



Jurisdiction of in- 
stitution. 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian 
(Czech). 

Bulgarian, Servian, and Monte- 
negrin 

Chinese 



Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Her- 

zegovinian 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 



English. . 
Finnish. 
French. . 
German. 
Greek... 



Hebrew. . 

Irish 

Italian 

Japanese . 
Korean. . . 



Lithuanian. 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Polish 

Portuguese . 



Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, 
Danes, and Swedes) 



Scotch. . 
Slovak. 



Spanish- American. 



Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian. . 



1 
40 

60 
12 

2 

57 
2 

1,309 

80 

535 

2,949 

. 38 

1,274 
4,599 
1,230 



104 

177 

117 

839 

57 

23 
78 
13 

747 

342 

224 
54 
19 



56 
11 

2 
46 
2 

785 
68 

367 

2,063 

36 

693 

1,914 

985 

50 

1 

90 
121 

74 
643 



197 

193 

48 

17 

45 
6 
51 



524 
12 

IC-S 



581 

2,685 

245 

13 



77 

339 

13 

S31 

324 

575 

7 



47 
4 

2 

52 

2 

1,120 
71 
458 

2,610 
25 

443 

4,275 

655 

56 

1 

95 
116 
66 

697 
45 

17 
58 
13 



305 
194 
34 
15 

21 
4 

67 
7 



2 
11 
2 

352 
33 
135 
6Ml 
33 

297 

1,152 

643 

50 

1 

76 
98 
22 
430 
31 

19 
42 



100 
1.54 
25 



Total 15,396 9,391 6,005 2,992 12,404 4,832 2,357 8,207 1,583 8,474 5,339 



160 
7 
44 

310 
2 

580 

431 

372 

2 



797 

40 

356 

1,959 

3 

397 

3,016 

215 

11 



24 
37 
47 
312 
20 

2 
11 
2 

449 

218 
60 



78 
169 



39 

565 

96 

1 



309 

2,103 

19 

356 

2,640 

432 

13 



14 
2 

106 

50 

17 

1 

1 

6 
2 
7 



51 
74 

64 

4S9 

21 

7 
31 
5 



186 
116 

2S 



20 
8 



23 



25 
7 



2 
10 



361 
24 
148 
677 
13 

879 

1,394 

702 

49 
1 

37 
93 
49 
261 
25 

13 

33 

6 



106 
91 
25 



55 
4 
15 



Table 38. — Number of years foreign-born inmates of charitable institutions have been in 

the United States, 1904. 

[From Report of Commissioner-General of Immigration, 1904, p. 795.] 



Years in the United States. 



1 year 

2 years 

3 years 

4 and 5 years. 
6 to 10 years.. 
11 to 20 years. 



7.0 
5.0 

5.0 
S. 
9.0 
21.0 



Years in the United States. 



21 to 30 years... 
31 to 40 years... 
40 years or over 

Total.... 



13.0 
15.0 
17.0 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



317 



Table 39. — Political condition of inmates of charitable institutions, public and private, 
of the United States, by nativity, States and Territories, and by geographical divisions 
(including almshouses, homes, juvenile asylums, hospitals, institutions for the feeble- 
minded, and all other institutions in which people dependent upon public charity are 
confined, except institutions for the insane), 1908. 

[Compiled from Report oJ Commissioner-General of Immigration, 1908, p. 98.1 





Charitable (other than insane). 




Foreign-born. 


Native- 
born. 






Aliens. 


Natural- 
ized 
citizens. 


Total. 


North Atlantic: 


171 
129 
12 

2,148 
284 
603 

6,089 
674 

3,388 


211 

253 

84 

1,992 

388 

1,226 

8,997 

1,377 

4,225 


1,840 
1,945 
422 
7,197 
1,227 
5,341 

43,470 
5,347 

31,964 


2,222 

2,327 

518 








11,337 
1,899 






7,170 
58, 556 






7,398 
39,577 


Pennsylvania 


Total 


13, 498 


18,753 


98,753 


131,004 


South Atlantic: 


23 
101 
90 
24 
59 
8 
16 
28 
56 


72 
643 
141 

75 
59 
5 
15 
C5 
35 


596 
5,433 
2,326 
3,933 
1,226 
4,165 
1,691 
3,427 
1,147 


691 




6,177 
2,557 
4,032 








1,344 
4,178 






1,722 




3,520 
1,238 




Total 


405 


1,110 


23,944 


25,459 


North Central: 

Ohio 


337 
116 
1,226 
456 
691 
278 
9 
376 
161 
174 
290 
268 


4,322 

1,360 

3,928 

1,425 

877 

831 

866 

1,267 

917 

1,210 

1,943 

2,746 


20,601 
9,539 

12,928 
4,377 
3,766 
2,637 
4,343 
7,881 
1,100 
1,395 
2,325 
3,164 


25,260 




11,015 
18,082 
6,258 
5,234 










3,746 




5,218 




9,524 




121 




76 




579 




420 


Total 


15,769 


72,888 


92,321 


12,205 


South Central: 


344 
470 
23 
5 
413 
150 
14 
18 


5,050 
5,212 
1,840 
1,180 
3,497 
3,856 
308 
1,756 


6,047 
5,698 
1,919 
1,195 
3,993 
4,181 
322 
1,778 


96 




39 




157 




61 




320 




1,044 




22 




27 


Total 


1,437 


23, 299 


25,133 


1,766 


Western: 


228 
41 

232 
11 
36 
52 
49 
66 

232 

121 
2,302 


866 

116 

432 

94 

131 

176 

180 

254 

1,368 

1,081 

4,758 


1,141 

172 

809 

109 

198 

275 

249 

343 

1,751 

1,290 

8,047 


398 




71 




494 




70 




436 


Utah 


153 




187 




126 




919 




613 




3,584 


Total 


3,370 


9,456 


14,384 


7,051 










60 




14 


30 


91 
3 


370 




19 












40,453 


228,370 


288,395 


60,501 





318 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 40. — Aliens detained in charitable institutions, by race, sex, age, probable period 
of detention and jurisdiction of institution, 1908. 

[From Report of Commissioner-General of Immigration, 1908, p. 200.) 





i 

o 


Sex. 


Age. 


Probable pe- 
riod of deten- 
tion. 


Jurisdiction of 
institution. 


Race or people. 




o3 

■a 
1 


>> 
a 


■j: 

s 

© 




u 

O 

8* 
3 


Si2 
a* 


o 




•a 


& 

03 

in 


ffl p. 

►.■3 
II 

59 


6 
1 




'9 
29 
172 

65 

87 

152 
14 

7 

113 

6 

1,568 
144 
699 

2,635 
171 

2,442 

4,472 

199 

1,728 

48 

12 

178 

332 

202 

1 

1,314 
75 
58 
265 

7 

1,028 

492 

410 

66 

9 

126 

33 

69 

63 

1 

11 


50 
23 
109 

55 
84 

127 
7 

5 
81 
6 

914 
104 
429 
1,714 
156 

1,307 

1,767 

153 

1,171 

46 

12 

140 

222 

110 

1 

869 
52 
51 

188 

6 
655 
267 
293 

52 
7 
65 
29 

48 

35 

1 

7 


29 
6 
63 


1 
1 
3 


12 
3 
18 

7 
2 

25 
5 

1 
13 
1 

197 

17 

120 

228 

44 

850 
178 
41 
602 
6 

2 
18 
81 
55 

1 

249 
8 
13 
67 

2 
104 
60 
72 

11 
1 

62 
6 

8 
18 


50 
22 

74 

44 

19 

106 
6 

6 
26 
3 

487 
90 
157 
726 
111 

700 

1,005 

97 

658 

36 

10 
126 
176 

55 


16 
3 

77 

4 
65 

20 
1 

70 
2 

813 
33 

377 

1,634 

14 

432 

3,257 

42 

189 

6 

32 
56 
43 


50 
24 
65 

41 
31 

111 

7 

5 
32 
3 

624 
86 
243 
795 
140 

1,064 
1,317 

99 
961 

35 

9 
128 
253 
59 

1 

769 
41 
40 

219 

3 

427 
176 
279 

30 

4 

47 

27 

15 

38 

1 

3 


7 
4 
16 

6 
6 

23 

4 

1 

17 

213 
18 
82 

274 
16 

794 
334 
52 
552 
9 

1 
16 
42 

88 


22 

1 

91 

8 
50 

18 
3 

1 
64 
3 

731 
40 

374 

1,566 

15 

584 

2,821 

48 

215 

4 

2 
34 
37 
55 


2 

"'i 


12 
5 
18 


37 

8 

112 

43 

73 

79 
3 

6 
62 
4 

719 
82 

359 

1,646 

77 

462 
2,394 

79 
502 

28 

2 

106 
167 
101 


28 




16 


Bohemian and Moravian. . . 
Bulgarian, Servian, Monte- 


41 

12 




3 

25 
7 

2 
32 


1 

1 
2 

4 


i 
i 


4 
28 


10 


Croatian and Slovenian 


44 
10 


Dalmatian, Bosnian, Her- 


1 


Dutch and Flemish 


i 

6 
2 
2 
11 
1 

"i2 
.... 


14 
1 

353 
6 

82 
237 

12 

188 
768 
24 
174 
1 

2 
28 
27 

1 


36 
1 




654 
40 
270 
921 
15 

1,135 

2,705 

46 

557 

2 


71 

4 

45 

47 

2 

460 
32 
19 

279 


490 




54 




256 




741 




81 




1,792 




1,298 




96 




1,051 




19 




8 




38 
110 
92 


2 
19 
49 


44 




138 




100 




1 


Polish 


445 
23 

7 
77 

1 
373 
225 
117 

14 
2 

61 
4 

21 
28 


46 
5 

4 
3 

38 
13 
10 

7 

37 
2 

3 

4 


689 
27 
39 

166 

2 
465 
124 
248 

22 
5 
19 
21 

13 

34 

1 

7 


330 
35 
2 
29 

3 

421 

295 

80 

26 
3 
8 
4 

45 
7 

3 


187 
5 

7 
17 

3 

100 
54 
51 

15 
1 

71 
2 

10 
16 


358 
29 
11 
29 

1 
501 
262 
80 

21 
4 
8 
4 

44 
9 




172 

9 

9 

33 


694 
38 
28 
94 

6 
588 
243 
199 

28 
6 
19 
15 

49 

27 

1 

9 


448 




27 




21 




138 


Ruthenian (Russniak) 


1 


13 

3 
1 


131 
113 
64 

1 

11 
7 

4 
3 


2% 


Scotch *. 

Slovak 


135 

147 




34 




2 




96 


TiirTrish 


11 


Welsh 


16 


West Indian(except Cuban; 


33 




4 




1 


5 


3 




1 


1 






Total 


19, 572 


11, 418 


8,154 


1,214 


3,209 


fi 67° 


S. 477 


S.302 


3,119 


8,151 


60 


2,543 


9,195 


7,774 











Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Pauperism. 



319 



Table 41. — Percent of 'foreign-born inmates of charitable institutions who have been in 
the United States each specified number of years, 1908. 

[From Report of Commissioner-General of Immigration, 1908, p. 203.J 



Years in the United States. 



Per cent. 



Years in the United States. 



Per cent. 



I year 

2years 

3years 

4 and 5 years. 
6 to 10 years.. 

II to 20 years. 



12.5 
9.1 
6.9 
11.0 
14.7 
15.4 



21 to 30 years... 
31 to 40 years... 
40 years or over 

Total 



11.6 
8.5 
10.3 



100.0 



Table 4,2. — Number of aliens debarred at seaports and number deported after landing, 

fiscal years 1892 to 1910. 

[Compiled from Report of Commissioner-General of Immigration, 1908, p. 20.] 



Years ending June 30 — 


Immi- 
grants 
admitted. 


Total de- 
barred, all 
causes. 


Number 

debarred 
as paupers 

or likely 

to become 

public 

cnarges. 


Returned 

in one 
year after 
landing, 
all causes. 


Returned 
In three 

years after 
landing, 

all causes. 


1892 


579,663 

439,730 

285,631 

258,536 

343, 267 

230, 832 

229, 299 

311, 715 

448,572 

487,918 

648,743 

857,046 

812, 870 

1,026,499 

1, 100, 735 

1,285,349 

782, 870 

751,786 

1,041,670 


2,164 

1,053 

1,389 

2,419 

2,799 

1,617 

3,030 

3,798 

4,246 

3,516 

4,974 

8,769 

7, 994 

11,879 

12,432 

13,064 

10,902 

10,411 

24,270 


1,002 
431 
802 
1,714 
2,010 
1,277 
2,261 
2,599 
2,974 
2,798 
3,944 
5,812 
4,798 
7,898 
7,069 
6,866 
3,710 
4,402 
15,918 


637 

577 

417 

177 

238 

263 

199 

263 

356 

363 

465 

547 

300 

98 

61 

70 

114 

58 

23 




1893 




1894 




1895 




1896 




1897 




1898 




1899 




1900 




1901 




1902 




1903 




1904 


479 


1905 


747 


1906 


615 


1907 


925 


1908 


1,955 


1909 


2,066 


1910 


2,672 







Table 43 . — Number of aliens refused admission from contiguous foreign territory, fiscal 

years 1900 to 1910. 

[For the years 1892 to 1908 the figures are for citizens of foreign contiguous countries, and for 1909 to 1910 
for permanent residents of foreign contiguous territory applying for temporary sojourn in the United 
States. Compiled from Reports of Commissioner- General or Immi gration, 1908. Table IHC and cor- 
responding tables in reports for other years indicated.] 



Years ending June 30— 


Total de- 
barred, all 
causes. 


Number debarred as paupers or likely to become 
public charges. 


Total. 


Canadian 
border. 


Mexican 
border. 


Seaports. 


1900 


1,616 
1,696 
5,437 
9,922 
6,856 
5,804 
2,86b 
1,863 
613 
440 
1,013 


960 

1,040 

3,837 

6,539 

5,223 

4,145 

1,919 

1,022 

309 

207 

734 








1901 








1902 








1903 


1,575 
762 
297 
331 
250 
24 
22 


4,964 

4,461 

3,848 

1,588 

770 

283 

182 




1904 




1905 




1906 




1907 


2 


1908 


2 


1909 


3 


1910 


U 70' 


14 











320 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 44. — Number of aliens debarred and number deported, by race or people, fiscal 

years 1904 and 1908. 

[Compiled from Reports of the Commissioner-General of Immigration, 1904, p. 737, and 1908, pp. 16 to 19.) 



Race or people. 



1908. 



§ 

-oft 

J! 

a- is 

■etl 



Returned in 

three years after 

landing. 



3*3 ! 






o C 

L ft 

s.s 



jj (3 O 

_ 3 oS. 



a; 5 

O cr 

O (Li 

n 



■op 



£a 



• s .g 



~-g 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Bulgarian, Servian, Montenegrin. 
Chinese 



Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, Herzegovinian.. 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 



English. . 
Finnish.. 
French... 
German. , 
Greek 



Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North.. 
Italian, South.. 



Korean 

Lithuanian. 

Magyar 

Mexican 



Pacific Islander. 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 



Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak). 

Scandinavian 

Scotch 



Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish- American . 
Syrian 



Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cuban) . 
Other peoples 



Total. 



114 
146 
33 
1,135 
367 

146 
20 
73 
60 

438 

697 
35 
285 
553 
459 

679 
306 
227 
1.222 
711 

6 

155 
131 

513 



55 
11 
13 
17 
118 

331 
7 
135 
256 
217 

237 
120 

80 
481 

73 

1 
45 
50 
267 



481 
55 
77 

192 
121 
115 
202 

101 
201 

13 

527 

121 
10 



149 
13 
31 

72 
57 
35 
&3 

23 

66 

5 

106 



14 
12 
19 
133 
1 

23 

1 

12 

11 



104 
26 
37 

127 
67 

158 
67 
19 
133 
386 

5 

10 
64 



21 
..... 

9 
1 

49 
23 
9 
95 
37 

142 
59 
15 
93 
1 



37 
48 
31 

320 
305 

143 

9 

9 

40 

7 

315 

79 

84 

424 

527 

7S7 
133 
261 
2,092 
433 

5 

14S 
129 
31 



79 
5 
6 

26 
4 

192 
21 
52 
270 
429 

543 

99 

141 

1,396 

158 

3 
50 



3 




3 


1 




1 


1 




8 


8 




1 




2 


2 





4X0 
35 
30 

37 

121 
14S 
48 

133 

115 



221 
29 
23 



100 
32 

66 
35 
7 

105 

19 
7 
25 
24 



10,902 



3,701 



1,955 



114 



7,994 



4,798 



16 



479 



26 
12 

9 
49 

4 

31 
22 

1 
57 

6 



13 
1 
3 

5 
3 
17 
3 

12 



300 



a Total only given for 1904. 



LIST OF TEXT TABLES. 



PAUPERISM IN THE UNITED STATES, 1850 TO 1908. 



Page. 



Table 1. — Number and ratio of paupers in public almshouses enumerated on 
date of census, by sex, color, and nativity for 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890, 
and 1903 260 

Table 2. — Distribution, by color and nativity, of paupers enumerated in alms- 
houses and ratio of paupers to general population of same color and nativity, 
1903, 1890, and 1880 261 

321 



LIST OF GENEEAL TABLES. 



PAUPERISM IN THE UNITED STATES, 1850 TO 1908. 

Page. 
Table 1. — Paupers in. public institutions and paupers receiving out-door relief, 

classified by nativity, and by States and Territories, June 1, 1850 266 

Table 2. — Paupers in public institutions and paupers receiving out-door 

assistance, classified by nativity, and by States and Territories, with total 

cost, June 1, 1860 26? 

Table 3. — Paupers in public institutions and paupers receiving out-door 

assistance, classified by nativity, and by States and Territories, with total 

cost, June 1, 1870 268 

Table 4. — Paupers in almshouses, classified by color, sex, nativity, and race, and 

by States and Territories, June 1, 1880 269 

Table 5. — Paupers in almshouses, classified by color, nativity, race, and sex, 

by States and Territories and geographical divisions, June 1, 1890 270-275 

Table 6. — Foreign-born white paupers in almshouses, by nationality, with 

corresponding figures for population at large and number of inmates to each 

million of population for the same race and nationality, June 1, 1890 276 

Table 7. — Native-born white paupers of foreign father or mother in almshouses, 

by nationalities, June 1, 189Q 277 

Table 8. — Political condition of foreign male paupers in almshouses, by color 

and race, June 1, 1890 277 

Table 9. —Ability' to speak English of paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, 

race, and sex, June 1, 1890 278 

Table 10. — Literacy of paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, and sex, 

June 1, 1890 279 

Table 11. — Age of paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, and sex, 

June 1, 1890 280 

Table 12. — Conjugal condition of paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, 

and sex, June 1, 1890 281 

Table 13. — Number and per cent of foreign-born male paupers in almshouses, 

who have been in the United States each specified number of years, by color, 

June 1, 1890 282 

Table 14. — Number and per cent of causes of pauperism in almshouses, by 

geographical divisions, June 1, 1890 282, 283 

Table 15.— Causes of pauperism in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, and 

sex, June 1, 1890.. 284 

Table 16. — Paupers in almshouses, by color, nativity, race, sex, States and 

Territories, and geographical divisions, December 31, 1903 285-288 

Table 17. — Paupers admitted to almshouses during 1904, by color, nativity, 

race, sex, States and Territories, and geographical divisions 289-292 

Table 18. — Foreign-born white paupers admitted to almshouses during 1904, by 

country of birth, States and Territories, and geographical divisions 293 

Table 19. — Paupers in almshouses during 1904, native-born white of foreign 

father or mother, by nationalities 294 

Table 20. — Literacy of paupers, 10 years of age or over in almshouses during 

1904, by color, nativity, race, and sex 294, 295 

Table 21.- — Paupers in almshouses during 1904, by color, nativity, sex, and age. 296, 297 
Table 22. — Conjugal condition of paupers in almshouses during 1904, by color, 

nativity, race, and sex 298 

Table 23.- — Foreign-born paupers admitted to almshouses during 1904, by sex, 

race, years in the United States, and main geographic divisions 299, 300 

Table 24. — Inmates of benevolent institutions^ by color, nativity, race, and sex, 

States and Territories, and geographical divisions, June 1, 1890 302, 303 

323 



324 The Immigration Commission. 

Page. 

Table 25. — Foreign-born white inmates of benevolent institutions, by nation- 
ality, with corresponding figures for population at large, and number of 
inmates to each million of population for the same race and nationality, 
June 1, 1890 304 

Table 26. — Native-born white inmates of benevolent institutions of foreign 
father or mother, by nationalities, June 1, 1890 305 

Table 27. — Political condition of foreign-born males 21 yearsof age or over who 
are inmates of benevolent institutions, by color and race, June 1, 1890 306 

Table 28. — Ability to speak English of inmates of benevolent institutions, by 
color, nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890 306, 307 

Table 29. — Literacy of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, nativity, 
race, and sex, June 1, 1890 308 

Table 30. — Age of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, nativity, race, 
and sex, June 1, 1890 309 

Table 31. — Conjugal condition of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, 
nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890 310 

Table 32. — Number and per cent of foreign-born male inmates of benevolent 
institutions who have been in the United States each specified number of 
years, by color, June 1, 1890 311 

Table 33. — Number and per cent of causes of dependence of inmates of benevo- 
lent institutions, by geographical divisions, June 1, 1890 311, 312 

Table 34. — Causes of dependence of inmates of benevolent institutions, by color, 
nativity, race, and sex, June 1, 1890 313 

Table 35.— -General summary of all benevolent institutions, public and private 
(exclusive of prisons, hospitals for insane, almshouses, schools for the feeble- 
minded, and schools and homes for the deaf and blind), 1904 314 

Table 36.' — Aliens detained in charitable institutions, public and private, by 
sex, age, probable period of detention, and jurisdiction of institutions, classi- 
fied by States and Territories and by geographical divisions (charitable insti- 
tutions include almshouses, homes, juvenile asylums, hospitals, institutions 
for the feeble-minded, and all other institutions in which people dependent 
upon charity are confined, except institutions for the insane), 1904 315 

Table 37. — Aliens detained in charitable institutions, by race, sex, age, probable 
period of detention, and jurisdiction of institution, 1904 316 

Table 38. — Number of years foreign-born inmates of charitable institutions 
have been in the United States, 1904 316 

Table 39. — Political condition of inmates of charitable institutions, public 
and private, of the United States, by nativity, States and Territories, and by 
geographical divisions (including almshouses, homes, juvenile asylums, hos- 
pitals, institutions for the feeble-minded, and all other institutions in which 
people dependent upon public charity are confined, except institutions for 
the insane), 1908 317 

Table 40. — Aliens detained in charitable institutions, by race, sex, age, probable 
period of detention, and jurisdiction of institution, 1908 318 

Table 41. — Per cent of foreign-born inmates of charitable institutions who have 
been in the United States each specified number of years, 1908 319 

Table 42. — Number of aliens debarred at seaports and number deported after 

landing, fiscal years 1892 to 1910 319 

Table 43. — Number of aliens refused admission from contiguous foreign terri- 
tory, fiscal years 1900 to 1910 319 

Table 44. — Number of aliens debarred and number deported, by race or people, 
fiscal years 1904 to 1908 320 



GENERAL TABLES— GRAND SUMMARY. 



325 



GENEKAL TABLES. 



Table 1. — Total number of cases and total number of persona involved, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 



GRAND SUMMARY. 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Native-born of native father: 

White 

Negro 

Indian 

Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 
Bohemian and Moravian. 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Danish 

Dutch 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Scotch... 

Scotch-Irish 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

Austrian (race not speci- 
fied) 

Race not specified 

Total 

Race not specified 

Total native-born 

Foreign-born: 

Arabian 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Bulgarian 

Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 

Croatian 

Cuban 

Danish 

Dutch 

Egyptian 



Total 
number 
of cases 
assisted. 



12,597 
3,489 



47 
24 
43 
9 

17 

254 

2 

102 

1,373 

45 

1,082 

1 
10 
4 
3 



45 



19,525 



1 

22 

314 

7 

113 

482 
47 

5 
105 
106 

2 



Total 
number 

of per- 
sons in- 
volved. 



44,600 

11,113 

18 



240 
137 
170 

26 
56 

776 

6 

410 

5,721 

152 

3,934 
8 
34 
15 

4 



139 

363 

10 

3 

321 
38 
16 
36 

250 

4 

2 

105 

1 
1 



12,987 
156 



68,874 



1 

76 

1,537 

17 

486 

1,641 
234 
22 
362 
436 
4 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 



Foreign-born— Continued. 

English 

Filipino 

Finnish 

Flemish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Herzegovinian 

Hindu 

Icelander 

Irish 

Italian, North 

Italian, South 

Italian (not specified) 

Japanese 

Lithu anian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Persian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian 

Scotch 

Scotch-Irish 

Servian 

Slovak 

Slovenian 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (other than 
Cuban) 

Austrian (race not speci- 
fied) 

Belgian (race not speci- 
fied) 

South American (race not 
specified) 

Swiss (race not specified) . 

Race not specified 

Total foreign-born 

Race not specified 

Grand total 



Total 
number 
of cases 
assisted. 



805 
1 

50 
6 
94 

2,156 
22 

659 
1 
5 

1 
1,959 

78 
760 
148 

1 

136 

206 

23 

41 

248 

1 

2,048 

50 

12 

109 
9 

276 
12 
11 

243 
36 
22 

513 
65 

2 
71 

11 

17 



12,140 
20 



31,685 



Total 
number 

of per- 
sons in- 
volved. 



2,641 
1 

186 
21 
317 

8,475 

94 

3,108 

1 

5 

3 

7,509 
352 

3,613 
708 

1 

620 
815 
66 
118 

911 

1 

10,245 

247 



431 

52 

865 

44 

48 

1,109 
177 
84 

2,047 
275 

4 

264 



66 



11 
37 
36 



50,510 
51 



327 



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The Immigration Commission. 



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Table 4. — Number of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes-of need, by 
general nativity and race of head of case. 



GRAND SUMMARY. 





Number 
reporting 
complete 

data. 


Number of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
Df another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


12, 556 

3,483 

6 


3,318 

1,146 

2 


2,210 

780 

1 


7,530 

1,749 

2 


2,456 
588 


626 
339 

1 


1 444 




324 












Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


47 
24 
43 
9 
17 

254 

2 

102 

1,370 

45 

1,076 

1 

10 

4 

3 

3 
47 
94 
3 
2 

92 

19 

4 

9 

67 

1 

1 

27 

1 
1 


15 
6 

10 
4 

4 

76 

1 

26 

376 

3 

301 


13 
8 
9 
1 
3 

41 

1 

22 

257 

13 

153 


21 
16 
27 
6 
10 

173 
1 

66 
861 

32 

658 
1 
5 


15 
4 

8 
2 
1 

40 
1 

21 

269 

6 

269 




5 






1 




3 


5 




2 




1 
24 


1 




19 








7 
41 
1 

40 


6 




125 




3 




107 








4 

4 
1 

1 
11 
24 

2 


1 
1 


4 
1 






Italian (not specified) 






2 

2 

27 

54 

1 

2 

58 
15 
2 
5 
33 

1 
1 
18 


















9 
16 


17 
32 




12 






8 




















17 
7 


16 
1 
1 
4 

12 


22 


9 


14 




1 


Slovak 


3 
2 
20 








2 
18 


1 
1 


1 




11 










1 
5 








Welsh 


5 


8 
1 


2 


3 


Austrian (race not speci- 
fied) 






1 






















Total 


3,378 
39 


919 
12 


588 
10 


2,098 
28 


746 
16 


130 
4 


324 




8 






Total native-bom 


19, 462 


5,397 


3,589 


11, 407 


3.S06 


1,100 


2,100 


Foreign-born: 


1 
22 
312 

7 

113 
480 
46 
5 
105 

105 

2 

799 

1 

49 






1 

15 

198 

5 

44 
260 
29 
2 
59 

62 

2 

506 

1 

26 










7 

96 

1 

34 
127 
19 
2 
35 

24 


2 

80 
1 

25 

92 

9 

1 

14 

20 


2 
51 


1 

10 




Bohemian and Moravian. . . 


39 
1 




21 

110 

8 

1 

15 

13 


17 
33 


16 




74 




2 






1 




2 
12 


12 


Dutch 


19 








221 


156 


112 


72 


79 








i3 


6 


15 


2 


5 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



335 



Table 4. — Number of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes of need, by 
general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 

GRAND STJUTMARY-Continued. 



' 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number of cases assisted for each specified class ofapparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 

2 
22 
659 

5 
187 


Death or 
disability 
of another 
member 
offamily. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Foreign-born— Continued. 


6 

93 

2,137 

20 

652 

1 

5 

1 

1,941 

78 

757 

138 

1 

129 

193 
23 
40 

247 
1 

2,036 

50 

11 

108 

9 

276 
12 
11 

224 

36 

22 

512 

65 

2 
69 

11 

16 

1 

4 
12 

6 


3 
23 
378 

1 
151 


4 

59 

1,242 

15 

363 

1 
5 

1 
1,063 

46 
513 
94 










10 

336 

1 

82 


15 
243 


12 




209 




2 




S 


51 
















1 














Irish 


616 

24 

249 

45 

1 

37 

58 

6 

13 

83 


357 

17 

150 

38 


405 

8 
66 
15 


227 


161 




6 




20 
2 


52 


Italian (not specified) 


9 




27 

31 

7 
9 
66 


76 

126 
12 
26 

129 
1 

1,342 
32 
9 
69 

7 

169 
8 
6 

145 

28 

15 

236 

49 

2 
43 

10 

8 

1 

1 
3 
3 


33 

35 

4 
6 
64 




9 






9 




1 
3 
25 


2 




6 




29 






Polish 


634 
16 


374 

10 

2 

24 


393 

4 

1 

20 

2 

55 
1 
2 

56 

5 

1 

115 

8 


73 
5 


88 




9 








23 

1 

54 
3 
1 

64 

9 

4 

184 

13 




7 










40 
3 
6 

36 

9 

4 

134 

17 


23 
1 


33 








1, 




2 

1 
1 
41 


9 




2 




1 




57 




7 








Welsh 


20 


13 
1 
5 
1 


14 


9 


13 


West Indian (other than 


1 


Austrian (race not speci- 
fied) 


4 


3 




1 


Belgian (race not specified) . 
South American (race not 






2 
4 
2 




1 

1 




Swiss (race not specified). . . 


2 
3 


2 
2 


2 








Total foreign-bom 


12,003 
16 


3,624 
6 


2,347 
2 


7,172 
8 


2,097 
2 


853 
1 


1,037 
1 








31,481 


r 9,027 


5,938 


18,587 


5,905 


1,954 


3,138 







336 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 5. — Number of persons involvedin cases assisted for each specified class of appar- 
ent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 



GBAND SUMMARY. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number of persons involved in 
class of apparent 


cases assisted for each specified 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
bead of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
of another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


44,498 

11, 103 

18 


11,222 

3,237 

6 


9,876 

3,043 

5 


27,904 

6,071 

6 


9,802 
2,156 


1,105 

573 

1 


4,561 




1,177 












Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 
Bohemian and Moravian . . . 


240 
137 
170 

26 
56 

776 

6 

410 

5,708 
152 

3,908 
8 
34 
15 
4 

9 
139 
363 
10 

3 

321 
38 
16 
36 

250 

4 
2 
100 
1 
1 


82 
29 
35 
12 
14 

214 

4 

106 

1,531 

15 

1,113 


66 
50 
48 
3 
16 

159 

2 

101 

1,242 

56 

777 


112 
97 

118 
12 
35 

566 

2 

284 

3,714 

110 

2,389 
8 
14 


76 
24 
42 
11 
3 

149 

2 

90 

1,277 

15 

1,184 




21 




1 




4 


10 




2 




1 

34 


1 




45 








12 

88 

1 

66 


28 




463 




5 




. 296 








17 
14 
1 

4 
30 
86 

8 


5 
10 


11 
1 












3 

5 
85 
214 
2 
3 

211 
33 
11 
26 

134 

i 
2 
72 


















34 
79 


57 

134 




24 






31 




















56 
11 


75 
4 
7 

18 
59 


99 


12 


54 




5 




a 

6 
79 








4 
57 


2 
1 


4 




50 










2 
22 








Welsh 


8 


41 
1 


3 


17 


Austrian (race not specified) 




1 
























12,943 
136 


3,452 
37 


2,835 
49 


8,266 
104 


3,314 
57 


224 
5 


1,057 


Race not specified 


23 


Total native-born 


68,698 


17 954 


15,808 


42,351 


15, 329 


1,908 


6,818 


Foreign-born: 


1 

76 

1,524 

17 

486 
1,628 
233 
22 
362 

435 

4 

2,617 

1 

185 






1 

47 

1,022 

9 

201 
864 
141 
3 
186 

262 

4 

1,670 

1 

85 










28 

458 

3 

132 
426 
103 
9 
140 

103 


10 

423 

5 

130 

414 

62 

10 

84 

120 


8 
258 


1 
14 




Bohemian and Moravian... 


185 
1 




108 
464 

33 
2 

70 

74 


28 
63 


74 




256 




9 






8 




2 
22 


54 




104 








758 


719 


439 


127 


223 








51 


26 


66 


3 


23 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 337 



Table 5. — Number of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class of appar- 
ent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 

GBAND SUMMARY— Continued. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number of persons involved in 
class of apparenl 


cases assisted for each specified 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Death or 
disability 
of bread- 
winner. 


Death or 
disability 
of another 
member 
of family. 


Lactof 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 
or bad 
habits of 
bread- 
winner. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Foreign-born— Continued . 


21 

316 

8,394 

85 
3,081 

1 

5 

3 

7,441 

352 

3,595 

670 

1 

580 

758 

66 

117 

905 

1 

10,177 
247 

37 
425 

52 

865 

44 

48 

1,016 

177 

84 

2,043 

275 

4 
262 

41 
62 

7 

6 

36 
20 


9 

79 

2,683 

19 

920 


15 

110 

1,796 

8 

811 


12 

208 

5,196 

64 
1,775 

1 

5 

3 

4,230 

205 

2,486 

469 










50 

1,476 

6 

318 


22 
444 


41 




793 




8 




15 


201 
















1 
















2,385 

113 

1,068 

203 

1 

171 

227 
14 
42 

257 


1,755 

92 
728 
191 


1,791 

38 

253 

85 


350 


597 




29 




49 

4 


263 


Italian (not specified) 


41 




119 

152 
31 
41 

300 


343 

496 
38 
85 

517 
1 

6,960 
173 

30 
253 

40 

497 
34 

28 
688 

143 
62 
941 
225 

4 
191 

39 
32 

7 

2 
8 
12 


150 

152 
10 
33 

291 




42 






28 




1 

4 
37 


7 




22 




104 






Polish 


3,202 
77 


1,991 

56 

7 

126 


1,965 
23 
6 

84 
15 

208 

3 

10 

255 

26 

7 

510 

28 


163 
13 


402 




44 








106 
3 

182 

14 

5 

292 

42 

14 

732 

52 




26 










190 
11 
26 

186 

39 

16 

677 

88 


39 
3 


83 








3 




9 

2 
2 

67 


37 




9 




3 




212 




21 










77 


56 

6 
28 

7 


46 


18 


32 


West Indian (other than 


2 


Austrian (race not specified) 

Belgian (race not specified) . . 
South American (race not 


11 


i3 




6 






2 
8 
6 




2 
2 




Swiss (race not specified) — 


5 

7 


10 

7 


7 








Total foreign-born 


49,911 
42 


15,227 
21 


11,674 
9 


30,999 
20 


9,390 
9 


1,506 
6 


4,001 
1 




118,651 


33,202 


27, 491 


73,370 


24,728 


3,420 


10,820 







338 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 6. — Number of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

GRAND SUMMARY. 





1 

CuO . 

a ca 

li 

ft(D 
M ® 

•a 


Number of cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


i 


cub 

a 
3 
o 

5 


k 

ai'O 

II 

O o 

1 


1 
a 

o 
13 
o 
o 


*3 
3 


i 

■d 
o 


nj tp 

*~ 3 

S3 

q w 

f-a 


1 


| 
o 

p. 

H 


i 

a 
o 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


12,522 

3,470 

6 


885 

144 

1 


3,089 

688 

1 


2,872 

413 

2 


5,864 

1,507 

3 


3,129 
1,115 


735 
27 


1,996 

864 

1 


445 
70 


390 
44 


2,380 




















Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 
Bohemian and Moravian 


47 
24 
42- 
9 
17 

254 

2 

101 

1,360 
45 

1,070 

1 

10 

4 

3 

3 

47 
91 
3 
2 

92 
19 
3 
9 
67 

1 
1 
27 
1 
1 


5 
1 
8 
1 

20 


16 
7 
7 
2 
5 

53 


6 
5 
18 
4 
7 

82 


17 
14 
21 
4 
6 

155 
2 

56- 
738 

13 

573 
1 
7 
1 
2 

1 
18 
52 
3 
2 

55 
8 
1 
6 

21 


8 
11 
15 
2 
1 

82 
1 

35 

496 

6 

313 


1 

1 
1 
1 

17 


11 
3 
6 
2 
3 

21 


3 

1 
2 


1 


16 
2 




8 




2 


Dutch 










28 


8 


27 




1 




12 

110 

3 

83 

1 

1 
5 
6 

7 
2 

8 


29 

420 

6 

294 
1 
3 
1 
1 

9 

26 

1 

1 

31 
3 
1 
1 

13 


21 

310 

9 

300 

2 

2 

1 

12 
17 
1 
1 

28 
7 
1 
1 

16 


6 

52 

1 

88 


13 

196 

10 

164 


7 
69 

65 


3 

20 

7 

19 


14 




203 




12 




170 








4 




3 
2 


2 


.... 


4 








1 

11 
37 


2 

3 

5 






1 
4 
20 










3 

7 


4 
1 


19 


Polish 


19 




1 




1 

21 
2 
1 
1 

16. 


1 

11 
6 












8 
2 


7 




14 




3 






1 
1 
2 


2 




2 


4 
13 


2 
3 


3 




24 




1 


Turkish 






1 

5 








1 
5 








Welsh 


2 


7 
1 


20 


12 


1 


i 




6 










1 




1 


























Total 


3,356 
41 


275 


939 
15 


857 
5 


1,798 
31 


1,077 
4 


200 


492 
3 


200 


68 


556 




5 












19,395 


1,305 


4,732 


4,149 


9,203 


5,325 


962 


3,356 


715 


502 


3,367 




Foreign-born: 


1 
22 
306 

7 

111 
474 
46 
5 
105 

104 
2 

793 

1 

49 




















1 




i 

27 


3 

89 


7 

50 

1 

16 
120 
10 
1 
27 

28 

1 

218 


9 

146 

4 

53 

249 

24 

2 

49 

48 


3 

74 
1 

34 

140 

7 


1 

12 
2 

5 
29 


4 
90 
1 

31 
SO 
13 






9 


Bohemian and Moravian 


22 
1 

5 
19 
1 

1 
3 

3 


1 

3 

12 
1 
2 
5 


88 
2 




13 

39 

3 

1 

8 

3 


27 
85 
27 

26 

39 


29 




103 




11 




1 


Danish 


22 
22 


20 
6 


22 
13 


26 


Dutch 


23 




1 


English 


61 


180 


401 


175 


76 
1 
1 


147 


26 


27 










7 


20 


15 


17 


8 


4 


1 


2 


10 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



339 



Table 6. — Number of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of head oj 

case — Continued . 



GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 





i 

3d 
^rt ■ 
1"° 
dS 

So. 

Q 
5 


Number ol cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race of 
head, of case. 

r 


o 


bo 
P 

o 

8 


<t 

W 

n 

Pi 

a 


*c3 

§ 
u 

o 

o 
o 


"3 
P 


60 


■Q 
-a 


1 

-a . 

II 

.5 % 


1 


d' 
o 

OS 

o 

Pi 

CO 

n 

03 


OJ 

O 


Foreign-born— Continued. 

Flemish 


6 

93 

,112 

21 

655 

1 

5 

1 

,896 

78 

756 

135 

1 

134 

186 
23 
40 

246 
1 

,019 

50 

10 

109 

9 

274 

12 

10 

206 

34 

22 

511 

65 

2 
70 

11 
17 

1 

4 
11 
8 


1 

11 

147 
89 


l 

18 

581 

3 

87 


3 

25 

427 

9 

100 


3 

44 

1,161 

7 

214 


1 

24 

678 

4 

83 


8 
97 

1 
26 


2 
27 
327 

1 
262 


4 

101 

1 

26 


1 

2 
40 

2 
35 


1 




16 




361 




4 




132 




1 




1 


3 


4 














2 




1 

927 

40 

494 

77 














Irish , , 1 


151 

4 
22 
10 


415 

22 
187 
36 


573 

20 
180 
36 


480 

8 

275 

15 


96 

5 
12 


391 

17 
102 
31 
1 
21 

28 
8 
10 
61 


95 

4 

63 

5 


34 

2 
10 
2 


291 




18 




94 




22 




1 




9 

7 

2 

1 

41 


47 

72 
2 
5 

54 


28 

52 
5 
10 
60 


85 

87 
14 
16 
108 
1 

1,329 
23 

4 
49 

8 

128 
7 
2 

123 

22 

9 

230 

32 


28 

32 
3 

8 
78 


6 

7 
1 
1 

18 


7 

9 

1 

3 

23 


6 
20 

"5" 


23 




24 




4 




8 




87 






Polish 2 


120 
2 

9 

14 
1 
1 
9 

2 
61 
4 

1 
2 

1 
1 


493 
13 

3 
13 

3 

65 
2 

86 

21 
1 

98 
16 

23 

2 
2 


501 
11 
4 
21 

77 
5 
1 

48 

4 
12 
106 
23 

1 

15 

6 
5 


831 
8 
2 
17 
2 

43 
1 

25 

5 

2 

158 

12 


43 
17 


362 
11 
1 
25 


158 
1 
1 
2 
1 

12 
1 

4 

4 
2 
38 
3 


31 
2 
2 
9 

2 
1 
1 

.... 

20 
1 


284 




17 








20 




1 




36 

i 

9 

1 

29 


47 
1 
4 

26 

7 

9 

113 

14 


53 








3 




30 




7 




2 




148 




12 


Turkish 




Welsh 


48 

6 

7 


16 


7 


6 

1 
3 

1 

1 
1 
2 


2 


4 


IS 


West Indian (other than 


2 


Austrian (race not specified) . . 

Belgian (race not specified) . . . 
South American (race not 


1 


1 






S 










1 
1 
1 


6 

4 


1 
3 

1 


1 






2 


Swiss (race not specified) 


1 


4 
3 


1 


2 
1 


2 
2 








,871 
18 


888 
3 


2,877 

7 


2,869 
4 


6,318 
7 


3,331 
1 


576 
5 


2,329 
2 


654 


289 
2 


2,138 




1 








,284 


2,196 


7,616 


7,022 


15,528 


8,657 


1,543 


5,687 


1,369 


793 


5,506 





340 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 7. 



-Number of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 
and race of head of case. 



GRAND SUMMARY. 





Num- 
ber re- 
>orting 
com- 
plete 
data. 


Number of persons Involved in cases given aid specified. 


General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


1 

3 


o 

3 


k 4 

sal 


u 

o 


i 




o p n 


1 


p 


1 
O 


Native - bom of native 
father: 


44,362 

11,058 

18 


5,178 

424 

5 


2,892 

2,873 

5 


9,758 

1,358 

6 


!1,375 

6,015 

9 


12, 117 
3,337 


L,ua 

45 


7,786 

2,588 

5 


1,707 
251 


1,029 
105 


8,138 




1,340 




6 


Native - born of foreign 

father, by race of father: 

Bohemian and Mora- 


240 
137 
165 
26 

56 

776 

6 

407 

5,657 

152 

3,867 

8 

34 

15 

4 

9 

139 

347 

10 

3 

321 
38 
12 
36 

250 

4 

2 

99 

1 
1 


31 

7 

13 
7 

54 


84 
43 
43 
2 
21 

188 


32 
25 
67 
7 
17 

248 


101 

91 

85 
15 
25 

488 

6 

234 

3,080 

38 

2,172 

8 

24 

3 

2 

3 

61 

201 

10 

3 

199 
11 
4 
24 
90 


48 
70 
45 
10 

1 

273 

4 

134 

2,154 

27 

1,375 


4 

1 

1 
1 

20 


58 

11 

. 26 

5 

9 

77 


17 

7 
9 


8 


78 


Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 


7 
37 
2 








9 




78 


14 


99 




2 




44 
418 

9 

366 
1 

3 

26 
29 

36 
4 

37 


146 

1,999 

15 

1,165 
8 
12 
10 

1 

32 

112 

2 

2 

112 
7 
4 
4 
53 


98 

1,226 

25 

1,016 

4 

3 

2 

36 

64 

2 

1 

98 
12 
4 
2 
59 


17 

C6 
1 

112 


69 

879 

47 

718 


30 
328 

294 


10 

63 
14 

42 


64 




826 




36 




612 








13 




14 
4 


8 


1 


12 


Italian (not specified).. 




3 
51 
164 


2 

3 
10 






4 
21 
87 










14 
28 


4 
2 


57 




68 




5 




2 

98 
6 
4 
2 

84 


1 

15 
6 












24 
6 


27 




52 




7 






i 

7 
3 


8 




2 


15 

47 


8 

14 


14 




82 




4 








2 
14 








2 
20 








"Welsh 


6 


25 
1 


80 


41 


1 


4 




19 


Austrian (race not 




Race not specified 




1 




1 
























Total 


12,822 
145 

68,405 


1,091 


4,091 
70 


3,064 
22 


7,059 
109 


4,609 
13 


264 


2,143 
13 


866 


169 


2,100 




24 


Total native-born — 


4,698 


19,931 


14,208 


33, 567 


20,076 


1,422 


12,535 


2,824 


1,303 


11,608 


Foreign-born: 


1 

76 

1,487 
17 

473 

1,609 

231 

22 

362 

433 

4 

2,594 

1 

183 




















1 




4 
132 


17 
498 


20 

220 
1 

50 
422 

51 

2 

104 

79 

2 

619 


40 

703 
6 

207 
864 
135 
11 
155 

187 


16 

387 
3 

132 
627 
44 


1 

27 
2 

15 
34 


18 

469 
5 

160 

329 

47 






29 


Bohemian and Mora- 


122 
5 

18 
58 
8 
8 
26 

7 


1 

4 
37 
1 
9 
9 


419 




10 


Canadian, French 


52 

146 

17 

8 

25 

13 


149 
345 
162 

109 

179 


122 

346 

44 




2 




97 
103 


20 
6 


94 
68 


112 


Dutch 


119 




2 




175 


705 


1,365 


687 


95 

1 
1 3 


580 


92 


73 


423 








23 


98 


38 


83 


40 


21 


4 


2 


49 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



341 



Table 7. — Number of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general nativity 
and race of head of case — Continued. 



GENERAL SUMMARY- Continued. 



j 


I 

Num- 
ber re- 
porting 
com- 
plete 
data. 




Number of persons involved in cases 


given 


lid specified. 




General nativity and race 
of head of case. 


3 


bit 

| 
o 

5 


sis 


u 

o . 
w 

11 


3 


bi> 

.9 

O 
l-l 


O 03 O 

.9"! 

3"0 to 

S <d"35 


1 


i 

u 

&.S 

§3- 


1 


Foreign-horn— Continued. 


21 

312 

8,297 

92 
3, 101 

1 

5 

3 

7,251 

362 

3,593 

657 

1 
609 

740 

66 

108 

904 

1 

10, 096 
247 

35 
431 

52 

853 

44 
44 
959 

167 

84 

2,044 

275 

4 
262 

41 

66 

7 

6 

31 
32 


4 
36 
586 

446 


4 

82 

2,758 

15 

482 


13 

84 

1,635 

34 

420 


8 

146 

4,594 

42 

1,016 


4 

97 

2,654 

24 

402 


8 

147 

2 

58 


5 

127 

1,517 

3 
1,347 


13 

407 

3 

135 


8 

2 

144 

3 

93 






64 


German 


1,410 








1 




1 


3 


4 














2 




3 

3,695 

176 

2,255 

369 
















561 

' 24 
102 
46 


2,031 

127 

1,027 

206 


2,255 

73 

828 
166 


1,854 

33 

1,268 

77 


133 

5 
20 


1,715 

87 

508 

143 

1 

87 

134 
24 
27 

214 


395 

23 

256 
31 


96 

5 

28 
11 


106 




Italian, South 

Italian (not specified).. 


496 

126 

1 




42 

39 

4 

1 

134 


255 

363 

5 

20 

228 


112 

203 

8 

33 

233 


399 

407 
38 
57 

412 
1 

6,680 
130 

16 
205 

45 

448 

26 

8 

571 

113 
38 
949 
144 


134 

158 
12 
29 

322 


22 

9 

2 

1 

37 


30 

46 
2 
8 

96 


24 
35 

11 


122 




107 




7 




12 




340 






Polish 


656 
9 

47 

39 
3 
2 

43 


2,925 
96 
16 
67 
20 

239 
15 

452 

113 

6 

473 

76 

98 
8 
5 


2,493 
69 
13 
78 

208 

18 

7 

210 

21 
62 
410 
106 

3 
36 

19 

21 


4,146 
48 
8 
85 
13 

174 
3 

115 

25 

7 

670 

57 


98 
18 


1.913 

65 

5 

100 


861 
9 
3 
12 
9 

50 
2 

18 

17 

7 

177 

9 


127 

3 

2 

28 

8 
1 
6 

3 
52 
5 


1,358 




66 








86 




5 




52 

3 

29 

1 

48 


178 

4 

19 

126 

33 

38 
510 
71 


155 








13 




142 




30 




6 
259 
27 

1 
3 

6 
7 


8 




620 




42 






Welsh 


199 
24 
28 


68 


20 


30 
6 
15 

7 

1 

4 
4 


4 


7 


52 


"West Indian (other 


6 


Austrian (race not 


5 


3 






21 


Belgian (race not 








South American (race 
not specified) . . '. 

Swiss (race not speci- 
fied) 




2 

1 

3 


17 

21 


2 

7 
4 


1 






3 


4 


20 

18 


4 


6 
1 


4 


Race not specified 


9 


Total foreign-born . . . 


49,387 
37 


3,733 
10 


14, 515 
19 


11,478 
15 


27,036 
25 


14,541 
3 


921 
9 


10,859 

7 


2,975 


844 
2 

2,149 


8,849 

1 








117,829 


8,441 


34,465 


25,701 


60,623 


34,620 


2,352 


23,401 


5,799 


20,458 









342 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 8. — Persons per case, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

QUANT* SUMMARY. 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases consisting of each specified number of persons. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10 or 
more. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


12,597 

3,489 

6 


2,819 

795 

2 


!,131 
827 


1,955 

615 

2 


1,815 
442 


L,401 

313 

2 


1,054 
226 


738 
138 


399 

75 


180 
32 


105 




26 


















Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 
Bohemian and Moravian. . 
Canadian, French 


47 
24 
43 
9 
17 

254 

2 

102 

1,373 

45 

1,082 
1 

10 
4 
3 

3 
47 
94 

3 

2 

92 
19 
4 
9 
67 

1 
1 
28 

1 
1 


1 
3 
11 
4 

5 

81 

13 
190 
11 

293 


4 


6 


6 
2 
2 
3 
1 

31 

1 

12 

225 

8 

130 


9 

5 
5 


11 
3 
3 


4 
8 
3 
1 


4 
1 
3 


2 
1 

1 


1 


6 

3 

49 

1 

15 

186 

5 

155 


7 

1 
5 

31 

25 

185 

9 

134 


2 












1 

3 


2 






23 


IS 


16 


2 








14 

208 

5 

109 


4 

160 

3 

98 


9 

115 

3 

83 


6 

63 
1 

42 
1 


2 
23 


2 




18 






Irish 


28 


10 








1 
2 

2 

16 
8 

1 

33 

11 
1 
1 

14 


2 

1 

1 
6 
12 
1 
1 

12 
2 


2 
1 


2 


3 










Italian (not specified) 










1 


















1 
11 
24 

1 


1 

5 

21 
















3 

13 

1 


2 
7 


1 

6 


3 

2 










1 




















7 
3 


8 
1 
2 
2 
10 

1 


10 
2 


8 


5 


4 


4 


1 










1 
2 
3 










2 
6 


1 
12 


13 


1 

5 










4 














6 

1 
1 


1 
3 
















Welsh 


4 


6 


4 


2 


1 


1 




1 


Austrian (race not speci- 




Race not specified 






































Total 


3,388 
45 


710 
11 


474 
11 


470 
3 


480 
6 


427 
5 


325 
3 


201 
4 


139 


63 
1 


39 




1 






Total native-born 


19,525 


4,337 


3,443 


3,045 


2,743 


2,148 


1,608 


1,141 


613 


276 


171 


Foreign-born: 


1 
22 
314 

7 

113 

482 

47 

5 

105 

106 
2 

805 
1 
50 

6 

94 

2,156 

22 

659 

1 

5 

1 

1,959 


1 

6 

25 

4 

23 

121 

3 

2 

42 

33 

245 
1 
9 

2 
28 
387 

5 
84 

1 

5 






















i 

28 

16 

82 

5 

1 

13 

18 

2 

152 


3 

29 

1 

17 

80 

6 


6 

57 

10 

63 
7 


2 
57 
2 

7 

44 

5 


3 
45 


1 
31 








Bohemian and Moravian. . 


22 


13 


7 


Canadian, French 


11 

40 

7 


11 

25 

7 


7 
16 
4 
1 
4 

6 


6 
9 
3 

5 

6 


5 

2 








1 




11 

4 


4 
9 


10 

10 


5 
5 


8 
7 


3 


Dutch 


8 








100 


83 


77 


55 


40 


29 


14 


10 








7 

19 

393 

3 

50 


11 

1 

9 

279 

2 

83 


4 

2 

12 
282 

3 
104 


9 


6 


1 


2 

1 
3 

82 
3 

52 




1 








11 

249 

2 

84 


4 

213 
1 
80 


2 

158 

2 

85 


3 

70 

25 


3 




33 




1 




12 






























1 

211 
















Irish 


488 


314 


219 


196 


169 


158 


114 


54 


36 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



343 



Table 8. — Persons per case, by general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 

GEAND STTMMARV— Continued. 



General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases consisting of each specified number of persons. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


•9. 


10 or 
more. 


Foreign-born— Continued. 
Italian, North 


78 

760 

148 

1 

136 

206 
23 
41 

248 
1 

2,048 

50 

12 

109 

9 

276 
12 
11 

243 

36 
22 
513 
65 

2 
71 

11 

17 

1 

5 
13 
9 


12 

45 
12 
1 
11 

38 
4 
18 
65 
1 

95 

4 

4 

29 


4 

88 
10 


16 
112 
21 


10 
126 
30 


9 
107 
18 


11 
118 
24 


5 

77 
13 


4 
46 
16 


5 

22 

1 


2 
19 
3 


Italian, South 


Italian (not specified) .... 


Lithuanian 


9 

21 

10 

9 

33 


22 

26 
4 
2 

30 


27 

33 

1 

3 
30, 


21 

40 
2 
3 

28 


22 
27 


15 
14 


6 

1 

2 

2 

10 


3 

4 






2 


Mexican 




27 


2 
19 


1 
5 


i 
l 






Polish 


188 
10 
1 
10 


288 
1 
1 

13 
1 

41 
2 
2 

41 

4 

.. 8 

59 

15 

1 
10 

2 


300 

6 

4 

11 

21 
2 
2 

39 

8 
4 
80 
6 


353 
10 

1 
14 

3 

17 
1 
2 

43 

6 

63 
15 


312 
5 


231 
6 


149 
2 
1 
5 

8 


81 
3 


61 
3 


Portuguese 


"Roumanian .... 




11 
3 

20 

1 
29 

9 
4 
67 
10 


11 
1 

15 
1 
2 

22 

4 
2 
36 
5 


4 
1 

4 


1 


Ruthenian 




112 
3 

15 

1 
2 
97 
8 

1 
16 

1 

2 


31 
2 
2 

29 

2 
2 
71 
4 

13 
3 
3 


7 

1 


Scotch-Irish 












14 
2 


8 


3 


Slovenian 










25 
1 


11 






1 


Turkish 


Welsh 


7 
3 
3 


6 
2 
2 


9 
2 
5 


3 


4 


3 




West Indian (other than 




Austrian (race not speci- 
fied).'. 










Belgian (race not speci- 
fied) 


1 








South American (race not 
specified) 


2 
5 
2 


2 
2 






1 
3 










Swiss (race not specified). . 


i 

3 


1 
2 


1 
1 










Race not specified 








1 












Total foreign-born 


12,140 
20 


2,121 
10 


1,663 


1,574 
4 


1,624 
3 


1,535 
1 


1,362 
2 


1,031 


644 


364 


222 














31,685 


6,468 


5,106 


4,623 


4,370 


3,684 


2,972 


2,172 


1,257 


640 


393 







344 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 9. — Number of cases of each specified number of persons, by type of case and by 
general nativity and race of head of case. 

GRAND SUMMARY. 

[Types of cases: (1) Cases consisting of husband and wife, with or without children; (2) cases consisting 
of widow, with or without children; (3) cases consisting of widower, with or without children; (4) cases 
In which there are persons other than husband, wife, or children, and cases In which there Is neither 
husband nor wife. The term "widow," as used in this table, includes, besides the widowed, deserted, 
or divorced, those wives whose husbands are residing elsewhere and unm arried mothers living with 
their children.] 



General nativity and 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases consisting of husband and wife and each specified 
number of children. 


race of head of case. 


None. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12 or 
more. 


Total. 


Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


12,597 

3,489 

6 


1,058 
399 


1,070 

263 

2 


1,123 
216 


952 

160 

2 


778 
147 


575 
89 


324 
56 


155 

20 


66 
14 


19 
5 


4 
1 






6,124 
1,378 




2 




























Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of 
father: 
Bohemian and Mo- 


47 
24 
43 
9 
17 

2S4 

2 

102 

1,373 

45 

1,082 
1 
10 

4 
3 

3 
47 
94 
3 
2 

92 
19 
4 
9 
67 

1 
1 

28 

1 
1 


1 


3 


3 
1 
1 

3 
1 

23 

1 

9 

121 

4 

86 


6 
5 
4 


8 
2 
3 


2 
5 
2 


1 
1 
2 


2 
1 












26 




1 
1 












Canadian, Other 


5 

2 

29 
1 
10 
93 
4 

84 


6 
1 
3 

21 

18 
97 
6 

69 


1 








25 












Dutch 








1 
2 


2 














English 


16 


15 


14 


1 


1 








122 










2 




8 
117 

4 

71 


3 

115 

2 

64 


8 

88 

2 

60 


6 
49 
1 

37 
1 


2 

22 


1 

13 


1 

1 












2 


1 








23 




23 


3 


2 


1 


















1 

i 

l 
l 
l 


1 


2 


1 


















4 


Italian (not speci- 
fied) 










1 






































1 
5 
17 
1 


1 
3 
14 






















3 




1 
5 
1 


1 
3 


1 
4 


3 
2 














15 


Polish 




1 










47 












2 


























8 
1 


3 

2 


6 

1 
1 
1 
5 

1 


7 
2 


5 


3 


3 


4 


1 










40 












6 


Slovak 




















1 




1 
1 


4 


8 


1 
3 


1 
3 
















4 




2 














26 
















1 


Turkish 


1 

3 
























1 


Welsh 


2 


3 


4 


1 


1 


1 




1 










16 


• Austrian (race not 








































































Total 


3,388 
45 


249 
6 


260 
1 


291 
1 


260 
4 


226 
2 


194 
4 


112 


56 
1 


24 

1 


6 


3 


1 




1,682 
20 
















Total native-born. 


19, 525 


1,712 


1,596 


1,631 


1,378 


1,153 


862 


492 


238 


105 


30 


8 


3 




9,208 


Foreign-born: 


1 
22 

314 

7 

113 

482 
47 
5 
105 
106 
































1 

8 

8 

31 
2 


2 

12 
1 
10 

49 
4 


5 

26 

7 

30 
5 


1 

27 
2 
5 

33 
3 


3 

24 


1 
21 
















13 


Bohemian and Mo- 


16 


13 


2 


4 


1 






154 








3 




7 

32 
4 


10 

19 

7 


6 

12 
3 
1 
4 
5 


4 

8 
3 

~"s 

4 


4 
2 




1 






62 








216 












31 




1 

1 
3 










2 




8 
11 


5 
3 


3 
7 


5 
6 


5 
3 


7 
4 


1 
2 








44 


Dutch 


3 






51 



immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



345 



Table 9. — Number of cases of each specified number of persons, by type of case and by 
general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 



GRAND SUMMARY- Continued. 



General nativity and 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


-Number of cases consisting of husband and wife and each specified 
number of children. 


race of head of case. 


None. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12 or 
more. 


Total. 


Foreign-born— Cont'd. 


2 

805 

1 

50 
6 

94 

2,156 

22 

659 
1 

5 

1 

1,959 

78 

760 

148 

1 

136 

206 
23 

41 

248 

1 

2,048 

50 

12 

109 

9 

276 

12 

11 

243 
36 
22 

513 

65 
2 
71 

11 

17 

1 

6 

13 
9 


2 
91 


























2 


English 


58 


56 


56 


45 


33 


23 


11 


5 


1 


1 






380 










Finnish 


3 

11 

234 

2 

28 


6 
1 

6 

142 

2 

56 


2 
2 



158 

3 

69 


6 


3 


1 


1 

1 

3 

69 
3 
47 




1 










23 


flemish 










4 




8 

140 

1 

62 


4 

142 

1 

70 


2 

129 

2 

70 


3 
61 


1 
16 


2 
8 
1 
3 








46 




2 


2 




1,103 
15 






22 


9 








436 












Hindu 






























































146 

1 

43 

7 


79 
11 
64 

15 


104 
7 
86 

22 


115 
8 
90 

12 


123 
10 
82 

18 


119 
4 
55 

11 


91 
4 
41 

13 


45 
5 
19 

1 


18 
1 
6 

1 


8 
1 

8 

1 


2 


2 


1 


853 




52 


Italian, South 

Italian (not speci- 
fied) 






1 


495 
101 














3 
10 

5 

6 
13 


14 
15 
1 

1 

11 


17 
29 

3 
18 


13 
32 
2 

1 
17 


18 
22 


13 
14 


6 

2 

1 
6 


3 
4 












87 




1 


1 








128 










10 




18 


2 
12 


1 
4 


1 
1 










16 












100 














Polish 


101 
4 

1 
2 


169 
1 

1 

8 


200 
2 

4 
8 


223 
9 

1 
12 

2 
10 

1 

2 
34 
6 

40 

11 


209 
4 


164 
5 


114 
2 

1 
3 

6 


67 


27 
2 


13 
1 


4 






1,291 








30 










8 




10 
3 
12 

1 

23 
8 
3 

43 

8 


9 
1 

14 
1 

2 

20 

4 

2 

22 

3 


4 
1 
3 


1 










57 












7 




16 

2 

12 
1 
2 

31 

2 

6 
2 
2 


20 
1 

1 
27 
2 
7 
23 

11 
1 

6 

2 


12 
1 

2 
29 
7 
4 
36 

4 


5 


1 

1 




1 




100 




7 
















8 




13 

2 


6 


2 










166 












30 
















18 




22 
1 


8 




1 


1 
1 






227 








41 














1 


Welsh.. 


4 
3 
2 


4 
2 
2 


6 

2 

• 4 


2 


4 


2 












34 


West Indian (other 

than Cuban) 

Austrian (race not 












9 


















12 


Belgian (race not 


1 
















1 


South American 

(race not specified) 

Swiss (race not 


2 
2 






1 
1 


















3 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 


















6 


Race not specified . . 










1 








3 






















Total foreign-born 
Race not specified 


12,140 
20 


862 


850 


985 
1 


1,006 
1 


971 
1 


786 


526 


307 


111 


59 


16 


5 


2 


6,486 
3 
























Grand total 


31,685 


2,574 


2,446 


2,617 


2,385.2,125 


1,648 


1,018 


545 


216 


89 


24 


8 


2 


15,697 



65812°— vol 34—11- 



346 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 9. — Number of cases of each specified number of persons, by type of case and by 
general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 



GBAND SUMMARY— Continued. 



General nativity and 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of cases consisting of widow and each specified number of 
children. 


race of head of case. 


None. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10 


11. 


12 or 

more. 


TotaL 


Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


12, 597 

3,489 

6 


844 

440 

2 


859 
311 


652 
234 


485 
153 


315 
94 


195 
53 


Ill 
26 


49 
9 


10 
1 


4 


1 
1 


1 




3,526 
1,322 






































Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of 
father: 
Bohemian and Mo- 


47 
24 
43 
9 
17 

254 

2 

102 

1,373 

45 

1,082 

1 

10 

4 
3 

3 

47 
94 
3 
2 

92 
19 
4 
9 
67 

1 
1 
28 

1 
1 




1 


3 


3 
1 
1 


3 
1 




1 












11 




1 


1 
1 
1 














Canadian, Other 


3 

1 
1 

34 


1 


1 




1 










9 












2 


Dutch 


1 
15 


2 
7 
























6 


5 


3 


2 














72 




















2 

53 

1 

64 


4 

73 

1 

53 


6 

77 
2 

48 


1 

82 

3 

34 


6 

73 

1 

27 


1 
35 


1 
21 














21 




8 




1 








423 










8 




26 


15 


2 


1 


2 








272 














1 
1 


1 


1 




2 


















5 


Italian (not speci- 
fied) 


















1 






























































1 
1 


5 
10 
1 


6 
7 


2 
4 


2 
5 


1 
4 
















17 


Polish 
















31 


















1 






























6 


2 
1 


2 
1 


1 


1 


1 


1 














14 
















2 




1 
1 
5 




















1 














1 














2 




3 


a 


8 


4 


1 


2 












28 
















Turkish 






























Welsh 


4 




1 


2 




















7 


Austrian (race not 






















Eace not specified. . 


























































Total 


3,388 
45 


176 
8 


174 
4 


172 
2 


147 
5 


130 
1 


73 


44 


13 


2 


3 








934 










20 






















Total native-born. 


19,525 


1,470 


1,348 


1,000 


790 


540 


321 


181 


71 


13 


7 


2 


1 




5,804 


Foreign-born: 


1 

22 

314 

7 

113 

482 
47 
5 
105 
106 

2 

805 

1 

50 

6 


































1 

14 


1 

26 




















2 


Bohemian and Mo- 


8 


16 


26 


19 


9 


2 












120 


















12 

38 
2 

4 
4 


6 

41 
3 
1 
4 
5 


3 

27 
1 


3 

30 
2 


2 

7 
1 


3 

6 
3 


1 
4 


3 
1 


2 










32 












156 














13 














1 




5 

1 


1 

2 


5 
3 


1 


1 
2 








1 






21 


Dutch. 












18 




















66 


51 


28 


20 


14 


4 


5 


5 


1 


1 








195 














2 


4 


5 


2 


3 


3 




1 












20 


Flemish 















Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



347 



Table 9. — Number of cases of each specified number of persons, by type of case and by 
general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 



GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 



General nativity and 


Total 
number 
of cases. 


Number of 


cases 


consisting of widow and each specified number of 
children. 


race of head of case. 


None. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12 or 
more. 


Total. 


Forei gn-born— Cont' d. 


94 

2,156 

22 

659 

1 

5 

1 

1,959 

78 

760 

148 

1 

136 

206 

23 

41 

248 

1 

2,048 

50 

12 

109 
9 

276 
12 
11 

243 
36 
22 

513 
65 

2 
71 

11 

17 

1 

5 

13 
9 


8 
165 


7 
133 


3 
108 


4 
104 


1 
91 


















23 




62 


31 


8 


9 


1 








712 














12 


21 


26 


31 


18 


7 


10 


3 


2 










130 


Herzegovinian 














































1 

104 

3 

41 

6 






















1 




232 
2 
17 

3 

1 
1 
5 
1 
10 

29 


140 
2 
37 

2 


91 
3 
35 

8 


64 

11 

5 


35 

1 

28 

5 


30 
1 
10 

1 


20 


5 


2 


1 






724 








12 




2 
1 












181 


Italian (not speci- 
fied) 




1 








32 










1 




6 
11 
4 
3 

18 


6 
9 
3 


8 
4 


6 
5 


3 

2 


1 














31 




1 












37 














9 






1 

10 


















14 




17 


8 


8 


3 


3 


1 










97 














Polish... 


34 

1 


77 
1 


103 


87 
3 


113 


88 

1 


59 


23 


8 
1 


3 


3 






598 








7 






















8 


4 
1 
19 
1 
1 

12 
1 
1 

34 
3 


3 


2 


1 


1 


2 












21 














1 




24 


15 


8 


6 


7 






1 










80 
















1 




























1 




7 

1 

33 
2 


17 
1 

33 
2 


10 
1 


7 


5 
1 


2 


1 












61 














4 


















2 




40 
1 


21 
2 


16 
1 


12 
1 


1 


3 


2 








195 










12 


















Welsh. 


7 


5 
1 
1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 




1 










24 


West Indian (other 

than Cuban) 

Austrian (race not 










1 








1 
















3 


Belgian (race not 
























South American 

(race not specified; 

Swiss (race not 






























1 








2 


















3 


Race not specified- . 




1 


1 


1 
















3 






















Totalforeign-born 
Race not specified 


12, 140 
20 


732 
3 


676 


596 
1 


540 
1 


428 


314 
1 


185 


77 


34 


10 


5 






3,597 






6 


















Grand total 


31,685 


2,205 


2,024 


1,657 


1,331 


968 


636 


366 


148 


47 


17 


7 


1 




9,407 



348 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 9. — Number of cases of each specified number of persons, by type of case and by 
general nativity and race of head of case—Continued. 



GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 



General nativity and 


Total 

number 

of 

cases. 


Number of cases consisting of widower and each specified number of 
children. 


race of head of case. 


None. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12 or 
more. 


Total. 


Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


12, 597 

3,489 

6 


380 
- 84 


64 
21 


38 
10 


39 
11 


20 
5 


8 
5 


11 
2 


1 
3 




1 
































































Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of 
father: 
Bohemian and Mo- 


47 
24 
43 
9 

17 

254 

2 

102 

1,373 

45 

1,082 
1 
10 

4 
3 

3 
47 
94 
3 
2 

92 
19 

4 
9 

67 

1 

1 
28 

1 


















































4 
























































Dutch 


1 

8 


























1 




? 
























10 
































5 
20 
2 

38 


1... 






















5 




7 
6 


3 3 


4 


3 
















40 




1 




1 




















2 






2 






































































Italian (not speci- 
fied) 
























































































































Polish 














1 














1 
































8 


1 
1 
























1 


Scotch 








1 
















10 


Scotch-Irish 
































































































l 




























! 




























i 
















Welsh 










i 
















1 


Austrian (race not 




1 






















Race not specified . . 


1 




I 






i... 








































Total 


3,388 
45 


86 
2 


17i 6 


3 


4 


8 1 














125 


Race not specified 


















2 




. 
























Total native-born. 


19, 525 

1 
22 

314 

7 

113 

482 
47 
5 
105 
106 

2 

805 

1 

50 


552 


102J 54 


53 


29 


21 


14 


4 




1 








830 












Foreign-born: 
































2 

2 
2 
4 

15 








1 
2 


















3 


Bohemian and Mo- 


4 


2 


3 


1 
















14 




















2 




2 


1 






i 1 


1 












7 






1 












18 








v.'.'.y.'.'.'.'. 














































5 
8 


1 
2 


1 






\ 














1? 


Dutch 








1 


1 




































52 
1 
2 
2 


3 


4 


2 




i 
















62 


















1 


Finnish 
























2 


Flemish ... i' 6 










i 














2 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



349 



Table 9. — Number of cases of each specified number of ■persons, by type of case and by 
general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 



GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 



General nativity and 


Total 

number 

of 

cases. 


Number of cases consisting of widower and each specified number of 
children. 


race of head of case. 


None. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12 or 
more. 


Total. 


Foreign-born — Cont' d . 


94 

2,156 

22 

059 
1 

5 

1 

1,959 

78 

760 

148 

1 

136 

206 

23 

41 

248 

1 

2,048 

50 

12 

109 
9 

276 
12 
11 

243 
36 
22 

513 
65 

2 
71 

11 

17 

1 

5 

13 
9 


4 
05 

1 
28 


























4 




12 
1 
1 


4 


5 


2 


3 


1 


3 






1 






96 












2 




1 


3 






1 














34 


Herzegovinian 
















































































61 
1 
6 

2 


9 
4 


8 
1 
4 


7 
1 


3 
1 
1 


2 


2 .... 

. 1 . 


2 










94 












3 




1 


2 


1 










20 


Italian (not speci- 
fied) 


1 












3 






























2 
17 




1 
1 




1 


















4 




















18 




























2 
5 














1 
1 












3 






1 


1 


















8 
























23 
3 
16 


4 
3 


6 


5 


6 


4 


3 


3 












54 














3 


























3 






1 






















17 




























21 
1 

4 




1 






1 


1 














24 




1 
















2 




2 






















2 




2 
1 














1 








7 






















1 




1 

18 
1 
























1 




4 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 














28 
















2 




























2 


2 








1 
















5 


West Indian (other 
Austrian (race not 
























1 


m 




1 




















3 


Belgian (race not 


























South American 

(race not specified) 

Swiss (race not 






























1 


























1 


Race not specified . . 






1 






















1 


























Total foreign-born 
Race not specified 


12, 140 
20 




30 


19 


17 


14 


10 


3 , J 


1 






572 


2 


1 






2 
















14 


3 2 


1 


= 


= 





Grand total 


31,685 




83 


48 


38 


28 


1,404 





















350 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 9. — Number of cases of each specified number of persons, by type of case and by 
general nativity and race of head of case — Continued . 

GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 



General nativity and 


Total 
num- 
ber of 
cases. 


Number of cases not otherwise classified of each specified number of 
persons. 


race of head of case. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12 or 
more. 


Total 


Native-born of native 
father: 
White 


12, 597 

3,489 

6 


1,595 
271 


150 
96 


195 

108 


108 
62 


114 
54 


73 

21 


41 

21 


25 

7 


15 
5 


3 
2 


5 


1 
1 


2,385 




648 


































Native-bom of foreign 
father, by race of 
father: 
Bohemian and 


47 
24 
43 
9 
17 

254 

2 

102 

1,373 

45 

1,082 

1 

10 

4 
3 

3 
47 
94 
3 
2 

92 
19 
4 
9 
67 

1 
1 

28 

1 
1 


1 

3 
4 
3 
3 

39 


2 








3 


2 
2 


2 










10 


















5 














1 










5 
























3 


























3 




3 


3 


2 


2 






1 










50 




















6 

117 
8 

191 


1 
13 


1 

8 


2 
19 
1 

10 


















10 




14 


7 


6 
1 

8 


6 


1 








191 










10 




12 


15 


11 


6 


3 


4 




1 


1 


262 












1 




















1 


Italian (not speci- 
fied) 


1 
2 






















1 


























2 




























Norwegian 


15 

7 
























15 


1 




3 


3 




1 












15 


Portuguese 














1 

19 
11 
1 
1 
11 
























1 




1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 










28 












11 














1 












2 




1 


1 


















3 






1 


1 














13 




















































Welsh .. 


2 

1 
1 




1 


1 


















4 


Austrian (race not 

specified) 

Race not specified . 


















1 
























1 


























Total 


3,388 
45 


448 
1 


34 
1 


32 


39 


33 


18 
1 


22 


14 


5 




1 


1 


647 


Race not specified 


3 






















Total native- 


19, 525 


2,315 


281 


335 


269 


201 


113 


84 


46 


25 


5 


6 


3 


3,683 






Foreign-bom: 


1 

22 

314 

7 

113 

482 
47 
5 
105 
106 

2 

805 

1 

50 

6 


1 

4 

15 
2 
7 

68 

1 

2 

33 

21 


1 


























4 


Bohemian and 




1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


4 










26 












2 




2 
8 


3 

4 
1 




















12 




3 


3 
1 


2 


2 


1 


1 








92 










3 


















2 


























33 










1 


1 






2 








25 
























127 


7 


10 


! 


7 


5 


2 


1 


2 


1 




1 


168 










5 






















5 


Flemish 




r" I" 



















Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



351 



Table 9. — Number of cases of each specified number of persons., by type of case and by 
general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 

GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 



General nativity and 


Total 
num- 
ber of 
cases. 


Number of cases not otherwise classified of each specified number of 
persons. 


race of head of ease. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12 or 
more. 


Total. 


Foreign-torn — Con. 


94 

2,156 

22 

659 

1 

5 

1 

1,959 

78 

760 

148 

1 
136 
206 
23 
41 

248 

1 

2,048 

50 

12 

109 
9 

276 
12 
11 

243 
36 
22 

513 
65 

2 
71 

11 
17 

1 

5 

13 
9 


16 
157 

4 
44 

1 

5 


1 
14 


25 


2 
15 


2 
16 
1 
4 
















21 




6 


7 


2 




1 


1 


1 


245 




5 








1 


3 


4 


'2 


1 








59 


Herzegovinian 












1 
























5 






























195 
9 

22 

7 


19 

1 
4 

1 


20 

1 
3 


17 


14 


9 


7 


3 


2 


1 




1 


288 




11 


Italian, South 

Italian (not speci- 
fied) . . 


4 


5 

1 


7 

1 


10 


3 
2 


2 


3 




1 


64 
12 




















8 

16 
3 



31 
1 

38 
3 
1 

13 


1 

2 


1 

1 

1 

1 


2 
1 

3 


1 
3 


1 
3 


1 












14 














23 
















6 


Negro 


1 
1 
















8 


1 


4 












43 












1 


Polish 


6 
2 


10 


8 
1 


11 
1 


11 


5 
1 


9 


6 
2 




1 




105 




10 








1 














1 












14 










1 

1 














1 




67 
2 




1 


1 






2 










72 
















2 






























4 
1 








2 


1 






2 








9 




















1 












1 
6 
1 














1 




46 
5 

1 

7 

1 

1 


3 


2 


3 
1 


1 
2 


1 


2 










63 












10 


















1 


Welsh 




1 




















8 


West Indian 
(other than Cu- 




















1 


Austrian (race not 
specified) 

Belgian (race not 
specified) 

South American 
(race nor speci- 
fied) 
























1 


























2 

3 
2 
























2 


Swiss (race not 

specified) 

Race not specified . 
























3 
























2 


























Total foreign- 


12,140 
20 


1,008 

5 


71 


86 
3 


69 
1 


82 


60 


46 


31 


20 


6 


2 


4 


1,485 


Raee not specified. 


9 




















Grand total 


31,685 


3,328 


352 


424 


339 


283 


173 


130 


Ti 


45 


11 


8 


7 


6,177 



352 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 10 . — Number of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. 

GRAND SUMMARY. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number of cases assisted for each specified class of 
causes of need. 


apparent 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Disabil- 
ity of 
husband. 


Death 
or disa- 
bility of 
another 
member 
of family. 


Lack of 
employ- 
mentor 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 

or bad 

habits of 

husband. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


1,058 
398 


34S 
132 


222 

87 


007 
214 


95 
37 


132 
58 


96 




32 






Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


1 

5 

2 

29 

1 

10 
93 

4 
84 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

8 

1 
1 

1 

1 
3 




1 
1 




1 
1 






Canadian (other than 


3 
1 

8 


3 

1 

24 

1 

5 
48 

3 
50 

1 

1 
1 


1 


1 


Dutch 






9 

1 

3 
12 

2 
11 


3 
1 

1 
12 


6 


2 








4 
34 


2 
11 


1 




4 








30 


17 


4 


3 




































1 




1 


Polish.. 






1 
3 

1 
1 
1 
1 
3 








3 
1 


1 


2 


3 














1 






1 










1 

1 








Welsh.. 






1 












Total 


249 
6 


86 


43 
1 


149 
6 


39 
3 


29 
1 


12 




1 










1,711 


562 


353 


976 


174 


220 


141 


Foreign-bom: 


1 
8 
8 
31 
2 

8 
11 

2 
89 

3 

11 

231 

1 

27 
142 

1 
43 
7 
3 
10 

5 
6 
13 
101 
4 


1 

5 
4 

7 














1 

1 
6 


5 
2 
19 
2 

5 
8 
2 
60 
3 

5 
111 
1 
10 
73 

1 
28 
6 
3 
8 

1 

4 
7 
63 
3 




1 
5 
7 








2 




5 


2 








4 
2 




1 
2 






Dutch ■. 


2 


6 


1 








24 


19 


6 
1 


19 
1 

5 
82 


7 








3 

79 


2 
44 


2 




15 


18 








7 
51 


6 
24 


1 
17 


1 

39 


5 




3 








15 
2 


14 


2 


8 
3 


1 


Italian (not specified) 




2 
2 

1 
1 
2 
12 
1 








2 

3 
1 
4 

17 
1 










1 










3 




1 

7 


6 
38 
3 


1 


Polish 


3 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers; General Tables. 



353 



Table 10. — Number, of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case — Con. 



GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent 
causes of need. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Disabili- 
ty of 
husband. 


Death 
or disa- 
bility of 
another 
member 
offamily. 


Lack of 
employ- 
ment or 
insuffi- 
cient 
earnings. 


Neglect 

or bad 

habits of 

husband. 


Old age. 


Other. 


Foreign-born — Continued . 


1 
2 

16 
2 

11 

1 
2 
31 
2 
6 

2 
2 

2 
2 




1 
1 
3 














1 

12 
1 

7 

1 


1 
3 








2 
1 
2 


3 










1 


3 








1 
1 
9 








1 
6 








11 
1 
2 


16 

1 
4 

1 


4 








Welsh 


2 




1 




West Indian (other than 




1 


Austrian (race not specified) 
South American (race not 


2 












1 
1 




1 
1 




Swiss (race not specified). . . 


1 


1 










Total foreign-born 


850 


254 


156 


476 


70 


241 


56 




2,561 


816 


509 


1,452 


244 


461 


197 







Table 11. 



-Age of head of case where case consists only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case. 



GRAND SUMMARY. 



General nativity and race of head 
of case. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified age group. 


16 to 
19. 


20 to 
29. 


30 to 
39. 


40 to 
49. 


60 to 
59. 


60 to 
69. 


70 and 
over. 


Native-bom of native father: 

White 


1,049 
397 


6 
1 


186 
82 


221 
86 


162 
69 


191 
53 


161 
56 


122 




50 






Native-born of foreign father, by 
race of father: 


1 

5 

2 

29 

1 

10 
93 

4 
84 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
8 




1 

1 












Canadian (other than French). . 


1 
1 

4 


1 




1 


1 
1 






3 
1 


6 


5 


6 


5 








4 
14 

1 
14 


1 
14 

1 
27 


1 

18 
1 
14 


3 

12 
1 
5 


1 




1 


25 


9 








2 


17 
1 


5 










1 












1 












1 
















1 
1 










1 






2 




4 



354 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 11. 



-Age of head of case where case consists only of husband and wife, by general 
nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 



GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 



General nativity and race of head 
of ease. 


Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified age group. 


16 to 
19. 


20 to 
29. 


30 to 
39. 


40 to 
49. 


50 to 
59. 


60 to 
69. 


70 and 
over. 


Native-bom of foreign father, by 
race of father — Continued. 


1 
1 
1 
1 
3 




1 






















1 










1 








Turkish 






1 








Welsh 




1 




1 


1 












Total 


249 
6 


4 


52 
3 


41 


54 
2 


42 


29 


27 




1 












1,701 


11 


323 


348 


287 


286 


246 


200 






Foreign-born: 


1 
8 
8 
31 
2 

8 
11 

1 
90 

3 

11 

234 

2 

28 
144 

1 
43 
6 
3 
10 

5 
6 
13 
101 
4 

1 
2 

16 
2 

12 

1 
2 
31 
2 
6 

2 
2 

2 
2 






1 

2 










Bohemian and Moravian 




2 


1 

2 
3 


2 
1 

6 


2 
5 


1 

3 






5 
2 


7 


5 








4 
1 


1 
1 


1 

1 


2 

4 




Dutch 






4 






1 
5 






12 


22 
1 

1 
30 

7 
21 


10 

1 

36 
1 

2 
36 


20 
2 

4 
62 


21 










1 
22 


1 
16 
1 
4 
16 

1 
9 


3 




68 










11 

8 


2 
33 


2 




30 










7 
2 


2 


10 


10 
3 


5 




1 




1 
2 

2 
2 
1 

12 
1 


1 
3 

2 
1 
3 
9 


1 
1 

1 








4 












Negro 




3 

2 

22 






11 


3 

21 


4 


Polish 


26 




3 






1 

1 
2 












1 


1 
3 










5 
1 
1 


2 
1 
1 


3 










5 


1 


4 






1 






1 
3 
1 
1 










1 




5 

1 

1 
1 


8 


4 


4 


7 






Welsh 


2 
1 


1 


1 


1 


West Indian (other than Cuban) 
Austrian (race not specified).. 
South American (race" not speci- 
fied) 










1 








1 
1 




1 


Swiss (race not specified) 












1 
















857 




112 


106 


132 


133 


183 


191 








2,558 


11 


435 


454 


419 


419 


429 


391 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 355 

Table 12. — Number of persons within each age group, by general nativity and race of 

head of case. 

GBANB SUMMARY. 

MALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 




Number within each 


specified age group 






General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Under 
6. 


6to 
13 


14 
and 
15. 


16 to 
19. 


20 to 
29. 


30 to 
39. 


40 to 
49. 


50 to 
59. 


60 to 
69. 


70 
and 
over. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


21, 129 

4,687 

8 


3,972 

904 

3 


5,477 

1,336 

1 


1,016 
230 


1,415 
275 


2,330 

461 

1 


2,815 

591 

2 


2,153 

414 

1 


1,116 
212 


518 
149 


317 
115 


















Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 
Bohemian and Moravian. 


109 
77 
85 
14 
26 

389 

3 

202 

2,742 

78 

1,913 
5 
16 
5 
3 

5 
58 
177 
4 
2 

162 

24 

7 

13 

107 

3 
1 

57 

1 

1 


29 

27 

17 

4 

4 

73 

1 

56 

605 

21 

374 

1 

10 

2 


37 
22 
21 
2 
6 

90 


5 
1 
4 
1 
2 

17 


6 
8 
7 

1 

19 


8 
5 
11 
4 
4 

44 
2 

23 

244 

9 

191 


18 
9 
8 
2 
4 

66 


6 
3 
10 
1 
3 

40 








Canadian, Other 


1 

2 


1 
3 


2 


Dutch 








English 


22 


12 


6 


Finnish 




48 

859 

18 

541 
3 
2 
1 


7 

122 

1 

76 


9 

174 

3 

121 


22 
342 
13 

276 
1 
1 


17 
233 

7 

191 


12 

105 

3 

91 


5 
38 
3 

36 


3 

20 








16 










3 
2 

2 
16 
37 
1 
1 

15 
3 
2 
2 

14 

1 










Italian (not specified) 


















1 


1 

1 
6 
11 
1 

22 
5 
1 
1 

10 


1 










10 
70 


2 
16 
41 

2 












1 

6 


5 
5 


4 
5 








Polish 


1 




1 










1 

22 
4 










24 
4 
2 
3 

24 

2 


38 
3 
1 
4 

33 


7 

1 
1 
6 


16 
1 

6 


7 
3 


4 






1 


Slovak 




1 

10 










4. 












Turkish 








1 
11 










Welsh 


11 


19 


4 


1 


4 


5 
1 


1 


1 




Austrian (race not speci- 
fied) 
















1 




























Total 


6,289 
61 


1,374 
11 


1,809 
21 


262 
3 


383 
3 


648 
5 


834 
6 


565 
9 


252 
2 


103 












Total native-born 


32, 174 


6, 264 


8,644 


1,511 


2,076 


3,445 


4,248 


3,142 


1,582 


770 


492 


Foreign-born: 


1 

41 

769 

11 

243 
746 
120 
11 
202 

221 

1 

1,291 

1 

97 

13 

156 

4,004 

54 

1,461 










1 
5 
49 
4 

15 
76 
9 
2 
29 

21 

1 

132 

1 

4 

2 

10 

316 

8 
129 














11 

163 

2 

53 
143 
36 
2 
38 

38 


7 

280 

2 

76 
204 
40 
2 
58 

50 


1 
52 


3 
59 


8 
84 

17 
98 
16 
1 
16 

25 


5 
49 
3 

19 

77 
7 

22 

30 


22 


1 

8 




Bohemian and Moravian. 


3 


Canadian, French 


14 
36 
4 
1 
8 

18 


18 
47 
5 
1 
12 

15 


14 
35 
2 
1 
13 

9 


8 

21 

1 

1 

5 

9 


9 














Dutch 




Egyptian 






196 


292 


62 


84 


172 


167 


84 


63 


39 


Filipino 




34 

3 

34 
678 

11 
323 


27 

1 

34 

1,189 

16 

445 


3 

1 

7 

233 

2 

80 


4 

2 

7 

319 

4 

80 


8 

2 
24 
368 

4 
220 


4 

11 

397 

8 

130 


7 

2 

12 

229 

1 
34 


5 


1 






9 
153 


8 
122 








13 


7 



356 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 12. — Number of persons within each age group, by general nativity and race of 

head of case — Continued. 

GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 

MALE— Continued. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 




Number 


within each specified age grour. 


. 




General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Under 
6. 


6 to 
13. 


14 
and 

15. 


16 to 
19. 


20 to 
29. 


30 to 
39. 


40 to 
49. 


50 to 
59. 


60 to 
69. 


70 
and 
over. 


Foreign-born — Continued. 


1 

' 5 

2 

3,435 

178 
1,734 
320 
316 
387 

31 

54 

421 

1 

5,070 

117 
20 

221 
27 

409 

21 
25 
513 
91 
41 

920 

132 

2 

130 

20 

28 

4 

7 
20 
12 










1 
2 






















3 












1 
534 

48 
496 
102 
81 
96 

8 
16 
82 


1 
1,087 

51 
501 

69 
104 

89 

7 
10 
121 
















202 

7 
71 
17 
14 
13 

1 
28 


268 

6 

68 
20 
13 
22 

2 

1 
27 


254 

13 
119 
23 
24 
37 

4 

9 

38 

1 

359 

6 
5 
32 


346 

26 
215 
40 
38 
72 

4 
10 
44 


396 

22 
170 
24 
36 
46 

4 
5 
48 


188 

4 
61 
13 

5 
10 

2 

1 

21 


92 

1 

22 
4 
1 
2 


68 










Italian (not specified) — 


2 












1 

10 






7 






Polish 


1,328 

26 
5 
53 
12 
59 

3 

8 

170 

26 

7 

143 
36 


1,618 

33 
2 

55 

6 

105 

4 

4 

122 

28 

11 

322 
39 


284 
6 
14 


287 

8 
1 
7 


510 

24 
3 

32 
7 

40 

5 
6 
73 
15 
12 

84 
21 

16 

4 

5 

1 

1 
1 
1 


419 

8 
3 

24 
2 

68 

1 
3 
58 
9 
3 

98 
5 
1 

11 

1 
3 


158 

1 
1 
3 


67 






5 








1 










17 

1 

22 
3 
2 

57 

4 


23 

2 

16 
2 
1 

68 
1 


46 

2 
3 
41 
3 
3 

56 
22 
1 
12 

4 
4 


29 
2 


14 
1 


8 












9 
3 

48 
2 


1 
1 
1 

29 
1 


1 




1 




1 




15 




1 


Turkish 




Welsh 


25 
7 

8 

1 

2 
1 
3 


30 
4 

4 
2 


7 


11 


9 


7 


2 


West Indian (other than 




Austrian (race not speci- 
fied) 




1 


2 


1 




Belgian (race not speci- 
fied) 




South American (race 






2 
1 
2 


1 
1 
2 






1 


Swiss (race not specified) . 
Race not specified 


6 
1 


1 
1 


2 
2 


2 


4 


1 










Total foreign-born 


24, 158 
9 


5,152 
1 


7,159 
3 


1,294 
1 


1,519 
1 


1,943 
2 


2,728 


2,396 


1,039 
1 


558 


370 














56,341 


11.417 


15,806 


2,806 


3,596 


5,390 


6,976 


5,538 


2,622 


1,328 


862 






FEMALE. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


23,105 

6,217 

10 


3,705 

869 

2 


5,404 

1,310 

2 


1,021 
251 


1,543 
347 


2,952 

890 

2 


3,691 

1,019 

1 


2,421 

592 

2 


1,156 
366 


787 

327 

1 


425 






TnniaTi 












Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 
Bohemian and Moravian. 


131 
60 
79 
12 
30 

385 

3 

208 

2,964 

72 


31 
11 
13 
3 

7 

56 

1 

39 

550 

13 


41 
18 
19 
3 

8 

89 


3 
2 
2 


7 
5 
10 


20 
12 
12 
4 
2 

53 

1 

32 

324 

12 


20 
8 
8 
2 

7 

61 


4 
2 
10 


2 
2 
2 


1 


2 




3 








Dutch 


12 


3 

18 
1 
12 
185 
2 


2 
39 


1 

29 






English 


14 


14 








53 

809 

17 


8 

141 

4 


27 

518 

15 


21 

258 
7 


8 

102 

1 


3 

45 
1 


5 




32 


Hebrew 





Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



357 



Table 12.; — Number of persons within each age group, by general nativity and race of 

head of case — Continued. 

GRAND SUMMARY- Continued. 
FEMALE— Continued. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified age group. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Under 
6. 


6 to 
13. 


14 

and 
15. 


16 to 
19. 


20 to 
29. 


30 to 
39. 


40 to 
49. 


50 to 
59. 


60 to 
69. 


70 
and 
over. 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father— Cont'd. 


2,001 

3 

18 

8 

1 

4 

79 

186 

6 

1 

157 

14 

9 

23 

143 

1 

1 

47 


361 
1 
6 
2 


517 
1 
1 
3 


86 


119 


231 


331 
1 
1 


207 


74 


43 




Italian, North 




Italian, South 


1 


1 
1 


7 
1 


I 






1 


Italian (not specified) 












1 

1 
7 
3 
1 








Mexican 


1 

14 

55 

3 

1 

27 
3 
1 
4 

31 








2 

17 
57 
2 


11 
18 








Norwegian 


20 
37 


5 
3 


4 
12 


1 
1 






Polish 




























41 
1 
3 
7 

32 


9 
11 


9 
1 
2 
1 

9 


16 

2 

2 

22 
1 
1 
6 


23 
2- 
2 
2 

20 


16 
2 


5 
2 


7 






1 




1 


PpqTllSh . 


4 
14 


2 


2 
1 


1 




1 






Turkish 




















Welsh 


5 


12 


2 


3 


11 


2 


4 










Total 


6,646 
82 


1,239 
17 


1,732 
. 16 


289 
3 


405 
9 


839 
7 


1,088 
15 


602 
8 


236 
3 


120 
3 


96 




1 






Total native-born 


36,060 


5,832 


8,464 


1,564 


2,304 


4,690 


5,814 


3,625 


1,761 


1,238 


768 


Foreign-born: 
Armenian 


34 

754 

6 

235 

872 

113 
11 

160 

212 

1 

1,322 

89 

8 

159 

4,431 

35 

1,592 

1 

4,006 

170 

1,838 

345 

1 

298 

393 

35 

- 64 

487 
5,125 

126 
18 

205 
23 

455 

23 
21 
550 
82 
43 


7 

132 

2 

38 

147 

38 
3 

26 
32 


10 

239 

1 

59 
205 

21 

4 

36 

60 


3 
41 


37 


8 
66 

2 
29 
108 

15 
1 

17 
13 
1 

108 
9 
2 
14 

404 

3 

176 


6 
127. 

1 
28 
130 

23 

1 

25 
22 










Bohemian and Moravian. 


83 


14 


7 


8 


Canadian, French 

Canadian, Other 


12 
36 

5 

11 
10 


18 
48 

3 

1 

13 
30 


22 
106 

8 

1 

19 

22 


8 
38 


8 
35 


13 
19 
















7 
7 


3 

8 


3 


Dutch 


8 






English 


201 
15 

32 
650 

10 
364 


298 

24 

2 

36 

1,157 

7 
471 


60 
2 

3 

335 

1 

88 


77 
4 
2 

11 
283 

3 
85 


197 

18 

1 

24 

562 

7 
256 

1 
586 

27 
282 
53 


154 
8 

15 
531 

4 

115 


106 

4 

1 

10 

240 


67 
3 


54 




2 


Flemish 






4 
184 


10 




185 








26 


6 


5 








581 

37 

451 

95 


998 

52 
483 
84 


227 

7 
96 
10 


272 

8 
84 
24 


246 
22 

207 

47 

1 

34 

66 
6 
12 

61 
583 

8 

5 

26 

3 

45 

1 
3 
83 
8 
4 


526 

13 
142 
21 


214 

4 
60 
10 


200 


156 








24 


9 


Italian (not specified) 


1 




82 

113 

5 

8 

71 

1,141 

16 
7 

53 
8 

76 

2 

6 

143 

21 

8 


70 

87 

2 

15 

101 

1,429 

52 

. 3 

57 

5 

110 

5 

5 

133 

19 

7 


10 

10 
2 
2 

29 
251 

5 

8 

28 
3 

23 
4 
4 


10 

11 
2 
5 

43 
284 
2 
1 
6 
1 

30 

1 
1 
20 
4 
5 


69 

70 
8 
9 

56 
754 

27 
1 

34 
6 

53 

2 
4 

98 
18 
8 


22 

29 

6 

4 

63 

435 

2 
15 


6 

1 

4 

25 

144 

3 
1 
5 


1 

1 

1 

3 

23 

65 

6 










2 




2 




15 


Polish 


39 




5 








1 










63 

4 
2 
40 

7 
4 


21 
2 


16 
1 


13 




2 








8 


2 






i 




2 


1 





358 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 12. — Number of persons within each age group, by general nativity and race of 

head of case — Continued. 

GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 
FEMALE— Continued . 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified age group. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Under 
6. 


6 to 
13. 


14 
and 
15. 


16 to 
19. 


20 to 
29.. 


30 to 
39. 


40 to 
49. 


50 to 
59. 


60 to 
69. 


70- 
and 
over. 


Foreign-born — Continued. 


1,117 

139 

2 

130 

18 

36 

3 

4 
16 
13 


150 
40 


301 
28 


70 
6 
1 
8 


99 

10 


80 
30 


157 
18 


154 
5 
1 
16 

2 


53 
2 


23 


30 






Turkish 






Welsh 


14 

7 

9 

1 

1 
2 

1 


31 

2 

11 
1 


5 


18 
6 

4 


18 
2 

7 
1 

1 

2 
3 


8 
1 


8 


4 


West Indian (other than 




Austrian (race not speci- 
fied) 




2 


1 




Belgian (race not speci- 
fied). . 




South American (race 






1 








1 


Swiss (race not specified). 


5 
3 


1 


1 

1 


2 
4 


2 


1 


1 










Total foreign-born 


25,821 
13 


4,846 
2 


6,729 
4 


1,312 
2 


1,547 
1 


2,586 


3,803 
3 


2,670 
1 


1,037 


703 


588 












61,894 


10,680 


15,197 


2,878 


3,852 


7,276 


9,620 


6,296 


2,798 


1,941 


1, 356 






TOTAL. 


Native-born of native father: 
White 


44, 234 
10, 904 

18 


7,677 

1,773 

5 


10,881 

2,040 

3 


2.037 
481 


2,958 
622 


5,282 

1,351 

3 


6,506 

1,610 

3 


4,574 

1,006 

3 


2,272 
578 


1,305 

476 

1 






361 














Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 
Bohemian and Moravian. 
Canadian, French . . : 


240 
137 
164 
26 
56 

774 

6 

410 

5,706 

150 

3,914 

8 

34 

13 

4 

9 

137 

363 

10 

3 

319 
38 
16 
30 

250 

4 
104 

1 

1 


60 
38 
30 
7 
11 

129 
2 

95 

1,155 

34 

735 
2 
16 
4 


78 
40 
40 
5 
14 

179 


8 
3 
6 
1 
2 

29 


13 
13 
17 

4 

37 
1 

21 

359 

5 

240 


28 
17 
23 
8 
6 

97 

3 

55 

568 

21 

422 


38 
17 
16 
4 
11 

127 


10 
5 

20 
1 
5 

79 


2 
3 

4 


1 
1 
6 


2 
2 






Dutch 


1 
51 


26 


2 




20 








101 

1,668 
35 

1,058 
4 
3 
4 


15 

263 

5 

162 


49 
860 
28 

607 
2 
2 


38 

491 

14 

398 


20 

207 

4 

165 


8 
83 

4 

79 


8 




52 








48 








1 


1 
1 

1 


10 
3 

4 

33 

94 

3 

1 

31 
5 
2 
4 

36 

2 

1 
10 


1 






1 


Italian (not specified) 








1 

1 
17 
29 

1 

45 
7 
3 
3 

30 


2 

1 
11 
8 
1 
1 

38 
6 










1 

24 

125 

3 

1 

51 
7 
3 
7 

55 

2 


2 
36 
78 

2 












6 
9 


9 

17 


1 
2 






Polish 




1 




















79 
4 
4 
11 
65 


16 

1 
1 

17 


25 
2 
2 
1 

15 


12 
5 


11 


11 




2 




1 




5 
24 


6 


2 
1 


2 




1 






Turkish 








1 

22 










Welsh 


16 


31 


6 


4 


7 
1 


5 


1 


2 


Austrian (race not speci- 
fied) 




Eace not specified 












1 


























Total 


12, 935 
143 


2,613 
28 


3,541 
37 


551 
6 


788 
12 


1,487 
12 


1,922 
21 


1,167 
17 


488 
5 


223 
3 


155 




2 






Total native-born 


OS. 234 


12,096 


17,108; 


3,075 


4,380 


8,135 


10,062 


6,767 


3,343 


2,008 


1,260 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



359 



Table 12. — Number of persons within each age group, by general nativity and race of 

head of case — Continued. 



GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 
TOTAL— Continued. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number within each specified age group. 


General nativity and race of 
head of case. 


Under 
6. 


6 to 
13. 


14 
and 
15. 


16 to 
19. 


20 to 
29. 


30 to 
39. 


40 to 
49. 


50 to 
59. 


60 to 
69. 


70 
and 
over. 


Foreign-bom: 


1 

75 

1,523 

17 

478 
1,018 
233 
22 
302 

433 

2 

2, 013 

1 

186 

21 

315 

8,435 

89 

3,053 

1 

5 

3 

7,441 

348 

3,572 

665 

1 

614 

780 
66 
118 
908 
1 

10, 19.5 
243 

38 
426 

50 

864 

44 

46 

1,063 

173 

84 

2,037 

271 

4 
2C0 

38 

04 

7 

11 
36 
25 










1 

13 

115 

6 

44 
184 
24 
3 
46 

34 

2 

240 

. 1 

13 

4 
24 

720 
11 

305 

1 
2 














18 

295 

4 

91 
290 

74 
5 
64 

70 


17 

519 

3 

135 
409 

61 
6 

94 

110 


4 
93 


3 
96 


14 

211 

1 

45 

228 

39 

2 

41 

47 


5 

132 

3 

41 
183 
15 
1 
41 

52 


36 


1 
15 




Bohemian and Moravian. 


11 


Canadian, French 


26 
72 
9 
1 
19 

28 


36 

95 

8 

2 

25 

45 


22 
73 
2 
1 
20 

16 


16 

56 

1 

1 

8 

17 


22 
28 














Dutch 


14 






English 


397 


590 


122 


161 


369 


321 


190 


130 










49 

3 

66 

1,328 

21 

687 


51 

3 

70 

2,346 

23 

916 


5 

l" 

10 

468 

3 
168 


8 

4 

18 

602 

7 

165 


26 

3 
48 

930 
11 

476 


12 

20 
928 

12 
245 


11 

3 
22 
469 

1 
60 


8 


3 






French 


13 
337 


18 




307 








19 


12 
















3 

1 

932 

53 
497 
99 












1 
1, 115 

85 
947 
197 


1 
2,085 

103 
984 
153 














Irish" 


429 

14 
167 
27 


540 

14 
152 
44 


500 

35 
326 
70 
1 
58 

103 
10 
21 
99 

1 

942 
14 
10 
58 
3 

91 

3 

6 

124 

11 

7 

136 

52 

1 
30 

10 

8 


922 

35 

312 

45 


402 

8 
121 
23 


292 

1 

46 

4 


224 








20 


Italian (not specified) 


3 




163 

209 
13 
24 

153 


174 

176 

9 

25 

222 


24 

23 
2 
3 

57 


23 

33 
4 
6 

70 


107 

142 
12 
19 

100 


58 

75 

10 

9 

106 


5 
16 
3 
5 
40 


2 

3 

1 

4 

33 










2 




2 




22 






Polish 


2,469 

42 

12 

106 

20 

135 

5 

14 

313 

47 

15 

293 

76 


3,047 

85 

5 

112 

11 

215 
9 
9 

255 

47 

18 

623 

67 


535 
11 

22 

45 
3 
1 

45 

7 

6 

127 

10 

1 
15 


571 
10 

2 
13 

1 

53 
3 
1 

36 

6 

6 

167 

11 

16 


1,264 

51 

4 

66 

13 

93 

7 

10 
171 

33 
20 
241 
39 

34 
6 

12 

2 

2 
3 
4 


854 
10 

3 
39 

2 

131 

5 

5 

98 

16 

7 

252 

10 
2 

27 

1 

5 


302 
4 
2 
8 


132 
6 


' 79 




10 








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50 
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2 


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3 








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3 

2 
101 

4 


3 

1 

2 

52 

1 


1 




2 




1 




45 




1 






Welsh 


39 
14 

17 

2 

3 
3 

4 


61 
6 
15 

3 


17 
1 


15 


6 


West Indian (other than 




Austrian (race not speci- 
fied) 




3 


2 




Belgian (race not speci- 
fied) 




South American (race 






3 
1 
2 


1 
3 
6 






2 


Swiss (race not specified). 
Race not specified 


11 
4 


1 
2 


3 
3 


4 


5 


2 










49, 979 
22 


9,998 
3 


13,888 
7 


2, 606 
3 


3,066 
2 


4,529 
2 


6, 531 
3 


5,066 
1 


2,076 
1 


1,261 


958 










118, 235 


22,097 


31,003 


5,684 


7,448 


12,666 


16,596 


11,834 


5,420 


3,269 


2,218 







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Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 367 



8883 



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8 §5 



368 



The Immigration Commission. 



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Native-born of foreign 
father, by race of 
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1 



Immigrants as Charily Seekers: General Tables. 369 



ON-*t-H^ 



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370 



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Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



371 



Table 14. — Number of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, deserted, or 
separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 



GRAND SUMMARY. 





Total 

number of 

cases. 


Number of cases in which wife is — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Total. 


Native-born of native father: 

White 


12, 597 

3,489 

6 


2,323 

1,001 

1 


1,326 

403 

1 


3,649 




1,404 
2 








Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: 


47 
24 
43 
9 
17 

264 

2 

102 

1,373 

45 

1,082 
1 

10 
4 
3 

3 
47 
94 
3 
2 

92 
19 
4 
9 
67 

1 
1 

28 
1 
1 


2 
2 
5 


12 
3 
2 
1 


14 




5 




7 




1 


Dutch 


4 
52 


4 




17 


69 








10 

242 

4 

185 


8 

174 

3 

103 


18 




416 




7 




288 








2 


3 
1 


5 




1 


















3 
15 


13 
13 
1 


16 


Polish 


28 




1 










9 
1 


5 
1 
1 
1 
13 


14 




2 




1 




2 
12 


3 




25 














Welsh 


5 


2 


7 






















Total.... 


3,388 
45 


555 
10 


377 
7 


932 




17 








19,525 


3,890 


2,114 


6,004 






Foreign-born: 


1 

22 

314 

7 

113 

482 

47 

5 

105 

106 

2 

805 

1 

50 

6 

94 

2,156 

22 

659 










1 

93 


1 

21 


2 




114 








20 

99 

6 


14 
54 
6 
1 
6 

4 


34 




153 




12 




1 




13 
13 


19 




17 








159 


43 


202 








6 


9 


15 








20 

549 

1 


5 
173 


25 




722 




, 1 




66 


r 58 


^123 







372 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table Id. — Number of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, deserted, or 
separated, by general nativity and race of head of case — Continued. 



GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 



- 


Total 

number of 

cases. 


Number of 


cases in which wife is — 


General nativity and race of head of case. 


Widowed. 


Deserted or 
separated. 


Total. 


Foreign-bom— Continued. 


1 

5 

1 

1,959 

78 

760 

148 

1 

136 

200 
23 

41 
248 

1 

2,048 

50 

12 

109 

9 

276 
12 
11 

243 

36 

22 

513 

65 

2 
71 
11 
17 

1 

5 

13 

9 


















1 

604 

7 
140 
31 

1 
17 

18 
5 

9 
67 




1 




132 

4 

36 

1 


736 




11 




176 




32 




1 




16 

19 
2 
3 

31 


33 




37 




7 




12 




98 








378 
8 


180 
1 


558 




9 








8 
1 

52 
1 


10 


18 




1 




22 


74 




1 




1 
27 

1 


1 




30 

2 

2 

127 

6 


57 




3 




2 




65 

7 


192 




13 






Welsh 


16 
1 
1 


5 


21 




1 




1 


2 














Swiss (race not specified) 


1 
2 


1 
1 


2 
3 








12, 140 
20 


2,581 
3 


961 


3,542 




3 










31,686 


6,474 


3,075 


9,549 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



373 



1* 






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T-t c5 cn co r-t <n i-i 



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th th 1-1 t* co «5 ^ 



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tnsas&s 3aaKK 



374 



The Immigration Commission. 



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Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 375 



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Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 381 



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382 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 16. — Number of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each specified 
number of years, by sex and race of head of case. 



GBAND 8UMMAET. 

MALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each specified number of years. 


Race of head of case. 


Under 
1. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5 to 
9. 


10 to 
14. 


15 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 




1 

18 

186 

7 

74 

263 
33 

3 

77 
80 

2 

555 

1 

27 

6 

64 

1,346 

19 

506 

1 

3 

1,054 

64 

563 

100 

100 
164 
12 
22 
135 

1 

1,401 

40 

12 
85 

7 

176 

9 

10 

176 

31 

19 
281 
48 

2 
45 
11 
15 

1 

4 
10 
2 












1 
6 
42 
3 
6 

47 
9 










1 

2 

8 
1 


1 

6 
1 


1 
8 
3 


7 


1 
9 


4 

16 


2 

37 


2 




62 








1 

8 
2 


7 
3 
1 
7 


8 

41 

8 


12 

40 

7 


46 




6 


6 
3 


101 








2 




3 

1 


5 
3 


4 
3 

1 
28 


4 
1 


9 

9 

1 
67 


2 

8 


7 
15 


36 




40 








25 


13 


21 


11 
1 
2 
1 

3 
34 

2 
32 


42 


64 


284 








1 




1 


1 
1 


4 
1 

7 
138 

4 
163 


1 

1 

6 

84 

70 


9 

5 

189 

2 

84 


8 




2 




2 
13 
1 
8 






41 




20 
16 


31 
3 
23 


31 
3 

29 
1 


806 




4 




81 








4 
2 
4 
3 

1 
11 
1 
2 
1 


1 
7 
2 
11 
2 

4 
10 

1 
1 






2 
64 
18 
174 
27 

27 
46 
2 
8 
28 








Irish 


9 
5 
42 
8 

7 
22 
1 
3 
6 

1 
65 
2 
3 
3 


6 
3 
40 
8 

7 
22 


12 
4 

55 
6 

6 
10 


81 
12 
99 
13 

13 

16 

1 

7 


161 
5 
80 
15 

25 
12 
3 
1 

22 


710 
13 




58 




18 




10 




15 




4 




1 
3 


i 

7 


5 




60 






Polish 


19 
1 


15 
4 


72 


61 


302 

9 

4 

18 

1 

19 


159 
6 
1 
8 

3 

20 
2 
2 

36 

5 
1 

23 
12 


318 
11 
2 
17 

1 
17 
1 


390 




7 




1 

7 

1 

8 


1 

6 

5 






15 

1 

7 


2 


9 








3 


7 
1 
1 
5 

2 
6 
3 
6 


90 




5 




2 
1 


2 


1 
15 

3 
2 
2 

2 


9 

2 

6 
2 


4 
54 

5 

1 

32 

15 

2 
2 
6 
8 




Slovak 


21 

10 

54 
6 


33 




4 




2 
2 
3 


2 
3 
1 


5 




156 




1 






Welsh 


1 




1 

2 


1 
1 


1 
1 


3 
1 
1 


2 

1 
1 


34 


West Indian (other than Cuban) . . . 
Austrian (race not specified) 

Belgian (race not specified) 

South American (race not specified) . 




1 




3 




1 












3 






1 




1 


1 






i 


1 


6 








2 






















Total 


7,872 


150 


141 


328 


316 


309 


1,399 


817 


1,260 


3,152 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 383 

TIblb 16. — Number of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each specified 
number of years, by sex and race of head of case — Gontiimed. 

GRAND SUMMARY- Continued. 

FEMALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each specified number of years. 


Race of head of case. 


Under 
1. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5to 
9. 


10 to 
14. 


15 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 




2 
123 

32 
180 

13 

1 
25 
20 
217 
22 

25 
757 

1 
129 

1 

814 
14 

194 

33 

1 

36 
38 
10 
13 
102 

623 

10 

21 

1 

86 
2 
1 

65 

4 

2 

216 

14 

26 
2 
3 
1 


1 










1 
17 

5 
29 

4 

1 

3. 
2 
14 

4 

2 
43 

1 
34 










2 


2 


3 


2 


5 
8 
30 
2 


34 
3 

27 
3 


58 




16 




5 


1 
1 


7 
1 


3 

1 


1 


78 






Cuban 












2 




1 

2 
19 
7 

1 

44 


4 

3 

25 

4 

5 
130 


15 










13 




1 


1 
1 


7 
2 

1 
8 


6 


3 


141 




4 




9 


1 
4 


15 




3 


1 


515 








4 


1 


6 


9 


7 


23 


25 


20 




1 




3 


1 


6 
2 

11 
2 


4 

17 
3 


3 
2 
14 
1 


29 
4 

69 
8 
1 

8 

11 

2 

1 

8 

118 
2 
4 
1 

2 


55 
2 
39 

7 


91 
2 

19 
2 


622 




2 




3 


4 
1 


18 




9 












1 
3 


1 
5 


4 
3 


13 
7 
3, 

11 

74 
1 
1 


6 
5 
2 
1 
13 

175 
4 
3 


3 




1 


2 


1 




3 




1 
8 


2 
2 


2 
3 

19 






7 




.15 


3 
13 


63 


Polish 


199 




3 






1 


1 


4 


2 


5 








2 


2 


6 


2 




5 


10 


57 




2 
















1 

5 






Slovak 


3 


1 
1 


9 


3 


5 

1 


24 


11 

2 

1 

45 

3 

3 


4 
















1 










2 


2 


23 
3 

4 
1 


24 
6 

1 


120 




1 


2 






Welsh 






2 


16 


Austrian (race not specified) 




















1 

1 


2 






































Total 


3,880 


36 


27 


99 


89 


73 


483 


397 


663 


2,013 





384 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 16. — Number of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each specified 
number of years, by sex and race of head of case — Continued. 

GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 
TOTAL. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each specified number of years. 


Race of head of case. 


Under 
1. 


I. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5to 
9. 


10 to 
14. 


15 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 




1 

20 

309 

7 

106 

443 
46 
4 

102 
100 

2 

772 

1 

49 

6 

89 

2,103 

20 

635 

1 

3 

1 

1,868 

78 

757 

133 

1 
136 

202 
22 
35 

237 

1 

2,024 

50 

12 

106 
8 

262 
11 
11 

241 
35 
21 

497 
62 

2 
71 
11 
17 

1 
4 
13 
3 












1 

7 
59 

3 
10 

76 
13 
1 
12 
11 

1 
81 










2 

2 

13 
1 


1 
7 
1 


1 
10 
3 


10 


i 

11 


4 
21 


2 
71 


2 




120 








1 

11 
3 


7 
4 
1 
7 


16 

71 
10 


15 

67 
10 


62 




6 
1 


13 
4 


179 








2 




3 
1 


5 
3 


4 
3 

1 
35 


6 

1 


3 
10 


11 
18 


51 




53 








26 


14 


27 


14 
1 
2 
1 

4 
38 

2 
39 


61 


89 


425 








1 


1 


3 


1 
1 

40 
3 

38 
1 


8 
1 

9 
181 

5 
197 


8 
1 

7 
128 

93 


13 

10 

319 

2 

109 


12 




2 




2 
16 

1 
12 


21 

17 


1 
39 

3 
29 


56 




1,321 




4 




101 










1 






2 




















1 




7 
2 
7 
3 


8 
2 
15 
3 


15 
7 
53 
10 


10 
3 

57 
11 


15 

6 

69 

7 


93 
22 
243 
35 

1 

35 

57 

4 

9 

36 


136 
14 

138 
20 


252 
7 
99 

17 


1,332 




15 




76 




27 








1 

12 
1 
2 

2 


4 

12 

3 

1 


8 

25 

1 

5 

9 
1 
84 
2 
3 

4 


8 

27 


10 
13 


26 
23 
4 

18 


31 
17 
5 
2 

35 


13 




16 




7 




1 
3 


" 1 
10 


12 




123 






Polish 


27 
1 


17 
4 


87 


74 


420 
11 

4 

22 
2 
21 


233 
7 
1 

9 
3 
25 
2 
3 

41 
5 
1 

47 
18 


493 
15 
2 

20 
1 

27 
1 


589 




10 




1 

11 
1 
10 


1 

" 8 
5 






15 
1 
9 


3 


14 








5 


13 
1 
1 

14 
2 
6 
3 
6 


147 




7 




2 

4 

2 
2 
3 


3 
1 
2 
3 
3 


1 

18 
3 
2 
4 
2 


14 
3 

8 
2 


4 

78 
5 
1 
55 
18 

2 
6 
6 
9 






32 
12 

1 
99 

9 


37 




i 




6 




276 




1 






Welsh 


2 




1 
2 


1 
1 


3 
1 


3 
1 

2 


5 
1 
1 


50 


West Indian (other than Cuban) . . . 




1 




3 




1 




South American (racenotspecified). 










3 






1 




1 


1 






1 


2 
1 


8 








2 


















Total 


11,752 


1S6 


168 


427 


405 


382 


1,882 


1,214 


1,923 


5,165 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



385 



Table 17. — Number of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number 
of years, by sex and race of individual. 

GRAND SUMMAKT. 

MALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each specified number of years. 


Race of individual. 


Un- 
der 1. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 
14. 


15 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 




1 

25 

280 

10 

92 

364 
48 
4 
85 

102 

2 

657 

1 

34 

6 

73 

1,574 

29 

761 

1 

3 

1,142 
94 
949 
165 

148 
256 
16 
28 
174 

1 

1,955 
63 
14 
107 

9 

204 
12 
17 

248 

43 

28 
324 
72 

2 

57 

14 

. 18 

1 

4 
10 
4 












1 

8 
74 
3 
9 

74 
20 










5 

2 

24 
1 


6 
7 
1 


2 

29 

6 


17 


1 
23 


4 
24 


2 

38 


2 

63 








6 

24 
2 


12 
4 
2 
9 


11 

54 

7 


16 

47' 
8 


48 
105 




8 


16 
6 










3 

6 


5 
11 


4 
3 

1 

48 


7 
1 


ii 

12 

1 

83 


2 
10 


7 
17 


37 
42 


Dutch 


Egyptian 




38 


18 


30 


18 
1 
2 
1 

6 
57 

2 
57 


52 


74 


296 


Filipino 




1 


2 


3 


i 
l 

2 
57 

5 
62 

1 


5 
1 

8 
205 

7 
263 


3 
1 

7 
110 

io3 


8 

5 

211 

2 

98 


9 
2 

43 

834 






2 

21 

1 

17 








27 
28 


52 
8 
48 






85 






5 
2 
19 
5 

1 

18 
1 
2 
3 


1 
9 
2 
28 
5 

6 

18 

■ 1 

2 

1 






2 

70 

27 

307 

41 

52 
67 
3 
10 
41 










23 

13 

102 

16 

8 
41 
1 
3 
12 

1 
127 
2 
4 
5 


9 

4 

91 

28 

15 
36 


14 
11 
102 
12 

11 
26 


92 

17 

146 

22 

16 

20 

1 

10 


174 
5 
92 
18 

29 

15 

4 

2 

23 


















10 




15 








3 

7 


1 

13 


5 










Polish 


35 
3 


46 
10 


137 


96 


483 

23 

4 

30 

1 
23 


222 
6 
1 
9 

3 
21 
2 
2 
46 

6 
1 

30 
16 


399 
12 
2 
19 

1 

21 
1 


410 




7 




2 
11 

1 
10 


1 

7 

5 






15 

3 
10 


2 


9 








4 


13 
4 
3 

16 

8 
12 

4 
13 


97 




5 




6 
2 

4 
5 
4 


5 

1 
3 
3 
5 


1 

21 

4 
2 
5 
3 


16 

3 

10 
2 


5 

88 

7 

1 

50 

21 

2 
5 
7 
10 




Slovak 


20 

10 

58 
6 


34 




4 




5 




159 




2 








1 




3 
4 


1 
2 


1 
1 


3 
1 

1 


2 
1 
1 


41 


West Indian (other than Cuban). . . 
Austrian (race not specified) 

Belgian (race not specified) 

South American (race not specified). 




1 




3 




1 












3 






1 




1 


1 






1 


1 


6 




2 




2 




















10, 331 


266 


266 


666 


611 


527 


2,170 


1,083 


1,449 


3,293 







386 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 17.— Number of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number 
of years, by sex and race of individual — Continued. 

GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 
FEMALE. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each s 


pecified number of 


years. 


Race of individual.. 


Un- 
der 1. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5to9. 


10 to 
14. 


15 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 




20 

360 

7 

106 

489 

55 
7 
68 
80 
670 

46 

4 

62 

2,000 

16 

844 

1 

1,832 

89 

1,054 

161 

1 
166 
237 
29 
28 

262 

2,347 

66 

9 

94 

11 

200 

10 

15 

301 
51 
25 

483 

65 
68 
9 
14 

1 
1 
7 
2 


1 
9 


6 
4 


1 

23 
5 
1 

22 

7 
1 
1 






9 
69 

2 
16 
86 

20 
1 

ir 

9 
71 

12 
1 
3 
217 
3 

287 


3 
29 








17 


17 


74 










13 
1 


1 
12 

1 


4 
25 

3 

5 


7 

5 
4 
2 


19 

83 

8 


16 
82 

8 






















3 
13 

55 

9 


11 
19 
80 

12 




Dutch 


1 

16 


5 
12 

3 






42 
2 


37 


17 










1 

4 

54 

4 

82 


4 

56 

3 

75 






25 


1 

13 


1 

58 

4 

47 


7 
141 

129 


15 

317 

1 

97 


27 




1,119 
1 






17 


28 


82 




1 




5 
2 
23 
10 


3 
5 

25 

7 


17 
15 
124 
18 


11 

4 

112 

19 


12 

6 

110 

13 


98 

32 

370 

44 

1 

54 

66 

9 

5 

45 
549 
22 
5 
30 

4 
16 


163 
14 

152 
18 


280 
5 
87 
16 


1,243 
6 






51 




16 








2 
13 
1 
1 

3 

36 
■2 

1 

2 
5 


4 
14 

3 

1 

38 
13 
1 
1 


13 
29 
2 
5 

10 
157 

1 

8 


17 
41 


13 

19 


27 

26 

4 

1 

24 

295 

9 

15 

3 

13 

1 

2 

40 
12 

54 

19 
1 


26 

20 

6 

4 

37 
524 
11 
1 
13 

1 

27 






9 




7 




1 

11 

142 

1 

9 

1 
5 


16 
78 

1 
5 

3 


8 




115 


Polish 


528 




8 








12 








4 


is 

5 

2 

27 
8 
9 
8 

10 
2 
4 


109 




4 




3 

6 

4 
1 

3 
1 


10 
1 
2 
1 

4 
1 


1 

19 
5 
2 
6 

3 


26 
4 

11 

1 
2 
1 


7 

111 

13 

4 

64 

14 

8 
4 
10 






38 

8 

1 

105 

10 

7 


24 








3 




233 




1 


Welsh 


46 


West Indian (other than Cuban) 

Austrian (race not specified) 




1 




1 




2 




1 








South American (race not specified ) . 
















1 






1 










1 


5 








2 




























Total 


12,473 


208 


224 


709 


648 


511 


2,402 


1,393 


1,960 


4,418 







Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 387 



Table 17. — Number of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number 
of years, by sex and race of individual — Continued. 



GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 
TOTAL. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Number in United States each specified number of years. 


Race of individual. 


Un- 
der 1. 


1. ■ 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5 to 9. 


10 to 
14. 


15 to 
19. 


20 or 
over. 




1 

45 
640 

17 
198 

853 
103 
11 
153 
182 

2 
1,327 

1 
80 
10 

135 

3,574 

45 

1,605 

1 

3 

1 
2,974 

183 
2,003 

326 

1 

314 

493 

45 

56 

436 

1 

4,302 

129 

23 

201 
20 

404 
22 
32 

549 
94 
53 
807 
137 

2 
125 
23 
32 

2 

5 

17 

6 












1 

17 

143 

5 
25 

160 

40 

1 

22 

21 

1 

154 










1 
14 

2 

37 
2 


12 
11 
1 
1 

20 

1 


3 

52 
11 

1 

38 
13 
1 
5 
3 

1 
90 


34 


1 
40 


7 
53 


2 
112 


2 




181 








10 

' 49 
5 

12 
1 


19 
9 
6 

11 


30 

137 
15 


32 

129 
16 


97 




264 




2 




3 




3 

7 


5 
16 


5 
23 


18 
36 


72 


Dutch 


75 








54 


30 


67 


35 
1 
2 
1 

10 

113 

5 

132 


107 


154 


636 








1 


5 


5 


1 
2 

6 
111 

9 
144 

1 


17 
2 

11 
422 

10 
550 


12 
1 

14 
251 

232 


20 

20 

528 

3 

195 


17 




4 




2 

46 

1 

34 


1 
40 

56 


1 
110 
12 
95 


70 




1,953 




5 




167 










1 






2 




















1 




10 

4 

42 

15 


12 
7 
53 
12 


40 

28 

226 

34 


20 

8 

203 

47 


26 

17 
212 
25 


168 
59 

677 
85 

1 
106 
133 

12 
15 

86 


255 
31 

298 
40 


454 
10 

179 
34 


1,989 




19 




113 




34 








3 
31 
2 
3 

6 


10 

32 

1 

5 

2 


21 
70 
3 

8 

22 

1 

284 

2 

5 

13 


32 

77 


24 
45 


43 

46 

5 

1 

34 


55 

35 

10 

6 

60 


20 




24 




12 




4 
18 


1 

29 


13 




179 






Polish 


71 
5 

16 
5 
15 


84 

23 

1 

3 


279 
1 
2 

20 
2 
15 


174 
2 
12 
8 


1,032 
45 
9 

60 

5 

39 


517 
15 
1 

24 
6 

34 
3 
4 

86 
18 
1 
84 
35 


923 

23 

3 

32 
2 

48 
1 


938 




15 








21 








8 


31 
9 
5 

43 
16 
21 
12 
23 


206 




9 




9 

8 

8 
6 
7 


15 
2 
5 
4 
9 


2 

40 
9 
4 

11 
6 


42 

7 

21 
3 


12 

199 

20 

5 

114 
35 

2 
13 
11 
20 




Slovak 


58 
18 
1 
163 
16 


58 




4 




8 




392 




3 






Welsh... 


2 


i 


5 
8 


1 
2 


3 

2 


4 
1 
2 


9 
1 
1 


87 


West Indian (other than Cuban) . . . 
Austrian (race not specified) 




2 




5 




2 




South American (race not specified) . 










3 






2 




1 


2 






1 


2 


11 




4 




2 


















Total '. 


22,804 


474 


490 


1,375 


1,259 


1,038 


4,572 


2,476 


3,409 


7,711 







388 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 18. — Ability to speak English of persons 6 years of age or over, by sex and general 
nativity and race of individual. 

GRAND SUMMARY. 

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races.l 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


General nativity and race of 
individual. 


Number. 


Number 

who 

speak 

English. 


Number. 


Number 

who 

speak 

English. 


Number. 


Number 
who 
speak 

English. 


Native-born of foreign father, 
by race of father: 


12 
710 
213 

60 

7 

143 
195 
52 
7 
263 

5,747 

23 

852 

1 

85 
705 
165 
162 
126 

15 
22 
398 
3 691 
96 

3 
124 
10 

4 
264 

42 

20 

1,031 

58 

2 

3 

11 

3 
16 


5 

375 

114 

37 

5 

82 
94 
20 
4 
137 

2,743 

13 

429 

1 

44 
345 

70 
100 

64 

11 ' 

8 

194 

1,912 

40 

3 
61 
6 
2 
126 

24 

8 

497 

29 
1 

2 
5 

3 
10 


5 
373 
114 
34 

5 

82 
94 
26 
4 
136 

2,725 

13 

425 

1 

42 
335 
70 
99 
62 

11 

8 

194 

1,801 

40 

3 

60 

6 

2 

119 

21 

8 

495 

29 
1 

2 
5 

3 
10 


7 
335 
99 

23 
2 

61 
101 
26 

3 
126 

3,004 

10 

423 


7 
335 
99 
22 

2 

61 
101 

26 

3 

126 

2,975 

9 

419 


12 
710 
213 

60 

143 
195 
52 
7 
263 

5,747 

23 

852 

1 

85 
705 
165 
162 
126 

15 
22 
398 
3,691 
96 

3 

124 

10 

4 
264 

42 

20 

1,031 

58 

2 

3 
11 

3 
16 


12 


Bohemian and Moravian 


708 
213 




56 




7 




143 




195 




52 




7 




262 




5,700 




22 




844 




1 




41 
360 

95 
62 
62 

4 

14 

204 

1,779 

56 


41 
357 
92 
58 
60 

4 

14 

203 

1,667 

53 


83 




692 


Italian (not specified) 


162 
157 




122 




15 




22 




397 


Polish 


3,468 




93 




3 




63 

4 

2 

138 

18 

12 

534 

29 

1 

1 
6 


63 

3 

2 

134 

18 

12 

532 

29 

1 

1 
6 


123 




9 




4 




253 




39 




20 




1.027 




58 


Turkish 


2 


West Indian (other than 


3 


Austrian (race not specified) 
South American (race not 


11 
3 


Swiss (race not specified) . . . 


6 


6 


16 


Total native-born 


15,341 


7,630 


7,463 


7,711 


7,541 


15,341 


15,004 


Foreign-born: 


1 
44 

641 
14 

214 

102 

12 

154 

186 

3 

1 

81 

10 

143 

3,649 


1 
25 
272 

9 
96 

48 
4 

86 

106 

2 

1 

34 

6 

76 

1,596 


1 

19 

218 

7 
94 

34 
4 
84 
92 
1 

1 

26 

6 

72 

1,491 






1 
44 

641 
14 

214 

102 
12 
154 
186 
3 

1 

81 

10 

143 

3,649 


1 




19 

369 

5 

118 

54 
8 
68 
80 
1 


8 
243 

3 
111 

24 

8 

68 

71 


- 27 


Bohemian and Moravian. . . 


461 
10 




205 




58 




12 




152 




163 




1 






1 




47 

4 

67 

2,053 


40 

3 

64 

1,835 


66 




9 




136 




3,326 




1 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: General Tables. 



389 



Table 18. — Ability to speak English of persons 6 years of age or over, by sex and general 
nativity and race of individual — Continued. 

GRAND SUMMARY— Continued. 





Number 

reporting 

complete 

data. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


General nativity and race of _ 
individual. 


Number. 


Number 

who 

speak 

English. 


Number. 


Number 
who 
speak 

English. 


Number. 


Number 
who 
speak 

English. 


Foreign-born — Continued. 


47 

1,625 

1 

5 

1 

181 

1,968 

339 

1 

308 

479 
49 
58 

447 
1 

4,248 

123 

22 

206 

19 

30 

546 

90 

50 

835 

134 

3 

21 

32 
5 

6 

17 


31 

768 

1 

5 


24 

689 

1 

4 


16 

857 


8 
740 


47 

1,625 

1 

5 

1 

181 

1,958 

339 

1 

308 

479 
49 
58 

447 
1 

4,248 
123 

22 
206 

19 

30 
546 
90 
50 

835 

134 

3 

21 

32 
5 

6 
17 


32 




1,429 
1 










4 




1 

90 

1,037 

164 

1 

161 

233 
33 
31 

271 


1 

62 

593 

91 

1 

83 

129 
21 
30 

249 


1 




91 
921 
175 


79 
647 
137 


141 




1,240 

228 

1 






147 

246 
16 
27 

176 
1 

1,917 

58 

13 

111 

9 

16 
242 
42 
27 

336 
70 
2 

. 13 

17 
3 

5 
10 


124 

183 
13 
23 

166 
1 

1,347 
55 

8 
84 

7 

7 
183 
30 
16 

327 
61 
2 

11 

16 
3 

4 
10 


207 




312 




34 




53 




415 




1 


Polish 


2,331 

65 

9 

95 

10 

14 
304 
48 
23 

499 

64 

1 

8 

15 
2 

1 
7 


1,281 
48 

6 
71 

6 

8 

171 

24 

8 

482 

51 

1 

4 

13 

1 

1 
6 


2,628 




103 




14 




155 




13 




15 




354 




54 




24 




809 




112 


Turkish 


3 


West Indian (other than 


15 


Austrian (race notspecified ) 
Belgian (race not specified). 
South American (race not 


29 
4 

5 


Swiss (race not specified) . . . 


ie 




17, 142 


7,858 


6,412 


9,284 


6,668 


17,142 


13, 080 




32,483 


15,488 


13, 875 


16, 995 


14,209 


32,483 


28,084 







390 



The Immigration Commission. 



Table 19. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United 
States 5 years or over and who were SI years of age or over at time of coming, by race of 
individual and length of residence. 

GRAND SUMMARY. 





so 

a 
%i 

ft« 

"s 

u ft 

11 

•a 


In United States 6 to 
9 years. 


In United States 10 
years or over. 


Total. 


Race of individual. 


a 

< 


to a 
o 

hOco 

o n 

P ft 
o3 cS 

•HP, 


»S 

ft 

.g ft 

(fl p 

M° 


"o3 
O 

6* 


i 


Sa 
o 

a S3 

t> ft 
a a 
Hft 


ft 
bo co 

•S ft 

ca a 


*C3 
O 

Eh 


S 

<! 


11 
MP, 


M 

ft 

bLco 
ca 5 


3 

o 

fcH 




i 

9 

89 

2 

37 

114 

16 

1 

24 

45 
239 
15 
2 
35 

658 

6 

220 

478 

31 
317 
37 
55 
54 

6 
8 

63 
802 

23 

4 
27 

3 
87 

5 

4 
94 
17 

1 

168 

18 

1 

22 

1 

2 
8 


1 

3 
22 
2 






1 

4 
33 
2 

2 

28 
7 


• 








1 

6 

34 

2 

10 
39 
8 

6 

7 
55 
8 
1 
10 

99 
5 
99 
57 

12 
152 
20 
26 
33 

3 

3 

9 

356 

19 

11 
2 

15 
2 

2 
43 
7 






1 

9 
' 89 




5 


1 
6 


3 
12 


2 


2 
42 


5 
56 


7 


3 
48 


Bohemian and Moravian. . . 






2 
13 


10 

25 

2 


1 

1 
3 

1 

1 
5 

1 


24 
60 
4 

17 

34 

158 

5 

1 

23 

468 


35 
86 
9 
1 
19 

37 

190 

12 

1 

30 

550 

2 

107 

435 

17 
181 
23 
34 
19 

4 
4 

44 
540 

15 

1 
15 
3 

71 
5 

1 
53 
12 

1 

146 
10 


i 

2 
4 
1 

3 
13 
2 

2 

55 

33 
21 

6 
58 
4 
5 
8 

2 

5 

123 

3 
6 
1 

8 

1 

18 
1 


26 
73 
4 

18 

35 

171 

5 

1 

23 

504 

1 

88 

400 

13 
107 
13 
24 
13 

3 
3 

K< 

323 

4 

1 
10 

64 
3 

1 

33 
9 
1 

142 
9 

21 

1 

4 
1 






14 




1 
1 


114 
16 








4 

5 
28 
2 
1 
4 

46 
3 
64 
13 

8 
88 

9 
14 
25 

1 
2 
6 
181 
8 

7 


2 
8 
1 


1 

1 
13 


5 

8 
49 
3 
1 
5 

108 

4 

113 

43 

14 
136 
14 
21 
35 

2 
4 
19 
256 
8 

3 
12 


2 

2 

27 

6 














15 




2 




1 

26 

25 
4 

4 
33 
2 
4 
8 

2 
3 
43 


36 

1 

24 

26 

2 
15 
3 
3 
2 

1 

10 
32 


6 

53 
2 
35 

44 

4 
64 

11 
12 
8 

2 
1 
3 

175 
11 


1 
29 


35 








6 




8 
17 

2 

25 

2 

1 

2 
80 


64 
374 

11 
92 
10 
21 
11 

2 
3 
39 
291 
4 

1 

8 

59 
3 

1 

24 

8 

1 

131 
7 


220 




478 




31 




317 


Italian (not specified) 


37 
55 




54 




6 




8 




63 




802 




23 




3 
3 


2 


4 




4 
2 
8 
2 


3 
1 

4 


27 




3 




7 


4 


5 


16 


87 




5 




2 

24 

4 


1 

8 


9 
1 


3 

41 
5 


4 




19 
3 


10 
1 


94 




17 




1 




7 
6 


4 
1 


11 
2 


22 
8 
1 


14 
3 


1 


21 
9 


5 

1 
1 


168 




18 




1 


Welsh 




1 


21 

1 
4 


22 

1 
4 




22 


"West Indian (other than 












1 


Austrian (race not speci- 
fied) 


2 


1 

1 


1 


3 

2 






2 


1 

1 


7 


South American (race not 






2 


Swiss (race not specified). . . 


1 




7 


8 


1 


8 












Total 


3, 856 


619 


199 


223 


1,041 


576 


203 


2, 030 


2,815 


1,195 


402 


2,259 


3,856 







APPENDIX. 



IMMIGRANTS AS CHARITY SEEKERS SCHEDULE. 



391 



IMMIGRANTS AS CHARITY SEEEEES SCHEDULE. 

[Used in the investigation concerning immigrants as charity seekers. For instructions concerning the use 

of the schedule, see p. 3.] 
I. C, 61. 
The Immigration Commission, 
Washington, D. C. 

CHARITY SLIP. 

Organization 

City 

Case No. ? 



1. Family at 
home. 


2. 

Sex. 


3. 

Age. 


4. S.,M., 
W. or D. 


5. 
Read. 


6. 
Write. 


7. Speak 
English. 


8. Occupation. 


9. Country of 
birth. 






















b. 








































d. 



































































































10. Race. 


Foreign-born males 
21 or over. 


13. 
Years in 
United 
States. 


Last arrival in United States (report only for persons 
who last arrived in United States less than 5 years ago). 




11. First 

nat. 
papers. 


12. Sec- 
ond nat/ 
papers. 


14. Date. 


15. Port of landing. 


16. Steamship or 
steamship line. 


















b 
































d 
































f. 

g. 






































- 







65812°— vol 34—11- 



-26 



393 



394 



The Immigration Commission. 



17. Aid given (enter check): 

Cash 

Clothing 

Employment secured 

Food or meals 

Fuel 

Lodging 

Medicine or medical attend- 
ance 

Rent 

Transportation 

Other 

18. Apparent cause of need (enter check) : 

Accident to breadwinner 

Accident to another member 

of family 

Death of breadwinner 

Death of another member of 

family 



18. Apparent cause of need (enter 

check) — Continued. 

Desertion by husband 

Illness of breadwinner 

Illness of another member of 
family 

Incarceration of breadwin- 
ner 

Insufficient earnings 

Intemperance of breadwin- 
ner 

Lack of employment 

Loss by fire 

Neglect by breadwinner 

Old age 

Other 

19. Approximate total value of aid 

given during the period cov- 
ered by this slip $ 



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 

The two tabular sections should contain data relative to each member of the house- 
hold. Column 1: Enter relationship to head of family, as "wife," "son," "brother," 
"boarder," etc. Column 4: Enter " S " for single, "M" for married, "W" for widowed, 
"D " for divorced. Col umns 5 and 6: For each person 10 years of age or over, enter 
" Y" or "N " to indicate whether the person can read or write any language. Column 
7: Enter "Y" or "N " to indicate whether the person can speak English. Column 8: 
Enter for each member of household the occupation or work done; enter "housewife" 
for wife who does usual housework, "at school" for children attending school, "at 
home " for persons without employment. 

Columns 9 and 10: Enter for each person country of birth and race. Owing to the 
diversity of races in various countries, the Immigration Commission in its investiga- 
tions particularly desires to secure all data by race (or people) as well as by country 
of birth. The following list shows the countries from which most immigrants come 
and the principal races coming from each country. The list is not complete in either 
respect, but it is sufficiently comprehensive to guide those using it. Other countries 
and other races should be enumerated when such other countries and races are reported. 
Enter "American" only for those whose father was born in the United States and who 
do not belong to one of the following races : American Indian, Chinese, Hindu, Japa- 
nese, Korean, Negro, which under all circumstances should be designated by race. 
For persons born in the United States of foreign father, enter race of father with 
word "American," as "German- American," "Hebrew-American," " Croatian- Ameri- 
can," etc. In case of mixed parentage, follow race of father. 



Austria-Hungary : 

Bohemian (Czech). 

Bosnian. 

Bulgarian. 

Croatian. 

Dalmatian. 

German. 

Hebrew. 

Hervat. 

Herzegovinian. 

Italian, North. 

Magyar (Hungarian). 

Montenegrin. 

Moravian (Czech). 



Austria-Hungary — Cont'd. 

Polish. 

Roumanian. 

Ruthenian (Russniak). 

Servian. 

Slovak. 

Slovenian. 
Belgium : 

Dutch. 

Flemish. 

French. 
Bulgaria: 

Bulgarian. 

Macedonian. 



Canada : 

Canadian. 

English. 

French Canadian. 

Irish. 

Scotch. 
China: Chinese. 
Denmark: Danish. 
England: 

English . 

Hebrew. 

Irish. 

Scotch. 

Welsh. 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: Schedule. 



395 



Finland: Finnish, 
France: 

French. 

Hebrew. 
Germany: 

German. 

Hebrew. 

Polish. 
Greece: 

Greek. 

Macedonian. 
India: East Indian. 
Ireland: 

Irish. 

Scotch-Irish. 
Italy: 

Italian, North. 

Italian, South. 
Japan: Japanese. 
Korea: Korean. 
Mexico: Mexican. 
Montenegro: 

Montenegrin. 

Servian. 



Netherlands (Holland): 

Dutch. 

Flemish. 
Norway: Norwegian. 
Portugal (Azores, Cape 

Verde): Portuguese. 
Roumania: 

Hebrew. 

Roumanian. 
Russia: 

Armenian. 

Finnish 

German. 

Hebrew. 

Lithuanian. 

Polish. 

Russian. 
Scotland: Scotch. 
Servia: Servian. 
Spain: Spanish. 
Sweden: Swedish. 
Turkey in Asia: 

Armenian. 

Greek. 



Turkey in Asia — Cont'd. 

Hebrew. 

Syrian. 

Turkish. 
Turkey in Europe: 

Bulgarian. 

Greek. 

Hebrew. 

Macedonian. 

Montenegrin. 

Servian. 

Syrian. 

Turkish. 
Wales: Welsh. 
West Indies (Cuba, Porto 
Rico, Hayti, Bahamas): 

Cuban. 

English. 

Negro. 

Spanish. 



Columns 11 and 12: For each foreign-born male 21 years of age or over, enter "Y" 
or "N" to indicate whether first or second naturalization papers have been secured. 
Column 17: Enter check to indicate kind of aid given. Column 18: Enter check to 
indicate apparent immediate cause of need. Column 19: Enter, as nearly as it can 
be approximated, the total value of aid given during the period covered by this slip. 
No attempt need be made to approximate the value of employment secured, second- 
hand clothing furnished, and similar items, which can not be conveniently reduced 
to a definite money value. 



LIST OF^TEXT TABLES. 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 

Page. 

Table 1. — Number of cases assisted in each city, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 6-11 

Table 2. — Cases assisted in each city, by general nativity of head of case 12 

Table 3. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 14, 15 

Table 4. — Cases assisted in the cities within each geographical division, by 
general nativity and race of head of case 19, 20 

Table 5. — Persons involved in cases assisted in the cities within each geogra- 
phical division, by general nativity and race of head of case 20, 21 

Table 6. — Race distribution of cases assisted in each city, by general nativity 
and race of head of case; percentages . 23, 24 

Table 7. — Races ranking first and second in number of cases among the foreign- 
born, by city 27 

Table 8. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes 
of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 29 

Table 9. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class 

of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 40 

Table 10*. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified apparent cause of need, 
by general nativity and race of head of case 43,44 

Table 11. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 
apparent cause of need, by general nativity and race of head of case.'. 45, 46 

Table 12. — Per cent of cases reporting each specified apparent cause of need 
and the per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each cause, by 
general nativity of head of case 47 

Table 13. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 47,48 

Table 14. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general 
nativity and race of head of case 48, 49 

Table 15. — Per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, by general 
nativity and race of head of case 51 

Table 16. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 
with each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of 
head of case 53, 54 

Table 17. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 
with or without children, by general nativity and race of head of case 55 

Table 18. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, 
by general nativity and race of head of case 56 

Table 19. — Per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for 
each specified class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race 
of head of case ,..._... 57 

Table 20. — Age of head of case where case consists only of husband and wife, 
by general nativity and race of head of case 58 

Table 21. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general 
nativity and race of head of case 59 

Table 22. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or oyer in each con- 
jugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 60-62 

Table 23. — Number and per cent of cases assisted in which wife is head and 
reported widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head 
of case 63, 64 

Table 24. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 64, 65 

Table 25. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, 
and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 66-68 

397 



398 The Immigration Commission. 

Page. 
Table 26. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at 

home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by 

birthplace of child 69 

Table 27. — Per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States under 

1 year, 1 year, 2 years, etc., by race of head of case 70 

Table 28. — Per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each 

specified number of years, by race of head of case 71 

Table 29. — Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States under 1 year, 

1 year, 2 years, etc., by race of individual , 73,74 

Table 30. — Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified 

number of years, by race of individual 74 

Table 31. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex 

and general nativity and race of individual 75 

Table 32. — Present political condition on foreign-born males who have been 

in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over 

at time of coming, by race of individual 77 

BALTIMORE. 

Table 33. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of 
head of case 81 

Table 34. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes 

of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 83 

Table 35. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class 

of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 83 

Table 36. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of 

head of case -84 

Table 37. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general 

nativity and race of head of case : . 85 

Table 38.— Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 86 

Table 39. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 

with each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head 

of case 87 

Table 40. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 

with or without children, by general nativity and race of head of case 88 

Table 41. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 88 

Table 42. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 89 

Table 43. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each con- 
jugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race of head of individual 90 

Table 44. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported 

widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. . 91 
Table 45. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head 

and reported widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race 

of head of case : 91 

Table 46.— Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, 

and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 92 

Table 47. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United 

States each specified number of years, by race of head of case 93 

Table 48. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States 

each specified number of years, by race of individual 94 

Table 49. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex 

and general nativity and race of individual 94 

Table 50. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in 

the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at 

time of coming, by race of individual 95 

BOSTON. 

Table 51. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of 
head of case 99 

Table 52. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes 
of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 101 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: List of Text Tables. 399 

Page. 
Table 53. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class of 

apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 101 

Table 54. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of 

head of case 103 

Table 55. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 103 

Table 56, — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 104 

Table 57. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 

with each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head 

of case 105 

Table 58. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 

with or without children, by general nativity and race of head of case 106 

Table 59. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, 

by general nativity and race of head of case. 107 

Table 60. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 107 

Table 61.— Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each conju- 
gal condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 108 

Table 62. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported 

widowed, deserted, orseparated, by general nativity and race of head of case.. 109 
Table 63.— Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head and 

reported widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of 

head of case 110 

Table 64. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age, at home, at school, 

and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual Ill 

Table 65. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age, at 

home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by 

birthplace of child 112 

Table 66. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United 

States each specified number of yeara, by race of head of case 112 

Table 67. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States 

each specified number of years, by race of individual 113 

Table 68. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex 

and general nativity and race of individual 114 

Table 69. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in 

the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at 

time of coming, by race of individual 114 

BROOKLYN. 

Table 70. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race of 

head of case . . 117 

Table 71. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes 

of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 118 

Table 72. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 

class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case. . 119 
Table 73. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of 

head of case 120 

Table 74. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 121 

Table 75.- — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 122 

Table 76. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 

with each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head 

of case 123 

Table 77. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 

with or without children, by general nativity and race of head of case 124 

Table 78. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 124 

Table 79. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 125 

Table 80. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each 

conjugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 126 

Table 81. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported 

widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case . . 127 



400 The Immigration Commission. 

Page. 
Table 82 .—Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head and 

reported widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of 

head of case 127 

Table 83. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, 

and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual • 128 

Table 84. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at 

home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by 

birthplace of child ._ 129 

Table 85. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United 

States each specified number of years, by race of head of case 130 

Table 86. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States 

each specified number of years, by race of individual 130 

Table 87. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex 

and general nativity and race of individual 131 

Table 88. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been 

in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over 

at time of coming, by race of individual 132 

BUFFALO. 

Table 89. — Oases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 135 

Table 90. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes 
of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 137 

Table 91. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each" specified class 

of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 137 

Table 92. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 140 

Table 93. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by gen- 
eral nativity and race of head of case 141 

Table 94. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 142 

Table 95. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 
with each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head 
of case 143 

Table 96.— Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 
with or without children, by general nativity and race of head of case 144 

Table 97. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 144 

Table 98. — Per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for 
each specified class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 145 

Table 99. — Age of head of case where case consists only of husband and wife, by 

general nativity and race of head of case 146 

Table 100. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by gen- 
eral nativity and race of head of case 147 

Table 101. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each con- 
jugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race of head of individual . . 147, 148 

Table 102. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported 
. widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. . 149 

Table 103. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head 
and reported widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 150 

Table 104. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, 
and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 151 

Table 105. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at 
home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by 
birthplace of child 152 

Table 106. — Number and per cent of foreign-bom heads of cases in the United 
States each specified number of years, by race of head of case 152 

Table 107. — Number and per cent of foreign-bom persons in the United States 
each specified number of years, by race of individual 153 

Table 108. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex 
and general nativity and race of individual 153 

Table 109. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been 
in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over 
at time of coming, by race of individual 154 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: List of Text Tables. 401 

CHICAGO. 
i Page. 

Table 110. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race 
of bead of case 157, 158 

Table 111. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of .apparent causes 
of need, by general nativity and race of bead of case 159, 160 

Table 112. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 
class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case . . 160 

Table 113. — Percent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race 
of head of case. 162 

Table 114. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by gen- 
eral nativity and race of head of case 163 

Table 115. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of per- 
sons, by general nativity and race of head of case 164 

Table 116. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or 
widower, with each specified number of children, by general nativity and 
race of head of case 165 

Table 117. — Per cent_ of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or 
widower, with or without children, by general nativity and race of head of 
case 166 

Table 118. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and 
wife, by general nativity and race of head of case 167 

Table 119. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by gen- 
eral nativity and race of head of case 167 

Table 120. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each 
conjugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race of head of indi- 
vidual 168,169 

Table 121. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported 
widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. 170 

Table 122. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head 
and reported widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 171 

Table 123. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, 
and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 172, 173 

Table 124. — Number and per. cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at 
home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by 
birthplace of child 173 

Table 125. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United 
States each specified number of years, by race of head of case 174 

Table 126. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States 
each specified number of years, by race of individual 175 

Table 127. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by 
sex and general nativity and race of individual 177 

Table 128. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been 
in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over 
at time of coming, by race of individual 178 

CINCINNATI. 

Table 129. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 181 

Table 130. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes 
of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 182 

Table 131. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class 
of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 183 

Table 132. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 184 

Table 133. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by gen- 
eral nativity and race of head of case 184 

Table 134. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, 
by general nativity and race of head of case 185 

Table 135. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 
with each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head 
of case 186 

Table 136. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or 
widower, with or without children, by general nativity and race of head of 
case 187 



402 The Immigration Commission. 

Page. 
Table 137. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and 

wife, by general nativity and race of head of case 187 

Table 138. — Per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for 

each specified class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 188 

Table 139. — Age of head of case where case consists only of husband and wife, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 189 

Table 140. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 189 

Table 141. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each 

conjugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. . . 190, 191 
Table 142. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported 

widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of 

case 191 

Table 143.— Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head 

and reported widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 192 

Table 144. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, 

and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 192, 193 

Table 145. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United 

States each specified number of years, by race of head of case 193 

Table 146. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States 

each specified number of years, by race of individual 194 

Table 147. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by 

sex and general nativity and race of individual 194 

MINNEAPOLIS. 

Table 148. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 199 

Table 149. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes 

of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 201 

Table 150. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified class 

of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 201 

Table 151. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 203 

Table 152. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 203 

Table 153. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 204 

Table 154. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 

with each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head of 

case .' 205 

Table 155. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 

with or without children, by general nativity and race of head of case 206 

Table 156. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 207 

Table 157. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 207 

Table 158. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each 

conjugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 208, 209 

Table 159. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported 

widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of 

case 210 

Table 160. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head 

and reported widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 210 

Table 161. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, 

and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 211 

Table 162. — Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at 

home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by 

birthplace of child 212 

Table 163. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United 

States each specified number of years, by race of head of case 213 



Immigrants as Charity Seekers: List of Text Tables. 403 

Page. 
Table 164. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States 

each specified number of years, by race of individual 214 

Table 165. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by 

sex and general nativity and race of individual 214 

Table 166. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been 

in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over 

at time of coming, by race of individual 215 

ST. LOUIS. 

Table 167. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 219 

Table 168. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes 

of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 221 

Table 169. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 

class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case . . 221 
Table 170. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race 

of head of case '. . . . 222 

Table 171. — Per cent of persons involved in.caseB given aid specified, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 223 

Table 172. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 224 

Table 173. — Number of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 

with each specified number of children, by general nativity and race of head 225 

of case 

Table 174. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or widower, 

with or without children, by general nativity and race of Tiead of case 225 

Table 175. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 226 

Table 176. — Per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for 

each specified class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 227 

Table 177. — Age of head of case where case consists only of husband and wife, by 

general nativity and race of head of case 228 

Table 178. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 229 

Table 179. — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each 

conjugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 230 

Table 180. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported 

widowed, deserted, or separated, bygeneral nativity and race of head of case. . 231 
Table 181. — Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head 

and reported widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 231 

Table 182. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 yeara of age at home, at school, 

and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 232 

Table 183. — Number and per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United 

States each specified number of years, by race of head of case 233 

Table 184. — Number and per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States 

each specified number of years, by race of individual ^ 233 

Table 185. — Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by 

sex and general nativity and race of individual 234 

Table 186. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been 

in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over 

at time of coming, by race of individual 234 

WASHINGTON. 

Table 187. — Cases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 237 

Table 188. — Per cent of cases assisted for each specified class of apparent causes 

of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 238 

Table 189. — Per cent of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 

class of apparent causes of need , by general nativity and race of head of case . . 239 
Table 190. — Per cent of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 240 



404 The Immigration Commission. 

Page. 

Table 191. — Per cent of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by gen- 
eral nativity and race of head of case 240 

Table 192. — Number and per cent of cases of each specified number of persons, 
by general nativity and race of head of case 241 

Table 193. — Number of cases consisting of huBband and wife, widow, or wid- 
ower, with each specified number of children, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 242 

Table 194. — Per cent of cases consisting of husband and wife, widow, or wid- 
ower, with or without children, by general nativity and race of head of case. . 242 

Table 195. — Number and per cent of cases consisting only of husband and wife, 
by general nativity and race of head of case 243 

Table 196. — Number and per cent of persons within each age group, by general 
nativity and race of head of case 244 

Table 197.- — Number and per cent of persons 20 years of age or over in each con- 
jugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 245 

Table 198. — Number and per cent of cases in which wife is head and reported 

widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case. . 246 

Table 199. "^Number and per cent of total cases assisted in which wife is head 
and reported widowed, deserted, or separated, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 246 

Table 200. — Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, 
and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual 247 

HONOLULU. 

Table 201. — Oases assisted and persons involved, by general nativity and race 

of head of case : - 251 

Table 202. — Number and per cent of cases assisted and persons involved in 
each specified class of apparent causes of need - - 252 

Table 203.— Number and per cent of cases assisted and persons involved in 

each specified case of aid given - 253 

Table 204. — Total number of foreign-born heads of cases in Hawaii each speci- 
fied number of years, by race of head of case 254 



LIST OF GENERAL TABLES. 



GRAND SUMMAIIY. 

Page. 

Table 1. — Total number of cases and total number of persons involved, by gen- 
eral nativity and race of head of case 327 

Table 2. — Number of cases assisted for each specified apparent cause of need, 

by general nativity and race of head of case 328-330 

Table 3. — Number of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified appar- 
ent cause of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 331-333 

Table 4. — Number of casea assisted for each specified class of apparent causes 

of need, by general nativity and race of head of case 334, 335 

Table 5. — Number of persons involved in cases assisted for each specified 

class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race of head of case . 336, 337 

Table 6. — Number of cases given aid specified, by general nativity and race of 
head of case 338, 339 

Table 7. — Number of persons involved in cases given aid specified, by general 

nativity and race of head of case 340, 341 

Table 8. — Persons per case, by general nativity and race of head of case 342, 343 

Table 9. — Number of cases of each specified number of persons, by type of case 

and by general nativity and race of head of case 344-351 

Table 10. — Number of cases consisting only of husband and wife assisted for 
each specified class of apparent causes of need, by general nativity and race 
of head of case 352,353 

Table 11. — Age of head of case where case consists only of husband and wife, 
by general nativity and 'race of head of case 353, 354 

Table 12. — Number of persons within each age group, by general nativity and 
race of head of case 355-359 

Table 13. — Conjugal condition, by sex, age groups, and general nativity and 
race of individual 360-370 

Table 14. — Number of cases in which wife is head and reported widowed, de- 
serted, or separated, by general nativity and race of head of case 371, 372 

Table 15. — General occupation of persons under 16 years of age, by sex, age 

groups, and general nativity and race of individual 373-381 

Table 16. — Number of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each 
specified number of years, by sex and race of head of case 382-384 

Table 17. — Number of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified 
number of years, by sex and race of individual 385-387 

Table 18. — Ability to speak English of persons 6 years of age or over, by sex and 
general nativity and race of individual 388, 389 

Table 19. — Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in 
the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at 
time of coming, by race of individual and length of residence 390 

405 



LIST OE OHAETS'. 



Page. 

Number of cases assisted, by general nativity and race of head of case 16 

Per cent of cases assisted on account of death or disability of breadwinner, by 

general nativity and race of head of case 30 

Per cent of cases assisted on account of death or disability of breadwinner, by 

general nativity of head of case 31 

Per cent of cases assisted on account of death or disability of member of family 

other than breadwinner, by general nativity and race of head of case 32 

Per cent of cases assisted on account of death or disability of member of family 

other than breadwinner, by general nativity of head of case 33 

Per cent of cases assisted on account of lack of employment or insufficient 

earnings, by general nativity and race of head of case 34 

Per cent of cases assisted on account of lack of employment or insufficient 

earnings, by general nativity of head of case 35 

Per cent of cases assisted on account of neglect or bad habits of breadwinner, 

by general nativity and' race of head of case 36 

Per cent of cases assisted on account of neglect or bad habits of breadwinner, 

by general nativity of head of case 37 

Per cent of cases assisted on account of old age, by general nativity and race 

of head of case 38 

Per cent of cases assisted on account of old age, by general nativity of head 

of case 39 

Per cent of foreign-born heads of cases in the United States each specified 

number of years, by race of head of case 72 

406 

o-